Henry Burrell (admiral)

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Sir Henry Burrell
306783Burrell.jpg
Vice Admiral Henry Burrell c. 1959
Born(1904-08-13)13 August 1904
Wentworth Falls, New South Wales
Died9 February 1988(1988-02-09) (aged 83)
Canberra, Australian Capital Territory
AllegianceAustralia
Service/branch Royal Australian Navy
Years of service1918–1962
Rank Vice Admiral
Commands held HMAS Norman (1941–43)
HMAS Bataan (1945–46)
10th Destroyer Flotilla (1946)
HMAS Australia (1948–49)
HMAS Vengeance (1953–54)
HM Australian Fleet (1955–56, 1958)
Chief of the Naval Staff (1959–62)
Battles/wars Spanish Civil War
World War II
Awards Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Companion of the Order of the Bath
Mentioned in Despatches

Vice Admiral Sir Henry Mackay Burrell, KBE , CB (13 August 1904 – 9 February 1988) was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). He served as Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS) from 1959 to 1962. Born in the Blue Mountains, Burrell entered the Royal Australian Naval College in 1918 as a 13-year-old cadet. His first posting at sea was aboard the cruiser HMAS Sydney. During the 1920s and 1930s, Burrell served for several years on exchange with the Royal Navy, specialising as a navigator. During World War II, he filled a key liaison post with the US Navy, and later saw action as commander of the destroyer HMAS Norman, earning a mention in despatches.

Vice admiral is the second-highest active rank of the Royal Australian Navy and was created as a direct equivalent of the British rank of vice admiral. It is a three-star rank. The rank is held by the Chief of Navy and, when the positions are held by navy officers, by the Vice Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Joint Operations, or the Chief Capability Development Group.

Royal Australian Navy Naval warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force

The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force, called the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Originally intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of 'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, and became increasingly responsible for defence of the region.

Chief of Navy (Australia)

The Chief of Navy is the most senior appointment in the Royal Australian Navy, responsible to the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) and the Secretary of Defence. The rank associated with the position is vice admiral (3-star).

Contents

Promoted captain in 1946, Burrell played a major role in the formation of the RAN's Fleet Air Arm, before commanding the flagship HMAS Australia in 1948–49. He captained the light aircraft carrier HMAS Vengeance in 1953–54, and was twice Flag Officer of the Australian Fleet, in 1955–56 and 1958. Burrell was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1955 and a Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1959. As CNS, he began a major program of acquisitions for the Navy, including new helicopters, minesweepers, submarines and guided-missile destroyers. He also acted to reverse a plan by the government of the day to dismantle the Fleet Air Arm. Knighted in 1960, Burrell retired to his farm near Canberra in 1962 and published his memoirs, Mermaids Do Exist, in 1986. He died two years later, aged 83.

Captain (naval) Naval military rank

Captain is the name most often given in English-speaking navies to the rank corresponding to command of the largest ships. The rank is equal to the army rank of colonel.

Fleet Air Arm (RAN) aviation branch of the Royal Australian Navy

The Fleet Air Arm (FAA), known formally as the Australian Navy Aviation Group, is the division of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) responsible for the operation of aircraft. The FAA was founded in 1947 following the purchase of two aircraft carriers from the Royal Navy. FAA personnel fought in the Korean War and the Vietnam War, and participated in later conflicts and operations from host warships.

HMAS <i>Australia</i> (D84) Australian naval ship (D84)

HMAS Australia (I84/D84/C01) was a County-class heavy cruiser of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). One of two Kent-subclass ships ordered for the RAN in 1924, Australia was laid down in Scotland in 1925, and entered service in 1928. Apart from an exchange deployment to the Mediterranean from 1934 to 1936, during which she became involved in the planned British response to the Abyssinia Crisis, Australia operated in local and South-West Pacific waters until World War II began.

