Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster

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Henry
Earl of Lancaster and Leicester
Arms of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg
Later arms of Henry of Lancaster: The royal arms of King Henry III a label France of three points
Earl of Lancaster and Leicester
Predecessor Thomas, 2nd Earl
Successor Henry of Grosmont
Bornc. 1281
Died22 September 1345
Leicester Castle
Noble family Plantagenet
Spouse(s) Maud Chaworth
Issue
Detail
Father Edmund Crouchback
Mother Blanche of Artois
Seal of Henry of Lancaster from the Barons' Letter of 1301, which he signed as Henricus de Lancastre, Dominus de Munemue (Henry of Lancaster, Lord of Monmouth). His shield couche shows the armorial of Plantagenet differenced by a bend azure. JindrichLancaster.jpg
Seal of Henry of Lancaster from the Barons' Letter of 1301, which he signed as Henricus de Lancastre, Dominus de Munemue (Henry of Lancaster, Lord of Monmouth). His shield couche shows the armorial of Plantagenet differenced by a bend azure.

Henry, 3rd Earl of Leicester and Lancaster (c.1281 – 22 September 1345) was a grandson of King Henry III of England (1216–1272) and was one of the principals behind the deposition of King Edward II (1307–1327), his first cousin.

Contents

Origins

He was the younger son of Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester, [1] a son of King Henry III by his wife Eleanor of Provence. The Earl Henry's mother was Blanche of Artois, Queen Dowager of Navarre.

Henry's elder brother Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, succeeded their father in 1296, but Henry was summoned to Parliament on 6 February 1298/99 by writ directed to Henrico de Lancastre nepoti Regis ("Henry of Lancaster, nephew of the king", Edward I), by which he is held to have become Baron Lancaster. He took part in the Siege of Caerlaverock in July 1300.

Petition for succession and inheritance

After a period of long-standing opposition to King Edward II and his advisors, including joining two open rebellions, Henry's brother Thomas was convicted of treason, executed and had his lands and titles forfeited in 1322. Henry did not participate in his brother's rebellions; he later petitioned for his brother's lands and titles, and on 29 March 1324 he was invested as Earl of Leicester.

A few years later, shortly after his accession in 1327, the young Edward III of England returned the earldom of Lancaster to him, along with other lordships such as that of Bowland. He may have inherited the Barony of Halton. [2]

Capture and custody of the King

On the Queen's return to England in September 1326 with Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, Henry joined her party against King Edward II, which led to a general desertion of the King's cause and overturned the power of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester, and his son Hugh the younger.

Henry was sent in pursuit and captured the King at Neath in South Wales. [3] He was appointed to take charge of the King and was responsible for his custody at Kenilworth Castle. [3]

Full restoration and reward

Henry was appointed head of the regency council for the new king, Edward III, [4] and was also appointed captain-general of all the King's forces in the Scottish Marches. [5] He was appointed Constable of Lancaster Castle and High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1327. He helped the young king put an end to Mortimer's regency and tyranny, having him declared a traitor and executed in 1330. [6]

Later life and death

In about the year 1330, he became blind (Prestwich states Henry was going blind around 1329). [7]

Henry spent the last fifteen years of his life at Leicester Castle. There he founded a hospital for the poor and infirm in an extension of the castle bailey. It became known as the Newarke, and Henry was buried in the hospital chapel when he died in 1345. The King and Queen attended his funeral. He was succeeded as Earl of Lancaster and Leicester by his eldest son, Henry of Grosmont, later first Duke of Lancaster. Henry had his father's remains moved to the collegiate Church of the Annunciation of Our Lady of the Newarke, which he had built when he enhanced his father's foundation. [8] [9]

Trinity Hospital chapel in the Newarke, Leicester Trinity Hospital chapel.jpg
Trinity Hospital chapel in the Newarke, Leicester

Nickname

According to Jean Le Bel, he was nicknamed Wryneck, or Tors-col in French, possibly due to a medical condition. [10] Froissart repeated that statement in his Chronicles.

Issue

He married Maud Chaworth, before 2 March 1296/1297. [11]

Henry and Maud had seven children:

Arms

Prior to his restoration to his earldoms, Henry bore the royal arms of King Henry III, differenced by a bend azure. Upon his restoration, his difference changed, to a label France of three points (that is to say a label of three points azure each charged with three fleur-de-lys or. [13]

Ancestry

[14]

In fiction

Henry is a supporting character in Les Rois maudits (The Accursed Kings), a series of French historical novels by Maurice Druon. He was portrayed by William Sabatier  [ fr ] in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, and by Romain Rondeau  [ fr ] in the 2005 adaptation. [15]

Notes

  1. Armitage-Smith, Sir Sydney, John of Gaunt: king of Castile and Leon, duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster, (Archibald Constable and Co. Ltd., 1904), pg 197.
  2. Whimperley (1986), p. 13
  3. 1 2 Prestwich 1980, p. 97.
  4. Prestwich 1980, p. 111.
  5. Burke, John, A general and heraldic dictionary of the peerages of England, Ireland, and Scotland, (Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley:London, 1831), 424.
  6. Prestwich 1980, pp. 112–113.
  7. Prestwich 1980, p. 112.
  8. S.H. Skillington & Colin Ellis, Historical Guide To Leicester, (Leicester, 1933)
  9. "A History of the County of Leicestershire: Colleges: College of the Annunciation of St Mary in the Newarke, Leicester". British History Online. 1954. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
  10. Jean le Bel, Chronique, ed. J. Viard and E. Déprez, 2 vols. (Paris, 1904-1905), I, p. 20.
  11. Fryde 1979, p. 30.
  12. Hamilton 2010, p. 157.
  13. "Marks of cadency in the British royal family". www.heraldica.org.
  14. "The Ancestry of Elizabeth FitzAlan (and her sister Joan FitzAlan) to the 9th generation".
  15. "Les Rois maudits: Casting de la saison 1" (in French). AlloCiné. 2005. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2015.

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References

Honorary titles
Preceded by Lord High Steward
1324–1345
Succeeded by
Peerage of England
Preceded by Earl of Lancaster
Earl of Leicester

1322–1345
Succeeded by