Henry C. Wayne

Last updated

Henry C. Wayne
General Henry C. Wayne.jpg
Henry C. Wayne, Confederate Brigadier General, Adjutant and Inspector-General in the Confederate Service
Born(1815-09-18)September 18, 1815
Savannah, Georgia
DiedMarch 15, 1883(1883-03-15) (aged 67)
Savannah, Georgia
Allegiance Flag of the United States (1837-1845).svg United States of America
Flag of the Confederate States of America (1865).svg Confederate States of America
Service/branchFlag of the United States Army.svg  United States Army
Battle flag of the Confederate States of America.svg  Confederate States Army
Years of service1838-1860 (USA)
1861-1865 (CSA)
Rank Union army maj rank insignia.jpg Brevet Major (USA)
Brigadier General (CSA)
Battles/wars Aroostook War
Mexican-American War American Civil War

Henry Constantine Wayne (September 18, 1815 March 15, 1883) was a United States Army officer, and is known for his commanding the expedition to test the U.S. Camel Corps as part of Secretary of War Jefferson Davis's plan to use camels as a transport in the West. Wayne was also a Confederate adjutant and inspector-general for Georgia and a brigadier general during the American Civil War.


Early life and career

Henry Wayne was the son of U.S. Supreme Court Justice James Moore Wayne. He graduated from West Point in 1838 and joined the artillery as a second lieutenant. [1] Later in that year Wayne participated in the Aroostook War over the boundary of Maine. [2]

In 1841, he became the assistant instructor of artillery and cavalry at West Point . [1] Henry became a first lieutenant in 1842. [3] From 1843 to 1846 he was the first military member to serve as Master of the Sword at the academy.

When the United States declared war on Mexico, Wayne joined the troops to fight. He was brevetted a major for his bravery at the Battles of Contreras and Churubusco. [3]

U.S. Camel Corps

After the Mexican-American War, Henry Wayne befriended George H. Crosman. [4] Crossman brought up his idea of using camels for transportation of people and supplies in the newly conquered American Southwest. [4] Wayne relayed this idea to Senator Jefferson Davis; and when Davis became Secretary of War on 1853, he urged Congress to pass a bill to experiment with the camels.[ clarification needed ] Wayne was chosen to lead an expedition to the Middle East to purchase $30,000 worth of camels. [5] The group sailed to London on the USS Supply to examine camels in zoos. They then journeyed to Italy and met Grand Duke Leopold II to see his 250 camels that were said to be able to do the work of 1000 horses. They then purchased thirty-three camels: three in Tunisia, nine in Egypt, and twenty-one in Turkey. [5] When the group arrived back, they experimented with the animals in the deserts of the western United States. Forty-one more camels would arrive later to join the corps. Congress, on the request of the Department of War, proposed a bill to buy 1,000 more camels, but the start of the Civil War quickly ended the debate . [5] The experiments were also ended with the start of the Civil War, and the remaining camels were either sold or released into the wild. [4]

Civil War service

Wayne resigned his commission after receiving the results of Abraham Lincoln's victory in the presidential election. He joined the Confederate Army and was appointed the adjutant and inspector-general of Georgia by Governor Joseph E. Brown, [3] where he was responsible for putting the army of Georgia into order in companies, regiments, and brigades. He also commanded Georgia's Quartermaster General, Ira Roe Foster, to immediately provide supplies for the troops, instructing Foster to "proceed personally, or by duly accredited agents, into all parts of the state, and buy 25,000 suits of clothes and 25,000 pairs of shoes [6] for the destitute Ga. troops in the Confederate service." [7] On December 16, 1861, Wayne was commissioned a brigadier general. [3] Through his orders, the men of Georgia guarded the crossings of Chattahoochee River. After being ordered to Manassas, Virginia, Wayne resigned his commission as a brigadier general and he instead just stuck to his duties as adjutant and inspector-general until the end of the war. Although, he did briefly see action during the Savannah Campaign (Sherman's March to the Sea). He commanded Confederate troops at the Battle of Ball's Ferry November 23–26, 1864. In this action, he was unsuccessful in stopping Union forces from crossing the Oconee River in Wilkinson County, GA. [3] [8]

Awards and books

Wayne received the First Class Gold Medal of Mammal Division by the Société impériale zoologique d'acclimatation of France in 1858 for his introduction of the camel into the United States. [9] That same year, he was elected to the American Philosophical Society. [10] In 1856 he wrote The Sword Exercise, arranged for Military Instruction. [2]

See also


  1. 1 2 Thomas Cushing's Memorials of the Class of 1834 of Harvard College: Prepared for the Fiftieth Anniversary of Their Graduation (1884) pgs. 108-09
  2. 1 2 John Fiske's Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography (1889) pg. 400
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Ezra J. Warner's Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders (1959) pg. 329
  4. 1 2 3 John Walker Guss's Savannah's Laurel Grove Cemetery (2004) pg. 58
  5. 1 2 3 Byron Farwell's The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View (2001) pg. 154
  6. 3rd Georgia equipment - Picture of Brogans (shoes)
  7. Thomas Conn Bryan (September 1, 2009). Confederate Georgia. University of Georgia Press. p. 28. ISBN   978-0-8203-3499-8.
  8. Thompson Sr., Scott B. "THE BATTLE OF BALLS FERRY, GEORGIA". Archived from the original on January 7, 2007. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
  9. Thomas William Herringshaw's Herringshaw's National Library of American Biography (1914) pg. 620
  10. "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved January 5, 2021.

