The Lord Holland
|Leader of the House of Commons|
26 May 1762 –16 April 1763
|Prime Minister||The Earl of Bute|
|Preceded by||George Grenville|
|Succeeded by||George Grenville|
14 November 1755 –13 November 1756
|Prime Minister||The Duke of Newcastle|
|Preceded by||Thomas Robinson|
|Succeeded by||William Pitt|
|Paymaster of the Forces|
2 July 1757 –13 July 1765
|Monarch|| George II |
|Prime Minister|| The Duke of Newcastle |
The Earl of Bute
|Preceded by|| Viscount Dupplin |
|Succeeded by||Charles Townshend|
|Secretary of State for the Southern Department|
14 November 1755 –13 November 1756
|Prime Minister||The Duke of Newcastle|
|Preceded by||Thomas Robinson|
|Succeeded by||William Pitt|
|Secretary at War|
|Prime Minister|| Henry Pelham |
The Duke of Newcastle
|Preceded by||Thomas Winnington|
|Succeeded by||The Viscount Barrington|
|Born||28 September 1705|
|Died||1 July 1774 68) (aged|
Holland House, Kensington, Middlesex, England
Lady Caroline Lennox (m. 1744)
Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, PC (28 September 1705 – 1 July 1774), of Holland House in Kensington and of Holland House in Kingsgate, Kent, was a leading British politician. He identified primarily with the Whig faction. He held the posts of Secretary at War, Southern Secretary and Paymaster of the Forces, from which latter post he enriched himself. Whilst widely tipped as a future Prime Minister, he never held that office. His third son was the Whig statesman Charles James Fox.
Holland House, originally known as Cope Castle, was an early Jacobean country house in Kensington, London, situated in a country estate that is now Holland Park. It was built in 1605 by the diplomat Sir Walter Cope. The building later passed by marriage to Henry Rich, 1st Baron Kensington, 1st Earl of Holland, and by descent through the Rich family, then became the property of the Fox family, during which time it became a noted gathering-place for Whigs in the 19th century. The house was largely destroyed by German firebombing during the Blitz in 1940 and today only the east wing and some ruins of the ground floor and south facade remain, along with various outbuildings and formal gardens. In 1949 the ruin was designated a grade I listed building and it is now owned by the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea.
Kensington is an affluent district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in the West End of central London.
Holland House, Kingsgate, in Kent, is a Georgian country house built between 1762 and 1768 as his retirement home by the politician Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland (1705-1774), of Holland House in Kensington. It is a Grade II listed building.
He was the second son of Sir Stephen Fox and his second wife the former Christiana Hope, and inherited a large share of his father's wealth. He squandered most of it soon after attaining his majority, and went to Continental Europe to escape from his creditors. There he made the acquaintance of a woman of fortune, who became his patroness and was so generous to him that, after several years’ absence, he was in a position to return home.
Sir Stephen Fox of Farley in Wiltshire, of Redlynch Park in Somerset, of Chiswick, Middlesex and of Whitehall, was a royal administrator and courtier to King Charles II, and a politician, who rose from humble origins to become the "richest commoner in the three kingdoms". He made the foundation of his wealth from his tenure of the newly created office of Paymaster-General of His Majesty's Forces, which he held twice, in 1661–1676 and 1679–1680. He was the principal force of inspiration behind the founding of the Royal Hospital Chelsea, to which he contributed £13,000.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also be referred to ambiguously as the European continent – which can conversely mean the whole of Europe – and by Europeans, simply the Continent.
In 1744 he eloped with and married the much younger Lady Caroline Lennox (1723–1774), the eldest daughter of Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond (1701–1750), an illegitimate grandson of King Charles II. The marriage caused a great scandal in high society.She was later created Baroness Holland, "of Holland in the County of Lincoln". To his wife he bequeathed £2,000 per annum, with Holland House, Kensington, his plate, etc., but charged with various other legacies. As his residuary legatee it was estimated that she would be worth £120,000 in government securities, besides her jointure. However, she did not long survive him. By his wife he had children including:
Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, 2nd Duke of Lennox, 2nd Duke of Aubigny, was a British nobleman, peer, and politician. He was the son of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, an illegitimate son of King Charles II. He held a number of posts in connection with his high office but is best remembered for his patronage of cricket. He has been described as the most important of the sport's early patrons and did much to help its evolution from village cricket to first-class cricket.