Early life and career

Henry Mackay Burrell was born at Wentworth Falls, in the Blue Mountains district of New South Wales. He was the third child and only son of schoolteacher Thomas Burrell and his wife, Eliza. [1] [2] Henry's father, who had emigrated from England, joined the Australian Imperial Force aged 55 during World War I, seeing active service in Egypt. [1] His grandfather and great-grandfather had served in the Royal Navy. [2] Henry attended Parramatta High School before entering the Royal Australian Naval College, Jervis Bay, on 1 January 1918, [3] [4] aged thirteen. [5] A keen sportsman, he competed in rugby union, tennis and hockey, winning colours for hockey. Burrell graduated from the college in 1921 and became a midshipman the next year. [1] He went to sea first aboard the light cruiser HMAS Sydney and then the destroyer HMAS Stalwart. Posted to the United Kingdom for further training in 1924, he served on the light cruiser HMS Caledon and the battleship HMS Malaya. [5] [6] In April 1925, he was promoted to sub-lieutenant, rising to lieutenant by July 1926. [1]

Wentworth Falls, New South Wales Suburb of City of Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia

Wentworth Falls is a town in the Blue Mountains region of New South Wales, situated approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) west of the Sydney central business district, and about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) east of Katoomba, Australia on the Great Western Highway, with a Wentworth Falls railway station on the Main Western line. The town is at an elevation of 867 metres (2,844 ft) AHD . At the 2016 census, Wentworth Falls had a population of 6,076.

New South Wales State of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In December 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

First Australian Imperial Force Australian Army expeditionary force during World War I

The First Australian Imperial Force was the main expeditionary force of the Australian Army during World War I. It was formed on 15 August 1914, following Britain's declaration of war on Germany, initially with a strength of one infantry division and one light horse brigade. The infantry division subsequently fought at Gallipoli between April and December 1915, being reinforced by a second division which was later raised, as well as three light horse brigades. After being evacuated to Egypt the AIF was expanded to five infantry divisions, which were committed to the fighting in France and Belgium along the Western Front in March 1916. A sixth infantry division was partially raised in 1917 in the United Kingdom, but was broken up and used as reinforcements following heavy casualties on the Western Front. Meanwhile, two mounted divisions remained in the Middle East to fight against Turkish forces in the Sinai and Palestine.

HMS Devonshire during the Spanish Civil War 073539Devonshire1936-39.jpg
HMS Devonshire during the Spanish Civil War

After attending a Royal Navy course in 1930, Burrell became a specialist navigator, [5] and saw service aboard the minesweeper HMS Pangbourne, destroyers HMAS Tattoo and Stuart, and cruiser HMAS Brisbane. He married Margaret MacKay at Scots' Church, Melbourne, on 27 December 1933. Burrell was promoted to lieutenant commander in July 1934, and graduated from an advanced navigation course the next year. [1]

Hunt-class minesweeper (1916) class of minesweeping sloop built between 1916 and 1919

The Hunt-class minesweeper was a class of minesweeping sloop built between 1916 and 1919 for the Royal Navy. They were built in two discrete groups, the earlier Belvoir group designed by the Ailsa Shipbuilding Company and the subsequent Aberdare group designed by the Admiralty. They were classed as Fleet Minesweeping Sloops, that is ships intended to clear open water. The Belvoir group were named after British fox hunts. Those of the Aberdare group were originally named after coastal towns, watering places and fishing ports, some of which happened to be hunts by coincidence. However, all were soon renamed after inland locations to prevent confusion caused by the misunderstanding of signals and orders.

HMAS <i>Tattoo</i>

HMAS Tattoo (H26) was an Admiralty S class destroyer of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Built for the Royal Navy during World War I, the ship was not completed until 1919, and spent less than eight months in British service before being transferred to the RAN at the start of 1920. After arriving in Australia, Tattoo spent her entire career in Australian waters, and was placed in reserve on several occasions. Tattoo was decommissioned in 1936, and was sold for ship breaking in 1937.

HMAS <i>Stuart</i> (D00) Admiralty type flotilla leader

HMAS Stuart was a British Scott-class flotilla leader. The ship was built by Hawthorn Leslie and Company for the Royal Navy during World War I, and entered service at the end of 1918. The majority of the destroyer's British service was performed in the Mediterranean, and in 1933 she was transferred to the Royal Australian Navy. Although placed in reserve in 1938, Stuart was reactivated at the start of World War II to lead the Australian destroyer force, nicknamed the "Scrap Iron Flotilla" by German propagandists.

