Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux

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An advocate, in the discharge of his duty, knows but one person in all the world, and that person is his client. To save that client by all means and expedients, and at all hazards and costs to other persons, and amongst them, to himself, is his first and only duty; and in performing this duty he must not regard the alarm, the torments, the destruction which he may bring upon others. Separating the duty of a patriot from that of an advocate, he must go on reckless of consequences, though it should be his unhappy fate to involve his country in confusion.

The speech has since become legendary among defence lawyers for the principle of zealously advocating for one's client. [7] The bill passed, but by the narrow margin of only nine votes. Lord Liverpool, aware of the unpopularity of the bill and afraid that it might be overturned in the House of Commons, then withdrew it. The British public had mainly been on the Princess's side, and the outcome of the trial made Brougham one of the most famous men in the country. His legal practice on the Northern Circuit rose fivefold, although he had to wait until 1827 before being made a King's Counsel. [1]

In 1826 Brougham, along with Wellington, was one of the clients and lovers named in the notorious Memoirs of Harriette Wilson . Before publication, Wilson and publisher John Joseph Stockdale wrote to all those named in the book offering them the opportunity to be excluded from the work in exchange for a cash payment. Brougham paid and secured his anonymity. [8] [9]

Lord Chancellor

The Lord Brougham and Vaux
Portrait of Henry Brougham, Lord Brougham and Vaux (2550754469).jpg
Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain
In office
22 November 1830 9 July 1834
NO SLAVERY!

ELECTORS OF THE COUNTY OF YORK

You honourably distinguished yourselves

In the ABOLITION OF THE SLAVE TRADE

by your zealous support of

WILLIAM WILBERFORCE

Who can be more worthy of your choice as a

REPRESENTATIVE FOR THE COUNTY

the enlightened friend and champion of Negro Freedom

HENRY BROUGHAM

by returning him

YOU WILL DO AN HONOUR TO THE COUNTY

and

A SERVICE TO HUMANITY [10]

Brougham remained a member of Parliament for Winchelsea until February 1830 when he was returned for Knaresborough. However, he represented Knaresborough only until August the same year, when he became one of four representatives for Yorkshire. His support for the immediate abolition of slavery brought him enthusiastic support in the industrial West Riding. The Reverend Benjamin Godwin of Bradford devised and funded posters that appealed to Yorkshire voters who had supported William Wilberforce to support Brougham as a committed opponent of slavery [10] However, Brougham was adopted as a Whig candidate by only a tiny majority at the nomination meeting: the Whig gentry objecting that he had no connection with agricultural interests, and no connection with the county. [11] Brougham came second in the poll, behind the other Whig candidate; although the liberals of Leeds had placarded the town with claims that one of the Tory candidates supported slavery, this was strenuously denied by him. [12]

In November the Tory government led by the Duke of Wellington fell, and the Whigs came to power under Lord Grey. Brougham joined the government as Lord Chancellor, although his opponents claimed he previously stated he would not accept office under Grey. [13] Brougham refused the post of Attorney General, but accepted that of Lord Chancellor, which he held for four years. On 22 November, he was raised to the peerage as Baron Brougham and Vaux, of Brougham in the County of Westmorland. [1] [14]

Brougham as Lord Chancellor (1830-1834) Lord Brougham & Vaux mezzotint.jpg
Brougham as Lord Chancellor (1830–1834)

The highlights of Brougham's time in government were passing the 1832 Reform Act and 1833 Slavery Abolition Act but he was seen as dangerous, unreliable and arrogant. Charles Greville, who was Clerk of the Privy Council for 35 years, recorded his "genius and eloquence" was marred by "unprincipled and execrable judgement". [15] Although retained when Lord Melbourne succeeded Grey in July 1834, the administration was replaced in November by Sir Robert Peel's Tories. When Melbourne became Prime Minister again in April 1835, he excluded Brougham, saying his conduct was one of the main reasons for the fall of the previous government; Baron Cottenham became Lord Chancellor in January 1836. [1]

Later life

Bust of Henry Brougham in the Playfair Library of Edinburgh University's Old College Henry Brougham bust.jpg
Bust of Henry Brougham in the Playfair Library of Edinburgh University's Old College
The title page of British Constitution (1st ed., 1844), written by Brougham Henry, Lord Brougham, British Constitution (1st ed, 1844, title page).jpg
The title page of British Constitution (1st ed., 1844), written by Brougham

Brougham was never to hold office again. However, for more than thirty years after his fall he continued to take an active part in the judicial business of the House of Lords, and in its debates, having now turned fiercely against his former political associates, but continuing his efforts on behalf of reform of various kinds. He also devoted much of his time to writing. He had continued to contribute to the Edinburgh Review , the best of his writings being subsequently published as Historical Sketches of Statesmen Who Flourished in the Time of George III.