Stephen Fox, 2nd Baron Holland of Holland House in Kensington, Middlesex, was a British peer.
Charles James Fox, styled The Honourable from 1762, was a prominent British Whig statesman whose parliamentary career spanned 38 years of the late 18th and early 19th centuries and who was the arch-rival of William Pitt the Younger. His father Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, a leading Whig of his day, had similarly been the great rival of Pitt's famous father William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. He rose to prominence in the House of Commons as a forceful and eloquent speaker with a notorious and colourful private life, though his opinions were rather conservative and conventional. However, with the coming of the American War of Independence and the influence of the Whig Edmund Burke, Fox's opinions evolved into some of the most radical ever to be aired in the Parliament of his era.
General Henry Edward Fox was a British Army general. He also served brief spells as Governor of Minorca and Governor of Gibraltar.
In 1735 he entered Parliament as Member for Hindon in Wiltshire. He became a protégé and devoted supporter of Sir Robert Walpole, the long-standing Prime Minister, achieving unequalled and unenviable proficiency in the worst political arts of his master and model. He earned particular notice with a speech in parliament calling on Britain to support its European allies, principally Austria.He generally aligned with the government Whigs rather than the Patriot Whig faction that opposed them. Until 1742 this meant the government of Walpole, but afterward. it was the government (1743–1754) of Henry Pelham to which he lent his support.
Hindon was a parliamentary borough consisting of the village of Hindon in Wiltshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1448 until 1832, when the borough was abolished by the Great Reform Act. It was one of the most notoriously corrupt of the rotten boroughs, and bills to disfranchise Hindon were debated in Parliament on two occasions before its eventual abolition.
Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of 3,485 km2. It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Somerset, Hampshire, Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire and Berkshire. The county town was originally Wilton, after which the county is named, but Wiltshire Council is now based in the county town of Trowbridge.
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford,, known between 1725 and 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British politician who is generally regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.
A skilled speaker, he was able to hold his own against Pitt himself. This helped him progress in the House of Commons, becoming an indispensable member of several administrations. He served as Surveyor-General of Works from 1737 to 1742, as Member for Windsor from 1741 to 1761 and as a Lord of the Treasury in 1743.
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, was a British statesman of the Whig group who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain in the middle of the 18th century. Historians call him Pitt of Chatham, or William Pitt the Elder, to distinguish him from his son, William Pitt the Younger, who also was a prime minister. Pitt was also known as The Great Commoner, because of his long-standing refusal to accept a title until 1766.
The House of Commons of Great Britain was the lower house of the Parliament of Great Britain between 1707 and 1801. In 1707, as a result of the Acts of Union of that year, it replaced the House of Commons of England and the third estate of the Parliament of Scotland, as one of the most significant changes brought about by the Union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Windsor is a historic market town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England. It is widely known as the site of Windsor Castle, one of the official residences of the British Royal Family.
He had eloped with and married the much younger Lady Caroline Lennox, daughter of the Duke of Richmond, in 1744. She was later created Baroness Holland, of Holland in the County of Lincoln. The noted Whig politicians Charles James Fox and the 3rd Baron Holland were his son and grandson, respectively. Another son was the general Henry Edward Fox. He was known for his tendency to spoil his children, whom he allowed to mingle with the numerous public figures who came to dine at the Fox household.Charles would later grow up to be a politician of equal note to his father, many of whose policies and friendships he subsequently adopted although he tended more toward radicalism than the elder Fox.
Fox was appointed Secretary at War and member of the Privy Council in 1746, at a time when Britain was engaged in the War of the Austrian Succession. At the time much of the nation's foreign policy was dominated by the Duke of Newcastle, who also served as a de facto Defence Minister, with Fox acting largely as a deputy and being called upon to defend the government's defence policy in the House of Commons.
