Henry Baker Tristram
|Born||11 May 1822|
|Died||8 March 1906 83)(aged|
|Alma mater||Lincoln College, Oxford|
|Known for||Travel, science in Middle East|
|Awards||Fellow of Royal Society|
|Author abbrev. (botany)||Tristram|
Henry Baker Tristram FRS (11 May 1822 – 8 March 1906) was an English clergyman, Bible scholar, traveller and ornithologist. As a parson-naturalist he was an early supporter of Darwinism, attempting to reconcile evolution and creation.
He was the son of the Rev. Henry Baker Tristram,born at Eglingham vicarage, near Alnwick, Northumberland. He studied at Durham School and Lincoln College, Oxford. In 1846 he was ordained a priest.
Tristram was secretary to the governor of Bermuda from 1847 to 1849. He explored the Sahara desert, and in 1858 visited Palestine, returning there in 1863 and 1872, and dividing his time between natural history observations and identifying localities mentioned in the Old and New Testaments. In 1873 he became canon of Durham Cathedral. In 1881 he travelled again to Palestine, the Lebanon, Mesopotamia, and Armenia. He also made a voyage to Japan to visit his daughter, Katherine Alice Salvin Tristram,who was a missionary and teacher in Osaka.
In 1858, he read the simultaneously-published papers by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace that were read in the Linnean Society, and published a paper in Ibis stating that given the "series of about 100 Larks of various species before me... I cannot help feeling convinced of the views set forth by Messrs Darwin and Wallace." He attempted to reconcile this early acceptance of evolution with creation.Following the famous Oxford Debate between Thomas Henry Huxley and Samuel Wilberforce, Tristram, after early acceptance of the theory, rejected Darwinism.
Tristram was a founder and original member of the British Ornithologists' Union, and appointed a fellow of the Royal Society in 1868. Edward Bartlett, an English ornithologist and son of Abraham Dee Bartlett, accompanied Tristram to Palestine in 1863–1864. During his travels he accumulated an extensive collection of bird skins, which he sold to the World Museum Liverpool.
Tristram's publications included
A number of birds were named after him, including Tristram's starling (also called Tristram's grackle), Tristram's warbler, Tristram's woodpecker, Tristram's serin, and Tristram's storm-petrel. He also lent his name to the gerbil Meriones tristrami(also called Tristram's jird). He is also commemorated in the scientific name of a species of lizard, Acanthodactylus tristrami .
Gilbert White FRS was a "parson-naturalist", a pioneering English naturalist, ecologist, and ornithologist. He is best known for his Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne.
Alfred Newton FRS HFRSE was an English zoologist and ornithologist. Newton was Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Cambridge University from 1866 to 1907. Among his numerous publications were a four-volume Dictionary of Birds (1893–6), entries on ornithology in the Encyclopædia Britannica while also an editor of the journal Ibis from 1865 to 1870. In 1900 he was awarded the Royal Medal of the Royal Society and the Gold Medal of the Linnaean Society. He founded the British Ornithologists Union.
Osbert Salvin FRS was an English naturalist, ornithologist, and herpetologist best known for co-authoring Biologia Centrali-Americana (1879–1915) with Frederick DuCane Godman. This was a 52 volume encyclopedia on the natural history of Central America.
Aroer is a biblical town on the north bank of the River Arnon to the east of the Dead Sea, in present-day Jordan. The town was an ancient Moabite settlement, and is mentioned in the Bible.
Edward Bartlett was an English ornithologist and herpetologist. He was the son of Abraham Dee Bartlett.
Nature writing is nonfiction or fiction prose or poetry about the natural environment. Nature writing encompasses a wide variety of works, ranging from those that place primary emphasis on natural history facts to those in which philosophical interpretation predominate. It includes natural history essays, poetry, essays of solitude or escape, as well as travel and adventure writing.
Edgar Leopold LayardMBOU, was a British diplomat and a naturalist mainly interested in ornithology and to a lesser extent the molluscs. He worked for a significant part of his life in Ceylon and later in South Africa, Fiji and New Caledonia. He studied the zoology of these places and established natural history museums in Sri Lanka and South Africa. Several species of animals are named after him.
Arthur Humble Evans FRSE was a British ornithologist.
Christie's long-eared bat, also known as the Egyptian long-eared bat, Christie's big-eared bat, or gray long-eared bat, is a species of vesper bat in the family Vespertilionidae. It is known from North Africa and the Middle East. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, rocky areas, and hot deserts.
Meriones tristrami, known as Tristram's jird, is a species of rodent that lives in the Middle East. It is named after the Reverend Henry Baker Tristram who collected the first specimens. It is up to 155 mm (6.1 in) long, and lives in burrows in steppes and semi-deserts from Turkey and the Caucasus to Israel and Iran. Records from the Greek island of Kos represent the only gerbils reported from Europe, outside the former Soviet Union. It is a common, widespread species, and is not considered to be threatened.
Francis Orpen Morris was an Irish clergyman, notable as "parson-naturalist" and as the author of many children's books and books on natural history and heritage buildings. He was a pioneer of the movement to protect birds from the plume trade and was a co-founder of the Plumage League. He died on 10 February 1893 and was buried at Nunburnholme, East Riding of Yorkshire, England.
Edward Allworthy Armstrong was a British ornithologist and Church of England clergyman.
The Sea Birds Preservation Act 1869 was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom. It was the first Act to protect wild birds in that country.
Henry Barrington "Tim" Tristram was an English sportsman who played international rugby union for England and first-class cricket.
Thomas Hutchinson Tristram KC DCL was an English lawyer.
Henry Morris Upcher was an English naturalist and ornithologist. He was born in Sheringham Hall, Upper Sheringham, Norfolk, England and took a keen interest in birds and wildlife from a very early age. He was the oldest of six brothers and little is known about his early life. He married Maria Hester Bowyer-Sparke on 10 June 1869 at Feltwell, Norfolk. He was High Sheriff of Norfolk in 1899 and was elected alderman to the county council in 1901. He took an interest in the protection of wild birds and when Pallas's sandgrouse were found visiting England in 1888 he worked to prevent them from being shot by sportsmen. He was a supporter of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society of which he became a president in 1883. He was a member of the British Ornithologists' Union from 1864. Upcher's warbler was named after him by his friend Henry Baker Tristram.
William McClure Thomson was an American Protestant missionary working in Ottoman Syria. After spending 25 years in the area he published a best-selling description of what he had seen in his travels. He used his observations as a means of illustrating and illuminating passages from the Bible.
Acanthodactylus tristrami, commonly called the Lebanon fringe-fingered lizard and Tristram's spiny-footed lizard, is a species of lizard in the family Lacertidae. The species is endemic to the Middle East.
Sattam Fendi Abbas Al Fayez (Arabic: سطام الفايز, was a historical Arabian Emir who led the Bani Sakher tribe from 1881 until his death in 1891. He was the de facto ruler of the Bani Sakher due to his father Fendi Al-Fayez giving him most of his responsibilities in the late 1870s, and was the first person to have led westerners to view the Moab Stone in 1870. Sattam was also the first tribal Sheikh to begin cultivating land in the 1860s which began the sedentary settlement process of many of the biggest tribes in Jordan. In September 1881, after the reunification of the Al-Fayez family under Sattam, he was recognized by the Ottoman Administration as the Emir of Al-Jizah and the paramount Shaykh of the Bani Sakher clan.
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