Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales

Last updated

Henry Frederick
Prince of Wales (more)
Henry Prince of Wales after Isaac Oliver.jpg
Portrait after Isaac Oliver, c.1610
Born19 February 1594
Stirling Castle, Scotland
Died6 November 1612(1612-11-06) (aged 18)
St James's Palace, London
Burial8 December 1612
House Stuart
Father James VI and I
Mother Anne of Denmark
Scottish and English Royalty
House of Stuart
Coat of Arms of England (1603-1649).svg
James VI and I
Children
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia and Electress Palatine
Princess Margaret
Charles I, King of England
Prince Robert, Duke of Kintyre
Princess Mary
Princess Sophia

Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales KG (19 February 1594 – 6 November 1612) was the elder son of James VI and I, King of England and Scotland, and his wife, Anne of Denmark. His name derives from his grandfathers: Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and Frederick II of Denmark. Prince Henry was widely seen as a bright and promising heir to his father's thrones. However, at the age of 18, he predeceased his father when he died of typhoid fever. His younger brother Charles succeeded him as heir apparent to the English, Irish and Scottish thrones.

James VI and I 16th/17th-century king of England and Scotland

James VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciaries, and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union.

Kingdom of England historic sovereign kingdom on the British Isles (927–1649; 1660–1707)

The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Kingdom of Scotland Historic sovereign kingdom in the British Isles from the 9th century to 1707

The Kingdom of Scotland was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern third of the island of Great Britain, sharing a land border to the south with the Kingdom of England. It suffered many invasions by the English, but under Robert I it fought a successful War of Independence and remained an independent state throughout the late Middle Ages. In 1603, James VI of Scotland became King of England, joining Scotland with England in a personal union. In 1707, the two kingdoms were united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain under the terms of the Acts of Union. Following the annexation of the Northern Isles from the Kingdom of Norway in 1472 and final capture of the Royal Burgh of Berwick by the Kingdom of England in 1482, the territory of the Kingdom of Scotland corresponded to that of modern-day Scotland, bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest.

Contents

Early life

Henry was born at Stirling Castle, Scotland and became Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland automatically on his birth. Henry's baptism on 30 August 1594 was celebrated with complex theatrical entertainments written by poet William Fowler and a ceremony in a new Chapel Royal at Stirling purpose-built by William Schaw. [1] Textiles and costume for the event were bought using Anna's dowry of £100,000 Scots which had been in the safekeeping of various towns. Costumes for the women of Queen Anne's household were bought using £4000 held at St Andrews and Anstruther, while £3000 from Perth paid for upholstery and repairs to tapestry. [2]

Stirling Castle castle in Scotland

Stirling Castle, located in Stirling, is one of the largest and most important castles in Scotland, both historically and architecturally. The castle sits atop Castle Hill, an intrusive crag, which forms part of the Stirling Sill geological formation. It is surrounded on three sides by steep cliffs, giving it a strong defensive position. Its strategic location, guarding what was, until the 1890s, the farthest downstream crossing of the River Forth, has made it an important fortification in the region from the earliest times.

Duke of Rothesay

Duke of Rothesay is a dynastic title of the heir apparent to the British throne, currently Prince Charles. It was a title of the heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707, of the Kingdom of Great Britain from 1707 to 1801, and now of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is the title mandated for use by the heir apparent when in Scotland, in preference to the titles Duke of Cornwall and Prince of Wales, which are used in the rest of the United Kingdom and overseas. The Duke of Rothesay also holds other Scottish titles, including those of Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. The title is named after Rothesay on the Isle of Bute, Argyll and Bute, but is not associated with any legal entity or landed property, unlike the Duchy of Cornwall.

Earl of Carrick title applied to the ruler of Carrick

Earl of Carrick or Mormaer of Carrick is the title applied to the ruler of Carrick, subsequently part of the Peerage of Scotland. The position came to be strongly associated with the Scottish crown when Robert the Bruce, who had inherited it from his maternal kin, became King of the Scots in the early 14th century. Since the 15th century the title of Earl of Carrick has automatically been held by the heir apparent to the throne, meaning Prince Charles is the current Earl.

His father placed him in the care of John Erskine, Earl of Mar at Stirling Castle, out of the care of the boy's mother, because James worried that the mother's tendency toward Catholicism might affect the son. Although the child's removal caused enormous tension between Anne and James, Henry remained under the care of Mar's family until 1603, when James became King of England and his family moved south. [3]

Earl of Mar Wikimedia list article

The title Mormaer or Earl of Mar has been created several times, all in the Peerage of Scotland. Owing to a 19th-century dispute, there are currently two Earls of Mar as both the first and seventh creations are currently extant. The first creation of the earldom was originally the provincial ruler of the province of Mar in north-eastern Scotland. First attested in the year 1014, the "seat" or "caput" eventually became Kildrummy Castle, although other sites like Doune of Invernochty were initially just as important.

One of his tutors until he went to England was Sir George Lauder of the Bass, a Privy Counsellor – described as the King's "familiar councillor" [4] – and he was also tutored in music by Alfonso Ferrabosco the younger. Henry's tutor Adam Newton continued to serve the Prince in England, and some Scottish servants from Stirling were retained, including poet David Murray. [5]

Sir George Lauder of the Bass, Knight, was a cleric, Privy Counsellor, and Member of the Scottish Parliament. He was also Tutor to Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales.