During these years he became a close friend and confidante of the Duke of Cumberland, the King's third and youngest son, who had become notorious in Britain for his suppression of the Jacobite rebellion of 1745 after the Battle of Culloden. He had also gained fame on the Continent as military commander of Britain's forces there. He had built himself a notable political following in London and, perhaps most importantly to Fox, offered a channel of communication to King George II of Great Britain. Fox soon grew to be a favourite of George II as well, who would in the future support his inclusion in governments in much the same way he would oppose Pitt's membership.
By the early 1750s, Fox and Pitt were both viewed as likely future leaders of the country. This pushed their rivalry to yet further lengths. Fox through his office as War Secretary was closer to the top office while Pitt languished in opposition. In 1754, the sudden death of Pelham brought their rivalry to a head. The new Prime Minister, Pelham's brother, the Duke of Newcastle, needed a strong figure to represent him in the House of Commons. This job would command immense prestige and influence, and Pitt and Fox were considered the outstanding favourites to attain it.
Newcastle, fearing the relentless ambitions of both men, ultimately chose neither and instead selected Sir Thomas Robinson. To try to assuage Fox, Newcastle had first offered the post to him but with unacceptable conditions attached so that Fox would refuse the post, allowing Newcastle to offer it to his favoured candidate, Robinson.
Robinson, who was considered a nonentity, was poorly equipped to the task and struggled to defend the government from the strident attacks it now came under from Fox and Pitt, who were both angry at being spurned. By this point the government was facing a serious situation in America and Newcastle began to consider more seriously an alliance with either Pitt or Fox. Ultimately, he chose Fox in the belief that Pitt could be controlled less easily.
Forced into the move by circumstances beyond his control Newcastle agreed the terms of the partnership with Fox. In 1755 Fox was given the dual roles of Leader of the House of Commons and Southern Secretary. The alliance between them was seen as the only way to forestall a similar proposed government including Pitt, who was considered a bitter enemy of both men. Newcastle could scarcely contain his growing distate for Fox, who he considered grasping.Fox was heavily influenced by Cumberland, who favoured a strong response to a dispute with the French in the Ohio Country. The two men forced the policy on a more reluctant Newcastle.
It was decided to despatch a large British force under the command of Edward Braddock to America to drive the French out of Ohio and occupy the lands for Britain. Braddock's column met with disaster in July 1755 and when news of this reached London, the pressure increased on Newcastle and Fox. Pitt mocked the inept handling of the crisis and suggested Britain was ill-prepared for a major war that might break out with the French over the issue. Ultimately war broke out with France the following year over the issue of its invasion of Prussia rather than the North American situation. Fox and Newcastle, realising that Menorca was severely vulnerable to a French attack, despatched a naval force to relieve the island.
The fleet was unable to prevent the Fall of Menorca, leading to a major public outburst against both its commander, Admiral Sir John Byng, and the government. Fox and Newcastle initiated a prosecution against Byng by accusing him of cowardice. Byng was later shot after a court martial for "failing to do his utmost", a verdict that opponents of the government saw as a move to protect Newcastle and Fox from censure.Fox feared that he himself would be made the "scapegoat" blamed Newcastle for not giving Byng enough ships. On 13 October 1756, Fox resigned, fatally weakening Newcastle, whose ministry collapsed completely that November.
He was replaced by a government dominated by Pitt. However, Pitt had little control over most MPs and struggled to control the House of Commons. After a few months, the government collapsed in April 1757.The King wanted Newcastle and Fox to return, restoring their previous government, but by now, Newcastle felt a bitter hatred towards Fox over the Byng Affair, and refused to serve with him. A three-month spell followed in which Britain's war effort was essentially leaderless. With the continued support of Cumberland, Fox retained high hopes of gaining the premiership. However, he could not come to a necessary agreement with either Pitt or Newcastle. In mid-summer, Pitt and Newcastle defied expectations, and formed a political partnership. Left out in the cold by this, Fox now turned his attentions instead to attaining a profitable position.
