Henry Brydges, 2nd Duke of Chandos

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Henry Brydges (later 2nd Duke of Chandos) aged about five, pictured in 1713 with his father James Brydges (later 1st Duke of Chandos), his elder brother John (later Marquess of Carnarvon) and either his mother Mary (died 1712) or his stepmother Cassandra. Chandos-family-by-kneller-1713.jpg
Henry Brydges (later 2nd Duke of Chandos) aged about five, pictured in 1713 with his father James Brydges (later 1st Duke of Chandos), his elder brother John (later Marquess of Carnarvon) and either his mother Mary (died 1712) or his stepmother Cassandra.

Henry Brydges, 2nd Duke of Chandos, KB (17 January 1708 – 28 November 1771), known from 1727 to 1744 by the courtesy title Marquess of Carnarvon, was the second son of the 1st Duke of Chandos and his first wife Mary Lake. He was the Member of Parliament for Hereford from 1727 to 1734 and for Steyning between 1734 and 1741.

Order of the Bath series of awards of an order of chivalry of the United Kingdom

The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements. The knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order". He did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never previously existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred.

A courtesy title is a form of address in systems of nobility used for children, former wives and other close relatives of a peer, as well as certain officials such as some judges and members of the Scottish gentry. These styles are used 'by courtesy' in the sense that the relatives, officials and others do not themselves hold substantive titles. There are several different kinds of courtesy titles in the British peerage.

James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos English politician

James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos, was the first of fourteen children of the 8th Baron Chandos and Elizabeth Barnard. Three days after his father's death on 16 October 1714, when he became 9th Baron Chandos, he was created Earl of Carnarvon, and he was subsequently created Duke of Chandos in 1719. He was a member of parliament for Hereford from 1698 to 1714.

Contents

Career and titles

Henry Brydges was born the second son of the Hon. James Brydges, eldest son of the 8th Baron Chandos. He was educated at Westminster School and St John's College, Cambridge. [2] On his father succeeding as 9th Baron Chandos in 1714 (and shortly thereafter being created Earl of Carnarvon), he became The Hon. Henry Brydges, and in 1719, on his father being created Duke of Chandos, he became Lord Henry Brydges. His elder brother died without male issue in 1727, at which point he became heir to the dukedom and acquired the courtesy title Marquess of Carnarvon.

James Brydges, 8th Baron Chandos English diplomat and Baron

James Brydges, 8th Baron Chandos (1642–1714) was English Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire.

Westminster School school in Westminster, London, England

Westminster School is an independent day and boarding school in London, England, located within the precincts of Westminster Abbey. With origins before the 12th century, the educational tradition of Westminster probably dates back as far as 960, in line with the Abbey's history. Boys are admitted to the Under School at age seven and to the senior school at age thirteen; girls are admitted at age sixteen into the Sixth Form. The school has around 750 pupils; around a quarter are boarders, most of whom go home at weekends, after Saturday morning school. The school motto, Dat Deus Incrementum, is taken from the New Testament, specifically 1 Corinthians 3:6.

St Johns College, Cambridge college of the University of Cambridge

St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college was founded by Lady Margaret Beaufort. In constitutional terms, the college is a charitable corporation established by a charter dated 9 April 1511. The aims of the college, as specified by its statutes, are the promotion of education, religion, learning and research.

From 1729 to 1735 Carnarvon was Master of the Horse to Frederick, Prince of Wales, and in 1732 was invested as a Knight of the Bath. On the death of his father, he succeeded as 2nd Duke of Chandos. [3]

Frederick, Prince of Wales heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death

Frederick, Prince of Wales, KG, was heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death from a lung injury at the age of 44 in 1751. He was the eldest but estranged son of King George II and Caroline of Ansbach, and the father of King George III.

He was described by King George II as "a hot headed, passionate, half-witted coxcomb". [3]

George II of Great Britain British monarch

George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.

