Henri Milne-Edwards

Last updated

Henri Milne-Edwards

Henri Milne-Edwards2.jpg
Born(1800-10-23)23 October 1800
Died29 July 1885(1885-07-29) (aged 84)
NationalityFrench
Alma mater University of Paris
Awards Copley Medal (1856)
Scientific career
Fields Zoology

Henri Milne-Edwards (23 October 1800 – 29 July 1885) was an eminent French zoologist.

Contents

Biography

Henri Milne-Edwards was the 27th child of William Edwards, an English planter and colonel of the militia in Jamaica and Elisabeth Vaux, a Frenchwoman. Henri was born in Bruges, in present-day Belgium, where his parents had retired; Bruges was then a part of the newborn French Republic. His father had been jailed for several years for helping some Englishmen in their escape to their country. Henri spent most of his life in France. He was brought up in Paris by his older brother Guillaume Frederic Edwards (1777–1842), a distinguished physiologist and ethnologist. His father was released after the fall of Napoleon. The whole family then moved to Paris.

At first he turned his attention to medicine, in which he graduated as an MD at Paris in 1823. His passion for natural history soon prevailed, and he gave himself up to the study of the lower forms of animal life. He became a student of Georges Cuvier and befriended Jean Victoire Audouin.

He married Laura Trézel. They had nine children, including the biologist Alphonse Milne-Edwards.

Name

Originally the name Milne was one of the first names of Henri, but, to avoid confusion with his numerous relatives, he added it to his surname Edwards. He usually wrote it as "Milne Edwards", whilst his son Alphonse always used "Milne-Edwards". In taxon-authorship, the hyphenated name "Milne-Edwards" is most often used for both father and son. [1]

Works

A monograph of the British fossil corals by H. Milne Edwards and Jules Haime. A monograph of the British fossil corals BHL12089106.jpg
A monograph of the British fossil corals by H. Milne Edwards and Jules Haime.

One of his earliest papers (Recherches anatomiques sur les crustacés), which was presented to the French Academy of Sciences in 1829, formed the theme of an elaborate and eulogistic report by Cuvier in the following year. It embodied the results of two dredging expeditions undertaken by him and his friend Audouin during 1826 and 1828 in the neighbourhood of Granville, and was remarkable for clearly distinguishing the marine fauna of that portion of the French coast into four zones.

Also in 1829, working in the scientific field of herpetology, he described and named five new species of lizards. [2]

He became professor of hygiene and natural history in 1832 at the Collège Central des Arts et Manufactures. In 1841, after the death of Audouin, he succeeded him at the chair of entomology at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle . In 1862 he succeeded Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in the long-vacant chair of zoology.

Much of his original work was published in the Annales des sciences naturelles, with the editorship of which he was associated from 1834. Of his books may be mentioned the Histoire naturelle des Crustacés (3 vols., 1837–1841), which long remained a standard work; Histoire naturelle des coralliaires, published in 1858–1860, but begun many years before; Leçons sur la physiologie et l'anatomie comparée de l'homme et des animaux (1857–1881), in 14 volumes; and a little work on the elements of zoology, originally published in 1834, but subsequently remodelled, which enjoyed an enormous circulation.

In 1842, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Society. The Royal Society in 1856 awarded him the Copley Medal in recognition of his zoological investigations. He was elected an international member of the American Philosophical Society in 1860. [3] He died in Paris. His son, Alphonse Milne-Edwards (1835–1900), who became professor of ornithology at the museum in 1876, devoted himself especially to fossil birds and deep-sea exploration.

Honour

Taxa named after
Henri Milne-Edwards
Bloodstar 300.jpg
Blood star ( Henricia leviuscula )
Jasus edwardsii.jpg
The southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii
Haploblepharus edwardsii Puffadder shyshark.jpg
The puffadder shyshark, Haploblepharus edwardsii

The name of Henri Milne-Edwards is honoured in several names of genera and species, such as: [1]

Related Research Articles

Pierre André Latreille French zoologist (1762–1833)

Pierre André Latreille was a French zoologist, specialising in arthropods. Having trained as a Roman Catholic priest before the French Revolution, Latreille was imprisoned, and only regained his freedom after recognising a rare beetle species he found in the prison, Necrobia ruficollis.

Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire

Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire was a French naturalist who established the principle of "unity of composition". He was a colleague of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and expanded and defended Lamarck's evolutionary theories. Geoffroy's scientific views had a transcendental flavor and were similar to those of German morphologists like Lorenz Oken. He believed in the underlying unity of organismal design, and the possibility of the transmutation of species in time, amassing evidence for his claims through research in comparative anatomy, paleontology, and embryology.

Jean Victor Audouin

Jean Victor Audouin, sometimes Victor Audouin, was a French naturalist, an entomologist, herpetologist, ornithologist, and malacologist.

National Museum of Natural History, France natural history museum in Paris, France

The National Museum of Natural History, known in French as the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, is the natural history museum of France and a grand établissement of Sorbonne Universities. The main museum is located in Paris, on the left bank of the Seine. It was established in 1635 by King Louis XIII as the royal garden of medicinal plants, and in 1793, after the Revolution, it was reorganized in its present form and under its present title. As of 2017, the museum has 14 sites throughout France, including the original location at the Jardin des Plantes, which remains one of the seven departments of MNHN.

Alphonse Milne-Edwards Anglo-French zoologist (1835-1900)

Alphonse Milne-Edwards was a French mammalologist, ornithologist and carcinologist. He was English in origin, the son of Henri Milne-Edwards and grandson of Bryan Edwards, a Jamaican planter who settled at Bruges.

Émile Oustalet

Jean-Frédéric Émile Oustalet was a French zoologist.

Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau

Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau was a French biologist.

Marie Jules César Lelorgne de Savigny was a French zoologist.

André Marie Constant Duméril

André Marie Constant Duméril was a French zoologist. He was professor of anatomy at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle from 1801 to 1812, when he became professor of herpetology and ichthyology. His son Auguste Duméril was also a zoologist.

Émile Blanchard

Charles Émile Blanchard was a French zoologist and entomologist.

Léon Vaillant

Léon Louis Vaillant was a French zoologist. He is most famous for his work in the areas of herpetology, malacology, and ichthyology.

Eugène Louis Bouvier

Eugène Louis Bouvier was a French entomologist and carcinologist. Bouvier was a professor at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle.

Philippe Alexandre Jules Künckel d'Herculais was a French entomologist and zoologist.

Charles Jules Edmée Brongniart

Charles Jules Edmée Brongniart was a French entomologist and paleontologist.

Henri Filhol

Henri Filhol was a French medical doctor, malacologist and naturalist born in Toulouse. He was the son of Édouard Filhol (1814-1883), curator of the Muséum de Toulouse.

Charles Payraudeau

Charles Payraudeau (1798–1865) was a French zoologist.

François Mocquard was a French herpetologist born in Leffond, Haute-Saône.

Adrien Dollfus

Adrien Frédéric Jules Dollfus was a French carcinologist known for his work with terrestrial isopods, including crustaceans and trilobites.

François Louis Henri Coutière was a French zoologist, who specialized in the field of carcinology (crustaceans).

References

  1. 1 2 Hans G. Hansson. "Henri Milne-Edwards". Biographical Etymology of Marine Organism Names. Göteborgs Universitet. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
  2. The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
  3. "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved 15 January 2021.

Bibliography

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Henri Milne-Edwards at Wikimedia Commons