Burrell served on exchange with the Royal Navy as navigator aboard the cruisers HMS Coventry and HMS Devonshire, the latter during her tour of duty in the Spanish Civil War. [7] Described as being "egalitarian" and "approachable", his familiarity with ratings earned him the criticism of Devonshire's captain. Burrell, however, believed that a close relationship between officers and men was necessary for the smooth running of a ship. [1] [8] After completing the Royal Navy's staff course in 1938, he returned to Australia and was appointed staff officer (operations) at the Navy Office, Melbourne, in March 1939. [9] [10] It was Burrell's first shore-based position, and he spent the next four months bringing naval sections of the War Book (preparations for war) up to date. [9]

HMS <i>Coventry</i> (D43)

HMS Coventry was a C-class light cruiser of the Royal Navy, named after the English city of Coventry. She was part of the Ceres group of the C-class of cruisers.

HMS <i>Devonshire</i> (39) ship

HMS Devonshire, pennant number 39, was a County-class heavy cruiser of the London sub-class built for the Royal Navy in the late 1920s. The ship spent most of her pre-World War II career assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet aside from a brief tour with the China Station. She spent the first two months of the Second World War in the Mediterranean until she was transferred to the Home Fleet and became flagship of a cruiser squadron. Devonshire took part in the Norwegian Campaign in mid 1940 and evacuated much of the Norwegian Government in June. Several months later, she participated in the Battle of Dakar, a failed attempt to seize the Vichy French colony of Senegal in September. The ship remained in the South Atlantic afterwards and supported Free French efforts to take control of French Equatorial Africa in addition to searching for German commerce raiders.

Non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War

During the Spanish Civil War, several countries followed a principle of non-intervention, to avoid any potential escalation and possible expansion of the war to other nations, which would result in the signing of the Non-Intervention Agreement in August 1936 and the setting up of the Non-Intervention Committee, which first met in September. Primarily arranged by the French and British governments, important members of the committee also included the Soviet Union, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Ultimately, the committee had the support of 27 nations.

World War II

HMAS Norman, commanded by Burrell in 1941-43 HMAS Norman AWM-P00490.030.jpg
HMAS Norman, commanded by Burrell in 1941–43

Burrell was still based at the Navy Office when World War II broke out in September 1939. [10] A reorganisation of the headquarters in May 1940 saw him promoted to commander and given the new role of Director of Operations, overseeing troop convoys and their air cover, local defence, and staffing issues. [11] Burrell's "full knowledge of Australian naval plans and resources" led to Prime Minister Robert Menzies personally nominating him to participate in staff talks with representatives of the Royal Navy and US Navy in October. [5] Soon after, he was posted as the first Australian naval attaché to Washington, D.C., in an effort to improve communications with the US in light of the threat from Japan. [12] Burrell was credited with helping to foster closer cooperation between the two navies in the Pacific region. [5] He also warned the Australian government that Britain and the US would adopt a "Germany-first" strategy in the event of war with Japan, and that the US was prepared to weaken its Pacific fleet to help secure the Atlantic. [1] [13]

Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank. Commander is also used as a rank or title in other formal organisations, including several police forces.

Robert Menzies Australian politician, 12th Prime Minister of Australia

Sir Robert Gordon Menzies,, was an Australian politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1949 to 1966. He played a central role in the creation of the Liberal Party of Australia, defining its policies and its broad outreach. He is Australia's longest-serving prime minister, serving over 18 years in total.

United States Navy Naval warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U.S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, and two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the U.S. Navy is the third largest of the U.S. military service branches in terms of personnel. It has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the third-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force and the United States Army.