Financial problems

When his father died on 9 August 1744, the estate was heavily burdened by debt, the family having lost money in the South Sea Bubble. A decision was made to demolish the family seat, Cannons. In 1747 a twelve-day demolition sale saw both the contents and the very structure of the house itself sold piecemeal. The auction of the contents, beginning on 1 June 1767, [4] and of the house and out-house materials, starting on 16 June, were each handled by the respected auctioneer Christopher Cock. [5]

Cannons (house)

Cannons was a stately home in Little Stanmore, Middlesex, England. It was built by James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos, between 1713 and 1724 at a cost of £200,000. The house was razed in 1747 and its contents dispersed.

Marriages and children

The Duke of Chandos, while staying at a small country inn, saw the ostler beating his wife in a most cruel manner; he interfered and literally bought her for half a crown. She was a young and pretty woman; the Duke had her educated; and on the husband's death he married her. On her death-bed, she had her whole household assembled, told them her history, and drew from it a touching moral of reliance on Providence; as from the most wretched situation, she had been suddenly raised to one of the greatest prosperity; she entreated their forgiveness if at any time she had given needless offence, and then dismissed them with gifts; dying almost in the very act. [6]

The Gentleman's Magazine (1832)

Anne, Duchess of Chandos (died 1759), by Joseph Highmore, in the Walker Art Gallery. Anne Wells, aka Duchess of Chandos (died 1759) by Joseph Highmore, in the Walker Art Gallery.jpg
Anne, Duchess of Chandos (died 1759), by Joseph Highmore, in the Walker Art Gallery.

On 21 December 1728 he married Lady Mary Bruce (1710–1738), daughter of Charles Bruce, 4th Earl of Elgin and Lady Anne Saville. They had two children who survived childhood, Lady Caroline Brydges (1729–1789) and James Brydges, 3rd Duke of Chandos (1731–1789) who were painted by Bartholomew Dandridge in 1738 [7]

James Brydges, 3rd Duke of Chandos PC, styled Viscount Wilton from birth until 1744 and Marquess of Carnarvon from 1744 to 1771, was a British peer and politician.

Bartholomew Dandridge (artist) British artist

Bartholomew Dandridge was an English portrait painter.

The Duke's second marriage was unconventional. In 1744 he married Anne Wells, a former chambermaid from Newbury in Berkshire. They had met a few years earlier in circumstances described by a witness as follows:

The Duke of Chandos and a companion dined at the Pelican, Newbury, on the way to London. A stir in the Inn yard led to their being told that a man was going to sell his wife, and they are leading her up with a halter around her neck. They went to see. The Duke was smitten with her beauty and patient acquiescence in a process which would (as then supposed) free her from a harsh and ill-conditioned husband. He bought her, and subsequently married her (at Keith's Chapel) Christmas Day, 1744. [8]

Anne died in 1759, without male issue, and Chandos married for a third time in 1767 to Elizabeth Major (1731–1813), daughter of Sir John Major, 1st Baronet.

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References

  1. "Brydges, Lord Henry (BRGS723LH)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  2. 1 2 Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume III, pp131–132
  3. Cock, Christopher (1767). A catalogue of all the genuine houshold [sic] furniture, &c. Of His Grace James Duke of Chandos, deceas'd, at his late seat call'd Cannons, near ... London: Christopher Cock.
  4. Cock, Christopher (1767). 1747.06 A catalogue of all the materials of the dwelling-house, out-houses, &c. Of His Grace James Duke of Chandos, deceasd, at his late seat call'd ... London: Christopher Cock.
  5. "The Contrast, by the Author of "Yes and No"", The Gentleman's Magazine , 102: 347, April 1832
  6. Portrait of James Brydges, Lord Wilton, later 3rd Duke of Chandos (1731–1789) and Lady Caroline Brydges, later Lady Caroline Leigh (1729/30-1804)
  7. Notes and Queries , Fourth Series, VI, 179; 27 August 1870
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Herbert Rudhale Westfaling
James Wallwyn
Member of Parliament for Hereford
17271734
With: Thomas Geers
Succeeded by
Thomas Foley
Sir John Morgan, Bt
Preceded by
Thomas Bladen
The Viscount Vane
Member of Parliament for Steyning
17341741
With: Robert Fagg 1734–1740
Hitch Younge 1740–1741
Succeeded by
Charles Eversfield
Hitch Younge
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
James Brydges
Duke of Chandos
1744–1771
Succeeded by
James Brydges