In 1834, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1837, Brougham presented a bill for public education, arguing that "it cannot be doubted that some legislative effort must at length be made to remove from this country the opprobrium of having done less for the education of the people than any of the more civilized nations on earth". [16] [ page needed ]

In 1838, after news came up of British colonies where the emancipation of the slaves was obstructed or where the ex-slaves were being badly treated and discriminated against, Lord Brougham stated in the House of Lords:

"The slave … is as fit for his freedom as any English peasant, aye, or any Lord whom I now address. I demand his rights; I demand his liberty without stint… . I demand that your brother be no longer trampled upon as your slave!" [17]

Brougham was elected Rector of Marischal College for 1838. [18] He also edited, in collaboration with Sir Charles Bell, William Paley's Natural Theology and published a work on political philosophy and in 1838 he published an edition of his speeches in four volumes. The last of his works was his posthumous Autobiography. In 1857 he was one of the founders of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science and was its president at some congresses. [5]

In 1860, Brougham was given by Queen Victoria a second peerage as Baron Brougham and Vaux, of Brougham in the County of Westmorland and of Highhead Castle in the County of Cumberland, with remainder to his youngest brother William Brougham (died 1886). The patent stated that the second peerage was in honour of the great services he had rendered, especially in promoting the abolition of slavery. [5]

Family

Brougham was said [ clarification needed ] to be the father of writer Marie Blaze de Bury. Her last name was Stuart or Stewart and she was born in Oban, Scotland in 1813. [19] She was sent to France when she was nine where she completed her education.[ citation needed ]

Brougham married Mary Spalding (d. 1865), daughter of Thomas Eden, and widow of John Spalding, MP, in 1821. They had two daughters, both of whom predeceased their parents, the latter one dying in 1839. Lord Brougham and Vaux died in May 1868 in Cannes, France, aged 89 and was buried in the Cimetière du Grand Jas. [1] The cemetery is up to the present dominated by Brougham's statue, and he is honoured for his major role in building the city of Cannes. [20] His hatchment is in Ninekirks, which was then the parish church of Brougham.

The Barony of 1830 became extinct on his death, while he was succeeded in the Barony of 1860 according to the special remainder by his younger brother William Brougham. [21]

Legacy

A brougham, of the style built to Lord Brougham's specification Brougham.jpg
A brougham, of the style built to Lord Brougham's specification

He was the designer of the brougham, a four-wheeled, horse-drawn style carriage that bears his name. Brougham's patronage made the renowned French seaside resort of Cannes very popular. He accidentally found the place in 1835, when it was little more than a fishing village on a picturesque coast, and bought there a tract of land and built on it. His choice and his example made it the sanitorium of Europe. Owing to Brougham's influence the beachfront promenade at Nice became known as the Promenade des Anglais (literally, "The Promenade of the English"). [22] The baron inspired others to seek winter warmth and own a second home in Cannes, he personally oversaw the building of 'Villa Elenore-Louise' which he named after his daughter, so he lived in the villa himself. One of his friends became the riviera de facto estate agent owing to the building of Château Vallombrosa. The newly built villas made popular by Henry Brougham attracted royalty such as Queen Victoria and the Russian Czar. [23]

A statue of him, inscribed "Lord Brougham", stands at the Cannes waterfront, across from the Palais des festivals et des congrès. [23]

Brougham holds the House of Commons record for non-stop speaking at six hours. [24]

Brougham was present at the trial of the world's first steam-powered ship on 14 October 1788 at Dalswinton Loch near Auldgirth, Dumfries and Galloway. William Symington of Wanlockhead built the two-cylindered engine for Patrick Miller of Dalswinton. [25]

Brougham Street and Brougham Place in Edinburgh are named in his memory. [26]

Works

Brougham wrote a prodigious number of treatises on science, philosophy, and history. Besides the writings mentioned in this article, he was the author of Dialogues on Instinct; with Analytical View of the Researches on Fossil Osteology, Lives of Statesmen, Philosophers, and Men of Science of the Time of George III, Natural Theology, etc. His last work was an autobiography written in his 84th year and published in 1871.