Posted to Britain, Burrell was appointed commanding officer of the newly commissioned N-class destroyer HMAS Norman on 15 September 1941. [5] [14] The ship's first operation was transporting a Trade Union Congress delegation led by Sir Walter Citrine to Archangel, Russia. After returning to Britain, she steamed to the Indian Ocean to join Admiral Sir James Somerville's Eastern Fleet at Addu Atoll, Maldives, on 26 February 1942. [14] Following the Eastern Fleet's withdrawal to Kilindini, Kenya, Norman took part in the capture of Diego Suarez on Madagascar on 7 May. Later that month, she was reassigned to the Mediterranean and in June was involved in Operation Vigorous, an unsuccessful attempt to resupply the besieged island of Malta. [15] Transferred back to the Indian Ocean, Burrell led Norman in the second campaign of the Battle of Madagascar in September, and was mentioned in despatches on 19 February 1943 for his "bravery and resource" during the operation. [16] [17] By this time Norman was escorting convoys in the Pacific, before deploying to the South Atlantic for anti-submarine duties in April–May. [18]

The news was the greatest thrill for us all ... My words cannot express their joy at deliverance to say nothing of ours.

Commander Burrell on finding survivors of HMAS Perth in a camp at Sendai, Japan [19]

On 23 June 1943, Burrell relinquished command of Norman and returned to the Navy Office, Melbourne, as Director of Plans. [18] Having been divorced from his first wife Margaret in November 1941, he married mineralogist Ada Weller (also known as Ada Coggan) on 21 April 1944; the couple had a son and two daughters. [1] [3] Burrell took charge of the RAN's latest Tribal-class destroyer, HMAS Bataan, at her commissioning in Sydney on 25 May 1945. Arriving on the scene too late to see action, the ship was deployed to Japan via the Philippines in July, docking in Tokyo on 31 August. There she participated in the formal surrender ceremonies that took place on 2 September aboard USS Missouri. Bataan remained in Japan as Australian Squadron representative until November, assisting with the repatriation of inmates from Japanese prisoner-of-war camps. [20] On a mission to one such camp at Sendai, Burrell located crewmen from the light cruiser HMAS Perth, which had been sunk in the early hours of 1 March 1942 during the Battle of Sunda Strait; 320 of her complement of 680 survived the sinking, 105 dying in captivity. [19] [21]

Post-war career

Captain Burrell (right) and crew beside a Bristol Sycamore helicopter on HMAS Vengeance, c. 1954 305416Burrell1954.jpg
Captain Burrell (right) and crew beside a Bristol Sycamore helicopter on HMAS Vengeance, c. 1954

Burrell's first appointment following the cessation of hostilities was as commander of the 10th Destroyer Flotilla. [3] [5] He was promoted captain in June 1946, and became Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff (DCNS) that October. As DCNS, Burrell played a major role in establishing the Navy's Fleet Air Arm and preparing for the introduction of carrier-based aircraft. [1] He was appointed an aide-de-camp to Governor-General William McKell in July 1947. [22] From October 1948 to the end of 1949, Burrell served as commanding officer of the heavy cruiser HMAS Australia, flagship of the RAN. Posted to Britain in 1950, he attended the Imperial Defence College, London, and spent two years as Assistant Australian Defence Representative. [1] [3] He took command of the light aircraft carrier HMAS Vengeance on 2 December 1952, less than three weeks after she was commissioned into the RAN after transfer from the Royal Navy. The ship began working up for deployment to the Korean War in June 1953, but in the end her place was taken by the carrier HMAS Sydney. Vengeance was involved in a collision with HMAS Bataan near the Cocos Islands on 5 April 1954, while acting as part of the escort for the Royal Yacht of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip during their inaugural tour of Australia, but continued on duty. [23]


Completing his tour as captain of Vengeance, Burrell briefly resumed the role of Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff in August 1954. [1] The next month he was made an aide-de-camp to the Queen. [24] Burrell was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1955 New Year Honours. [25] In February he became Flag Officer of the Australian Fleet, with the acting rank of rear admiral; this was made substantive in July. [1] On 12 May 1956, he hoisted his standard aboard the recently arrived aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne, marking her replacement of sister ship HMAS Sydney as flagship of the RAN. [26] Burrell was posted soon afterwards to the Navy Office, Canberra, to redevelop the service's officer structure, leading to a new General List of officers' seniority. He served as Second Naval Member (Personnel) from September 1956 until January 1958, when he again became Flag Officer of the Australian Fleet. [1] Appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath in the 1959 New Years Honours, [27] Burrell was raised to vice admiral on 24 February and became First Naval Member, the Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS). [1] He succeeded Vice Admiral Sir Roy Dowling. [28]