In 1757, in the rearrangements of the government, Fox was ultimately excluded from the Cabinet and given the post of Paymaster of the Forces. The office of Paymaster of the Forces had a continuous history from 1662, when Henry Fox's own father, Sir Stephen Fox, had been the first tenant. Before his time, it had been the custom to appoint Treasurers at War ad hoc for specific campaigns; the practice of the Protectorate Government foreshadowed, however, a permanent office. Within a generation of the Restoration, the status of the Paymastership began to change. In 1692, the Paymaster, the Earl of Ranelagh, was sworn of the privy council; and thereafter, every Paymaster or, when there were two Paymastesr, at least one of them, was sworn of the council if not already a member. From the accession of Queen Anne, the Paymaster tended to change with the Ministry, and 18th century appointments must be considered as made not upon merit alone but by merit and political affiliation, the office becoming a political prize and perhaps potentially the most lucrative that a parliamentary career had to offer.During the war, Fox devoted himself mainly to accumulating a vast fortune. The British army expanded a great deal during these years giving him further scope for irregularities. He was by some estimates calculated to have amassed £400,000 in his eight years in the office, an average of £50,000 a year. Around 1760 he built the original Kingsgate Castle near Broadstairs, Kent, of which only the tower now remains.
In 1762, he again accepted the leadership of the House, with a seat in the Cabinet, under Lord Bute and managed to induce the House of Commons to approve of the Treaty of Paris; as a reward, he was raised to the House of Lords as Baron Holland of Foxley in the County of Wilts, on 16 April 1763.
In 1765, Fox was forced to resign the Paymaster Generalship, and four years later, a petition of the Livery of the City of London delivered by the Lord Mayor of London William Beckford against the Ministers referred to him as "the public defaulter of unaccounted millions".
It was not the first time that he had been attacked on the financial conduct of his office. In 1763, in a debate opened by Sir John Phillips, William Aislabie had raised much the same issue in the Commons and was received with 'loud marks of approbation';but on this occasion, little public attention was aroused, and 1769 was the first time that it was taken up with vigour and outside parliament. The City's address, like a Middlesex petition of the previous month, echoed charges made in the Commons when Alderman Beckford, the mouthpiece of many popular causes, had asserted that more than forty millions of public money remained unaccounted for in the army Pay Office and that legal process in regard to this had been issued from the exchequer but had been suspended by the king's signed manual warrant. Beckford had called upon members of the Treasury Board then present to correct him if he had been misinformed, but not a word had been uttered.
The proceedings brought against him in the Court of Exchequer were delayed by a Royal Warrant; and he proved that in the delays in making up the accounts of his office, he had not broken the law. From the interest on the outstanding balances, he had nonetheless amassed a fortune.
He tried in vain to obtain promotion to an earldom, a title on which he had set his heart, and he died at Holland House, Kensington, a sorely disappointed man, with a reputation for cunning and unscrupulousness, the most unpopular politician of his day.
When Fox had first arrived on the political scene, many had considered him as the greatest politician of his generation. Many saw him as a future Prime Minister, who could lead a revolution of the "New Whigs" against the old-style patriarchy of men like the Duke of Newcastle. In 1755 he had disappointed them first by making an alliance with Newcastle, and then in 1757 by turning his back on serious politics by accepting the Paymaster General post, a lucrative but unimportant post that signalled to many he was no longer a serious contender for high office. Rumours that he had misappropriated £400,000 during his eight years in the job did little to help his reputation as vain and mercenary. Most depictions in popular culture have portrayed him in such a light.
His son Charles James Fox also became a leading light in the Whig party and many too considered him a future national leader. Fox, however, became associated with much the same sort of figures as his father had. In a strange parallel he was frustrated in his bid to become Prime Minister by that of Pitt's younger son William Pitt the Younger who held the office for twenty years continuously, leaving Fox out in the wilderness in much the same way the Elder Pitt had done to Henry Fox.