Brougham's Political Philosophy was included on the Cambridge syllabus for History and Political Philosophy, where it was considered among the major works on the topic along with Aristotle's Politics, François Guizot's Histoire de la civilization en Europe, and Henry Hallam's Constitutional History. [27]


Arms

Coat of arms of Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux
Coronet of a British Baron.svg
Brougham and Vaux Escutcheon.png
Crest
A dexter arm in armour embowed Proper the hand holding a lucy fessewise Argent and charged on the elbow with a rose Gules.
Escutcheon
Gules a chevron between three lucies hauriant Argent.
Supporters
Dexter a lion Vert armed and langued Gules gorged with a Vaux collar checky Or and of the second, sinister a stag Argent attired and unguled Or holding in the mouth a rose Gules barbed and seeded Vert.
Motto
Pro Rege Lege Grege (For The King The Law And The People) [21]

See also


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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Chisholm (1911).
  2. Solar Phys., 2004, vol. 223, pp. 335–56. As Royal Astronomer,
  3. W. Herschel, Phil.Trans., 1801, vol. 91, p. 265.
  4. The Conference "Man in his Terrestrial and Cosmic Environment", Úpice, Czech Republic, 2010, Acad. Sci. Czech Rep., Prague.
  5. 1 2 3 "BROUGHAM, Henry Peter (1778-1868), of Brougham Hall, Westmld. and 5 Hill Street, Mdx". historyofparliament. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  6. Kelly, Jon, "The art of the filibuster: How do you talk for 24 hours straight?", BBC News Magazine, 12 December 2012.
  7. Uelmen, Gerald. "Lord Brougham's Bromide: Good Lawyers as Bad Citizens", Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, November 1996.
  8. Stockdale, E. (1990). "The unnecessary crisis: The background to the Parliamentary Papers Act 1840". Public Law: 30–49. p. 36.
  9. Bourne (1975).
  10. 1 2 Historical Perspectives on the Transatlantic Slave Trade in Bradford, Yorkshire Abolitionist Activity 1787–1865, James Gregory, Plymouth University, History & Art History, Academia.edu. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
  11. "Meeting of the Freeholders in the Whig Interest in York". Yorkshire Gazette. 24 July 1830. p. 3.
  12. "General Election: Yorkshire Election". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 7 August 1830. p. 3.
  13. "NEW WRITS.—CONDUCT OF LORD BROUGHAM". Hansard House of Commons Debates. 1: cc636-49. 23 November 1830. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  14. "Grosvenor Prints, "A matter of credit"". grosvenorprints.com.
  15. Greville, Charles (2005). Edward, Pearce (ed.). The Diaries of Charles Greville. London: Pimlico. p. xi. ISBN   978-1844134045.
  16. Green, Andy (1990). Education and State Formation: The Rise of Education Systems in England, France and the USA. Macmillan. ISBN   978-0333571033.
  17. Quoted in the "Lawyers on the Edge" website
  18. Officers of the Marischal College & University of Aberdeen, 1593-1860.
  19. Egloff, Rachel Margaret (February 2020). "A Study of the Life and Works of Blaze de Bury: A Counter-Narrative of a Transcultural Woman's Involvement in Nineteenth Century European Politics" (PDF). PhD Thesis for Oxford Brookes University.
  20. "Historian hails Edinburgh-born slavery abolitionist who 'invented' Cannes". edinburghnews.scotsman.com. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
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Attribution


Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by Member of Parliament for Camelford
1810–1812
With: Robert Adair
Succeeded by
Preceded by Member of Parliament for Winchelsea
1815–1830
With: Calverley Bewicke, until 1816
Viscount Barnard, 1816–1818
George Galway Mills, 1818–1820
Lucius Concannon, 1820–1823
William Leader, 1823–1826
Viscount Howick, from 1826
Succeeded by
Preceded by Member of Parliament for Knaresborough
1830
With: Sir James Mackintosh
Succeeded by
Preceded by Member of Parliament for Yorkshire
1830
With: William Duncombe
Viscount Morpeth
Richard Bethell
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain
1830–1834
Succeeded by
Academic offices
Preceded by Rector of the University of Glasgow
1824–1826
Succeeded by
New office Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh
1859–1868
Succeeded by
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baron Brougham and Vaux
(of Brougham)
1830–1868
Extinct
Baron Brougham and Vaux
(of Brougham and High Head Castle)
1860–1868
Succeeded by