HMAS Perth, first of the RAN's guided-missile destroyers ordered by Burrell, at sea in 1980 DDG-38.jpg
HMAS Perth, first of the RAN's guided-missile destroyers ordered by Burrell, at sea in 1980

As CNS, Vice Admiral Burrell had to contend with a threat by Defence Minister Athol Townley to disband the Navy's fixed-wing Fleet Air Arm capability by 1963, but gained approval for a major vessel re-equipment drive that was to include new submarines, destroyers, minesweepers, and auxiliaries. [29] This led among other things to the procurement of British Oberon-class submarines, selected by Burrell when his original preference for an Australian-built craft proved too expensive, as well as Ton-class minesweepers and the Navy's first purpose-designed hydrographic survey ship, HMAS Moresby. [5] [29] The re-equipment program also resulted in augmentation of the RAN's rotary-wing assets with Westland Wessex anti-submarine warfare helicopters. Most significant was the purchase of three Charles F. Adams-class guided-missile destroyers, [5] a decision of "ingenuity and forethought" on the part of Burrell and Navy Minister John Gorton, according to historian Tom Frame. [30] The CNS and his minister enjoyed a close working relationship; Burrell declared that Gorton "deserves our thanks for his efforts", and Gorton called Burrell "one of the most honest, sincere and most dedicated sailors". [31]

The purchase of the destroyers signalled a shift in reliance for equipment from Britain to the United States that was contrary to prevailing Australian defence policy at the time, particularly in what historian Jeffrey Grey described as "the most British of the Australian services, the RAN", and provoked pressure from the Royal Navy and UK shipbuilders, which had lobbied for purchase of their County-class destroyer. [5] [32] Burrell later declared that the superiority of the US weapons system was a key factor in his preference for the Adams design over the County class. [33] On a mission overseas to discuss trends and acquisitions in January 1960, he was rebuffed by Britain's Chief of the Defence Staff, Admiral of the Fleet Lord Louis Mountbatten, who mistakenly thought him responsible for the imminent dissolution of the RAN's Fleet Air Arm, but warmly welcomed by the US Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Arleigh Burke. [29] As it happened, Burrell would gain credit for maintaining the integrity of the FAA, [5] and its fixed-wing component remained viable until the early 1980s. [34] He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the Queen's Birthday Honours, gazetted on 3 June 1960. [35] In June 1961, he met with his opposite numbers in the Army and Air Force at a Chiefs of Staff Committee conference to discuss the necessity of Australia acquiring nuclear weapons; the chiefs agreed that the probability such a capability would be required was remote but that it should remain an option under certain circumstances, a position the defence forces maintained during the ensuing decade. [36]

Retirement

We will need a Navy as long as Australia remains an island—and the best place to fight, if unhappily that should be required, is as far from Australia as possible.

Henry Burrell as CNS, discussing naval air power [37]

Burrell made his farewell to the Australian Fleet aboard HMAS Melbourne at Jervis Bay on 8 February 1962. [38] He left the Navy on 23 February, and was succeeded as CNS by Vice Admiral Hastings Harrington. [1] [39] Burrell retired to Illogan Park, his property near Braidwood in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales. [1] His son Stuart followed him into the Royal Australian Naval College in 1963. [40] In retirement Burrell enjoyed horse racing as a gambler and as the owner of several successful mounts. [1] During the 1960s, he was also a member of the ACT Regional Selection Committee of the Winston Churchill Memorial Trusts. [41] [42]

Burrell suffered a serious heart attack in 1980, having been diagnosed with cardiac problems shortly after his retirement from the Navy. His wife Ada died in August 1981. [1] In 1986, Burrell published his memoirs as Mermaids Do Exist: The Autobiography of Vice-Admiral Sir Henry Burrell, reflecting on what he described as a "lucky" career, and offering his thoughts on maritime strategy. [13] [43] He died on 9 February 1988 in Woden Valley Hospital. Survived by his three children, Burrell was buried in Gungahlin, Australian Capital Territory, after a private funeral. [1] [13] The Burrell Cup doubles tennis trophy, established by the admiral in 1955, completed its 58th year of competition in March 2013. [44]