Related Research Articles

James H. Wilson

James Harrison Wilson was a United States Army topographic engineer and a Union Army Major General in the American Civil War. He served as an aide to Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan during the Maryland Campaign before joining Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's army in the Western Theater, where he was promoted to brigadier general. In 1864, he transferred from engineering to the cavalry, where he displayed notable leadership in many engagements of the Overland Campaign, though his attempt to destroy Lee’s supply lines failed when he was routed by a much smaller force of Confederate irregulars.

Henry R. Jackson American diplomat

Henry Rootes Jackson was a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.

Alexander Lawton American diplomat

Alexander Robert Lawton was a lawyer, politician, diplomat, and brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.

Moxley Sorrel

Gilbert Moxley Sorrel was a staff officer and Brigadier General in the Provisional Army of the Confederate States.

Hugh W. Mercer Confederate General in the American Civil War

Hugh Weedon Mercer was an officer in the United States Army and then a Confederate general during the American Civil War.

Robert H. Anderson United States Army and Confederate States Army officer

Robert Houstoun Anderson was a West Point graduate, an infantry officer in the United States Army and later served as a Brigadier General in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, After the war he served as the Chief of the Police for the city of Savannah for 23 years and was twice appointed to serve on the Visitor's Board of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, NY. He played an important role with reunification efforts after the war.

Bryan M. Thomas

Bryan Morel Thomas was an American soldier, farmer, marshal, and educator. He served as an officer in the United States Army, and later in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He was a son-in-law of Jones M. Withers, under whom Thomas would serve in the war. Thomas also participated in and was captured during the 1865 Battle of Fort Blakely, the conflict's final infantry fight.

Robert H. Chilton

Robert Hall Chilton was an officer in the U.S. Army and then a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He served as chief of staff for the Army of Northern Virginia under Robert E. Lee for much of the war.

Arthur Middleton Manigault

Arthur Middleton Manigault was a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.

William W. Allen

William Wirt Allen was a Brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He rose through the ranks to command a division in the Cavalry Corps of the Army of Tennessee in the last days of the war.

William Duncan Smith

William Duncan Smith was a career United States Army officer who fought in the Mexican–American War. Later he served as a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and he died in the second year of the war from yellow fever.

John H. Kelly

John Herbert Kelly was, at the time of his promotion, the youngest brigadier general in the Confederate States Army. He became one of the youngest generals to die during the American Civil War, at the age of 24. His death occurred during an engagement at Franklin, Tennessee on September 2, 1864 during Major General Joseph Wheeler's raid into Tennessee in August and early September 1864 in an attempt to destroy the railroad that Union Army Major General William Tecumseh Sherman was using to supply his force from Chattanooga, Tennessee during the Atlanta Campaign.

James Argyle Smith

James Argyle Smith was a United States Army officer, and a graduate of West Point. He is known for being a Confederate brigadier general during the Civil War, his works in the educational system in Mississippi, and in the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

John Creed Moore

John Creed Moore was a United States Army officer and a graduate of West Point. He is known for being a Confederate brigadier general during the Civil War and his works in the Texas educational system.

William Mackey Wherry was an American author, soldier and recipient of the Medal of Honor,

Reuben Walker Carswell was a lawyer, member of the Georgia State Legislature, Confederate States Army lieutenant colonel and brigadier general in the Georgia militia during the American Civil War, and, after the war, a lawyer and judge.

Albert Cresswell Garlington was a brigadier general in the South Carolina Militia, who served along with the Confederate States Army in South Carolina at various times during the American Civil War. He was initially responsible for coastal defenses and militia in South Carolina, and then for training state troops. He briefly served as a major of the Holcombe Legion, a South Carolina unit guarding the coast in South Carolina for the Confederate States Army. After he resigned his commission on May 21, 1862, he served as state adjutant general and inspector general. Garlington again served as a brigadier general of militia in the Carolinas Campaign of late 1864 and early 1865.

George Paul Harrison Sr. was a brigadier general in the Georgia militia from 1856–1861, commander of the 1st Brigade in the Georgia State Troops and a colonel in Georgia's First Military District in 1864–1865 during the American Civil War. He was a prisoner of war for several months near the end of the war.

Thomas H. McCray

Thomas Hamilton McCray was an American inventor, a businessman and a Confederate States Army officer during the American Civil War.