In the 1999 British television series Aristocrats depicting the lives of the wealthy Lennox family during the 18th century, Fox was portrayed by Alun Armstrong.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Between the 1680s and 1850s, they contested power with their rivals, the Tories. The Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute monarchy. The Whigs played a central role in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and were the standing enemies of the Stuart kings and pretenders, who were Roman Catholic. The Whigs took full control of the government in 1715 and remained totally dominant until King George III, coming to the throne in 1760, allowed Tories back in. The Whig Supremacy (1715–1760) was enabled by the Hanoverian succession of George I in 1714 and the failed Jacobite rising of 1715 by Tory rebels. The Whigs thoroughly purged the Tories from all major positions in government, the army, the Church of England, the legal profession and local offices. The Party's hold on power was so strong and durable, historians call the period from roughly 1714 to 1783 the age of the Whig Oligarchy. The first great leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government through the period 1721–1742 and whose protégé Henry Pelham led from 1743 to 1754.
William Wildman Shute Barrington, 2nd Viscount Barrington, PC was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons for 38 years from 1740 to 1778. He was best known for his two periods as Secretary at War during Britain's involvement in the Seven Years War and American War of Independence.
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Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford,, better known by his courtesy title Lord North, which he used from 1752 to 1790, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782. He led Great Britain through most of the American War of Independence. He also held a number of other cabinet posts, including Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer.
William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, was a British Pittite Tory and politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1806 to 1807, though he was a supporter of the British Whig Party for the duration of the Napoleonic Wars.
William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire,, styled Lord Cavendish before 1729 and Marquess of Hartington between 1729 and 1755, was a British Whig statesman and nobleman who was briefly nominal Prime Minister of Great Britain. He was the first son of William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire and his wife, the former Catherine Hoskins.
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Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington, was a British Whig statesman who served continuously in government from 1715 until his death. He sat in the English and British House of Commons between 1698 and 1728, and was then raised to the peerage and sat in the House of Lords. He served as the Prime Minister from 1742 until his death in 1743. He is considered to have been Britain's second Prime Minister, after Sir Robert Walpole, but worked closely with the Secretary of State, Lord Carteret, in order to secure the support of the various factions making up the Government.
Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke, was an English lawyer and politician who served as Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain. He was a close confidant of the Duke of Newcastle, Prime Minister between 1754 and 1756 and 1757 until 1762.
Charles Noel Somerset, later 4th Duke of Beaufort, was a British Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1731 until 1745 when he succeeded to the peerage as Duke of Beaufort.
The article lists the records of Prime Ministers of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom since 1721.
Cambridge University was a university constituency electing two members to the British House of Commons, from 1603 to 1950.
The Patriot Whigs and, later Patriot Party, were a group within the Whig party in Great Britain from 1725 to 1803. The group was formed in opposition to the ministry of Robert Walpole in the House of Commons in 1725, when William Pulteney and seventeen other Whigs joined with the Tory party in attacks against the ministry. By the middle of the 1730s, there were over one hundred opposition Whigs in the Commons, many of whom embraced the Patriot label. For many years they provided a more effective opposition to the Walpole administration than the Tories.
The Kingdom of Great Britain was governed by a caretaker government between April and June 1757, after the dismissal of William Pitt led to the end of the Pitt–Devonshire ministry during the Seven Years' War. William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire, continued as the nominal head of government.
Events from the year 1757 in Great Britain.
The Cobhamite faction were an 18th-century British political faction built around Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham and his supporters. Among its members, the group included the future Prime Ministers William Pitt and George Grenville. They had a general Whig philosophy and were at first supporters of Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole but later became opponents of his administration.
In British politics, a Whig government may refer to the following governments administered by the Whigs:
|Parliament of Great Britain|
| Member of Parliament for Hindon |
With: George Fox
Lord Sidney Beauclerk
Lord Vere Beauclerk
| Member of Parliament for Windsor |
With: Lord Sidney Beauclerk 1741–1744
Lord George Beauclerk 1744–1754
John Fitzwilliam 1754–1761
Sir Jacob Downing, Bt
| Member of Parliament for Dunwich |
With: Eliab Harvey
Sir Jacob Downing, Bt
| Secretary at War |
The Viscount Barrington
| Secretary of State for the Southern Department |
| Leader of the House of Commons |
| Paymaster of the Forces |
| Leader of the House of Commons |
1762 – 1763
|Peerage of Great Britain|
|New creation|| Baron Holland (of Foxley)|