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Bateman, "Burrell, Sir Henry Mackay"
  2. 1 2 "Missile age "navy architect" retires". The Canberra Times . Canberra: National Library of Australia. 21 February 1962. p. 14. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Cadman, Who's Who in Australia 1988, p. 160
  4. "Burrell, Henry Mackay". World War 2 Nominal Roll. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Dennis et al., The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History, p. 117
  6. "Burrell, H M (Midshipmen, HMAS Sydney, RAN)". Australian War Memorial. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  7. Stevens, The Royal Australian Navy, p. 97
  8. Stevens, The Royal Australian Navy in World War II , p. 122
  9. 1 2 Stevens, The Royal Australian Navy, p. 60
  10. 1 2 Gill, Royal Australian Navy, 1939–1942, p. 56 Archived 17 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  11. Gill, Royal Australian Navy, 1939–1942, pp. 418–419 Archived 17 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  12. Stevens, The Royal Australian Navy, p. 116
  13. 1 2 3 "RAN loses a distinguished commander". The Canberra Times. Canberra: National Library of Australia. 10 February 1988. p. 13. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  14. 1 2 Gill, Royal Australian Navy, 1942–1945, p. 16 Archived 20 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  15. "HMAS Norman (I)". Royal Australian Navy. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  16. "Recommendation: Mention in Dispatches". Australian War Memorial. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  17. "No. 35915". The London Gazette (Supplement). 19 February 1943. p. 935.
  18. 1 2 Gill, Royal Australian Navy, 1942–1945, pp. 296–297 Archived 20 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  19. 1 2 Gill, Royal Australian Navy, 1942–1945, pp. 681–682 Archived 20 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  20. "HMAS Bataan". Royal Australian Navy. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  21. Gill, Royal Australian Navy, 1939–1942, pp. 620–622 Archived 20 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  22. Commonwealth of Australia (Navy Office) (October 1947). "The Navy List" (PDF). Melbourne. p. 39. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  23. "HMAS Vengeance". Royal Australian Navy. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  24. Commonwealth of Australia (Navy Office) (January 1955). "The Navy List" (PDF). Melbourne. p. 58. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  25. "No. 40367". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 1954. p. 39.
  26. "HMAS Melbourne (II)". Royal Australian Navy. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  27. "No. 41590". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 December 1958. p. 37.
  28. Rose, The Navy Miscellany, pp. 515–516
  29. 1 2 3 Stevens, The Royal Australian Navy, pp. 187–188
  30. Frame, No Pleasure Cruise, p. 284
  31. Hancock, John Gorton, pp. 90, 95
  32. Grey, Up Top, p. 21
  33. Jones; Goldrick, Struggling for a Solution, pp. 7–12
  34. "Helos take over (1984)". Fleet Air Arm Museum. Royal Australian Navy. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  35. "No. 42052". The London Gazette (Supplement). 3 June 1960. p. 4009.
  36. Stephens, Going Solo, p. 368
  37. Lewis, "An Argument for Australian Air Power at Sea"
  38. "HMAS Voyager (II)". Royal Australian Navy. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  39. "Vice Admiral Sir Wilfred Hastings Harrington". Royal Australian Navy. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  40. "Building a family tradition". The Canberra Times. Canberra: National Library of Australia. 2 February 1963. p. 2. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  41. "ANU head is trust choice". The Canberra Times. Canberra: National Library of Australia. 22 July 1965. p. 1. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  42. "Chairman appointed". The Canberra Times. Canberra: National Library of Australia. 18 June 1968. p. 1. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  43. "Lessons from a 'lucky' career". The Canberra Times. Canberra: National Library of Australia. 24 January 1987. p. 2. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  44. Brooke, Michael (14 March 2013). "Victory fine in theory". Navy News . p. 23. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.

