Henry Edward Fox

Last updated
Henry Fox
Henry Edward Fox.jpg
Henry Fox
Born4 March 1755
Died18 July 1811(1811-07-18) (aged 56)
Allegiance Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Rank General
Battles/wars American Revolutionary War
French Revolutionary Wars
Irish Rebellion of 1803
Spouse(s)Marianne Clayton
Relations Henry Stephen Fox (son)
Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland (father)
Lady Caroline Lennox (mother)
Canting arms of Fox, Baron Holland: Ermine, on a chevron azure three fox's heads and necks erased or on a canton of the second a fleur-de-lys of the third Fox (BaronHolland) Arms.png
Canting arms of Fox, Baron Holland: Ermine, on a chevron azure three fox's heads and necks erased or on a canton of the second a fleur-de-lys of the third

General Henry Edward Fox (4 March 1755 – 18 July 1811) was a British Army general who served brief spells as Governor of Minorca and Governor of Gibraltar.

Contents

Family

He was a son of Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland and Lady Caroline Lennox (1723-1774), and a younger brother of the politician Charles James Fox (1749–1806). His mother's father was Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond (1701-1750), an illegitimate grandson of King Charles II.

Life

He attended Westminster School before being commissioned as a cornet in the 1st dragoon guards in 1770. Soon after that he spent 1 year's leave at the military academy at Strasbourg. After his return he rose to lieutenant (1773) then captain (1774).

American War of Independence

In 1773 he moved to the 38th Regiment of Foot, stationed at Boston, and fought in the American War of Independence (spending 1778-79 on leave in England). By the end of the war he had risen to colonel and king's aide-de-camp, and he then moved to command the forces in Nova Scotia (1783–89), where he was influential in the creation of the new colony of New Brunswick, and then the Chatham barracks (1789–93).

Later career

Next he was quartermaster-general on the duke of York's staff in Flanders to replace the recently killed James Moncrieff (1793–95) and fought in the Netherlands theatre of the French Revolutionary Wars. He then served as Inspector-General of the recruiting service (1795–99), Colonel of the 10th (North Lincolnshire) Regiment (1795–1811), Lieutenant-governor of Minorca (1799–1801) following its capture from the French, commander in chief of all British Mediterranean forces outside Gibraltar (1801–03, replacing General Sir Ralph Abercromby fatally wounded at the battle of Alexandria) and finally Commander-in-Chief, Ireland (1803). In Ireland he was caught off-guard by Robert Emmet's Dublin uprising (23 July 1803) and was quickly replaced by Lieutenant-General Cathcart, whose appointment was gazetted on 20 October.

Fox moved to be commander of the London district (1803), Lieutenant-Governor of Gibraltar (1804–06), Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean (1806–07) and minister to Sicily. With his health weakening, Fox passed active command of the force to his deputy, Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore. The smallness of his force (made yet smaller when Major-General Mackenzie Fraser was sent to occupy Alexandria) meant he refused the repeated requests from the Sicilian court and William Drummond, British minister at the Sicilian court, for land operations on the Italian mainland. Fox and Moore also opposed the naval commander William Sidney Smith's political machinations at the Sicilian court, contrary as they were to the army's tactics for the Italian theatre, until Fox's ill health finally led to his being recalled by the British government and replaced by Moore. Fox was promoted full general on 25 April 1808, appointed governor of Portsmouth in 1810 and died the following year.

Marriage and issue

On 14 November 1786 he married Marianne Clayton, daughter of William Clayton, 4th Baronet and sister of Catherine, Lady Howard de Walden, and they had 3 children

Military offices
Preceded by
Sir Robert Murray Keith
Colonel of the 10th (the North Lincolnshire) Regiment of Foot
1795–1811
Succeeded by
Sir Thomas Maitland
Preceded by
Sir William Medows
Commander-in-Chief, Ireland
1803
Succeeded by
Earl Cathcart
Preceded by
Thomas Trigge
(acting)
Governor of Gibraltar
(acting)

1804–1806
Succeeded by
Sir Hew Dalrymple
Preceded by
Sir William Pitt
Governor of Portsmouth
1810–1811
Succeeded by
The Earl Harcourt

Related Research Articles

Ralph Abercromby 18th-century Scottish soldier and politician

Sir Ralph Abercromby was a Scottish soldier and politician. He twice served as MP for Clackmannanshire, rose to the rank of lieutenant-general in the British Army, was appointed Governor of Trinidad, served as Commander-in-Chief, Ireland, and was noted for his services during the French Revolutionary Wars.

James Henry Craig

General Sir James Henry Craig KB was a British military officer and colonial administrator.

Sir Henry Edward Bunbury, KCB, 7th Baronet was a British soldier and historian.

Sir George Nugent, 1st Baronet

Sir George Nugent, 1st Baronet, GCB was a British Army officer. After serving as a junior officer in the American Revolutionary War, he fought with the Coldstream Guards under the Duke of York during the Flanders Campaign. He then commanded the Buckinghamshire Volunteers in the actions of St. Andria and Thuyl on the river Waal and participated in the disastrous retreat from the Rhine. He went on to be commander of the northern district of Ireland, in which post he played an important part in placating the people of Belfast during the Irish Rebellion, and then became Adjutant-General in Ireland. He went on to be Governor of Jamaica, commander of the Western District in England, commander of the Kent District in England and finally Commander-in-Chief, India.

Commander-in-Chief, Ireland was title of the commander of the British forces in Ireland before 1922. Until the Act of Union in 1800, the position involved command of the distinct Irish Army of the Kingdom of Ireland.

Eyre Coote (British Army officer)

Sir Eyre Coote was an Irish-born British soldier and politician who served as Governor of Jamaica. He attained the rank of general in the British Army and was created a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath before being stripped of his rank and honours in 1816 after conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman.

Governor of Bermuda

The Governor of Bermuda is the representative of the British monarch in the British overseas territory of Bermuda.

Lieutenant-General Sir William Stewart, GCB was a British military officer who was the first Commanding Officer of the Rifle Corps, a Division Commander in the Peninsular War and a Scottish Member of Parliament (MP) in the British Parliament.

John Cradock, 1st Baron Howden British peer, politician and soldier

General John Francis Cradock, 1st Baron Howden was a British peer, politician and soldier.

Hew Whitefoord Dalrymple

General Sir Hew Whitefoord Dalrymple, 1st Baronet was a Scottish general in the British Army and Governor of Gibraltar.

The Faulknor family was an English family from Northamptonshire, of which several generations served as officers in the Royal Navy.

Captain Sir Charles Marsh Schomberg was an officer of the British Royal Navy, who served during French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and later served as Lieutenant-Governor of Dominica.

Henry Edward Napier

Henry Edward Napier was a British naval officer and historian.

John Stewart, 7th Earl of Galloway

John Stewart, 7th Earl of Galloway was a Scottish peer, styled Viscount Garlies from 1747 until 1773, who became the 7th Earl of Galloway in 1773 and who served as a Member of Parliament from 1761 to 1773.

Robert Boyd (British Army officer)

Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Boyd KB was a British Army officer.

George Stewart, 8th Earl of Galloway

Admiral George Stewart, 8th Earl of Galloway, styled Lord Garlies between 1773 and 1806, was a British naval commander and politician.

General Sir William Houston, 1st BaronetKC was a General in the British Army and the Governor of Gibraltar.

Lieutenant-General Sir James Frederick Lyon was an distinguished officer of the British Army who served as Governor of Barbados from 1829 to 1833.

Sir Thomas Rich, 5th Baronet

Admiral Sir Thomas Rich, 5th Baronet was a British naval officer and Member of Parliament.