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David Stevenson (admiral) officer of the Royal Australian Navy (1918-1998)

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Victor Smith Australian admiral, Chief of Naval Staff, Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee

Admiral Sir Victor Alfred Trumper Smith, was a senior officer in the Royal Australian Navy. Smith's career culminated with his appointment as Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee—forerunner of the role of Australia's Chief of the Defence Force—from 1970 to 1975, following an earlier term as Chief of Naval Staff from 1968 to 1970.

Otto Becher senior officer in the Royal Australian Navy

Rear Admiral Otto Humphrey Becher, & Bar was a senior officer in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Born in Harvey, Western Australia, Becher entered the Royal Australian Naval College in 1922. After graduating in 1926, he was posted to a series of staff and training positions prior to specialising in gunnery.

Vice Admiral Sir Guido James Willis was an officer in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) who rose to the rank of vice admiral. He joined the RAN in 1937, saw active service during World War II and the Korean War, and was Chief of Naval Staff (CNS) from 1979 to 1982 before retiring.

ANZAC Area

The ANZAC Area, also called the ANZAC Command, was a short-lived naval military command for Allied forces defending the northeast approaches to Australia including the Fiji Islands, New Hebrides, and New Caledonia during the early stages of the Pacific Campaign of World War II. The command was created on 27 January 1942. United States Navy Vice Admiral Herbert Fairfax Leary commanded the force. The force co-existed with the Allied ABDA command which was charged with defending Allied colonial territories in Southeast Asia and the Southwest Pacific from Imperial Japanese aggression.

The ANZAC Squadron, also called the Allied Naval Squadron, was an Allied naval warship task force which was tasked with defending northeast Australia and surrounding area in early 1942 during the Pacific Campaign of World War II. The squadron, consisting of cruisers and destroyers from the navies of Australia, New Zealand, and the United States was formed on February 12, 1942, under the command of Royal Navy Rear Admiral John Gregory Crace. The squadron was the primary fleet element operating in the ANZAC Area under the overall command of United States Navy Vice Admiral Herbert Fairfax Leary.

Task Force 44

Task Force 44 was an Allied naval task force during the Pacific Campaign of World War II. The task force consisted of warships from, mostly, the United States Navy and a few from the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). It was generally assigned as a striking force to defend northeast Australia and the surrounding area from any attacks by Axis forces, particularly from the Empire of Japan.

Vice Admiral Sir Wilfred Hastings "Arch" Harrington was a senior officer in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), who served as First Naval Member and Chief of the Naval Staff from 1962 to 1965.

Alan McNicoll Senior Royal Australian Navy officer and diplomat

Vice Admiral Sir Alan Wedel Ramsay McNicoll, was a senior officer in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) and a diplomat. Born in Melbourne, he entered the Royal Australian Naval College at the age of thirteen and graduated in 1926. Following training and staff appointments in Australia and the United Kingdom, he was attached to the Royal Navy at the outbreak of the Second World War. As torpedo officer of the 1st Submarine Flotilla in the Mediterranean theatre, McNicoll was decorated with the George Medal in 1941 for disarming enemy ordnance. He served aboard HMS King George V from 1942, sailing in support of several Arctic convoys and taking part in the Allied invasion of Sicily. McNicoll was posted for staff duties with the Admiralty from September 1943 and was involved in the planning of the Normandy landings. He returned to Australia in October 1944.

Vice Admiral Ian Warren Knox AC is a retired senior officer of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). In a 42-year career, Knox commanded HMA Ships Torrens, Hobart and Melbourne, briefly served as Deputy Chief of Naval Staff, and was Flag Officer Commanding HM Australian Fleet from 1985 to 1987. His career culminated with his appointment as Vice Chief of the Defence Force in January 1987; a position he held until his retirement in September 1989.

References

Further reading

Military offices
Preceded by
Vice Admiral Sir Roy Dowling
First Naval Member & Chief of Staff
1959–1962
Succeeded by
Vice Admiral Sir Hastings Harrington
Preceded by
Rear Admiral David Harries
Flag Officer Commanding HM Australian Fleet
1958–1959
Succeeded by
Rear Admiral Galfry Gatacre
Preceded by
Rear Admiral Roy Dowling
Flag Officer Commanding HM Australian Fleet
1955–1956
Succeeded by
Rear Admiral David Harries