Alfonso Ferrabosco the younger was an English composer and viol player of Italian descent. He straddles the line between the Renaissance and Baroque eras.

Sir David Murray of Gorthy (1567–1629) was an officer in the household of Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in England from 1603 to 1612, and poet.

Training and personality

Portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, c. 1603 Henry, Prince of Wales by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger.jpg
Portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, c. 1603

The king greatly preferred the role of schoolmaster to that of father, and he wrote texts for the schooling of his children. James directed that Henry's household "should rather imitate a College than a Court", [6] or, as Sir Thomas Chaloner wrote in 1607, His Highness's household [...] was intended by the King for a courtly college or a collegiate court" [7] He passionately engaged in such physical pursuits as hawking, hunting, jousting and fencing, [8] and from a young age studied naval and military affairs and national issues, about which he often disagreed with his father. He also disapproved of the way his father conducted the royal court, disliked Robert Carr, a favourite of his father, and esteemed Sir Walter Raleigh, wishing him to be released from the Tower of London. [3]

Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset English Earl

Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset, was a politician, and favourite of King James VI and I.

Tower of London A historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London

The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, separated from the eastern edge of the square mile of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill. It was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The White Tower, which gives the entire castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078 and was a resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by the new ruling elite. The castle was used as a prison from 1100 until 1952, although that was not its primary purpose. A grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence. As a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion, mainly under Kings Richard I, Henry III, and Edward I in the 12th and 13th centuries. The general layout established by the late 13th century remains despite later activity on the site.

The prince's popularity rose so high that it threatened his father. Relations between the two could be tense, and on occasion surfaced in public. At one point, the two were hunting near Royston when James criticised his son for lacking enthusiasm for the chase, and Henry initially moved to strike his father with a cane, but rode off. Most of the hunting party then followed the son. [6]

"Upright to the point of priggishness, he fined all who swore in his presence", according to Charles Carlton, a biographer of Charles I, who describes Henry as an "obdurate Protestant". [6] In addition to the alms box to which Henry forced swearers to contribute, he made sure his household attended church services. His religious views were influenced by the clerics in his household, who came largely from a tradition of politicised Calvinism. Henry listened humbly, attentively, and regularly to the sermons preached to his household, and once told his chaplain, Richard Milbourne, that he esteemed most the preachers whose attitude suggested, "Sir, you must hear me diligently: you must have a care to observe what I say." [7]

Henry is said to have disliked his younger brother, Charles, and to have teased him, although this derives from only one anecdote: when Charles was nine years of age, Henry snatched the hat off a bishop and put it on the younger child's head, then told his younger brother that when he became king he would make Charles Archbishop of Canterbury, and then Charles would have a long robe to hide his ugly rickety legs. Charles stamped on the cap and had to be dragged off in tears. [6]

Investiture and leadership

Portrait by Robert Peake the Elder, c. 1610 Henry Prince of Wales 1610 Robert Peake.jpg
Portrait by Robert Peake the Elder, c. 1610

With his father's accession to the throne of England in 1603, Henry at once became Duke of Cornwall. In 1610 he was further invested as Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, thus for the first time uniting the six automatic and two traditional Scottish and English titles held by heirs-apparent to the two thrones.

As a young man, Henry showed great promise and was beginning to be active in leadership matters. Among his activities, he was responsible for the reassignment of Sir Thomas Dale to the Virginia Company of London's struggling colony in North America.

The Irish Gaelic lord of Inishowen, Sir Cahir O'Doherty, had applied to gain a position as a courtier in the household of Henry, to help him in his struggles against officials in Ireland. Unknown to Sir Cahir, on 19 April 1608, the day he launched O'Doherty's Rebellion by burning Derry, his application was approved. [9] Henry took an interest in the Kingdom of Ireland and was known to be supportive of the idea of a reconciliation with the former rebel Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, who had fled into exile during the Flight of the Earls. Because of this Tyrone and his entourage mourned when the Prince met his early death. [10]

Death

Henry died from typhoid fever at the age of 18, during the celebrations that led up to his sister Elizabeth's wedding. (The diagnosis can be made with reasonable certainty from written records of the post-mortem examination, although at the time there were rumours of poisoning.[ citation needed ]) He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Prince Henry's death was widely regarded as a tragedy for the nation. According to Charles Carlton, "Few heirs to the English throne have been as widely and deeply mourned as Prince Henry."[ citation needed ] His body lay in state at St. James's Palace for four weeks. On 7 December, over a thousand people walked in the mile-long cortège to Westminster Abbey to hear a two-hour sermon delivered by George Abbot, the Archbishop of Canterbury. As Henry's body was lowered into the ground, his chief servants broke their staves of office at the grave. An insane man ran naked through the mourners, yelling that he was the boy's ghost. [6]

Immediately after Henry's death, the prince's brother Charles fell ill, but he was the chief mourner at the funeral, which his father, King James (who detested funerals) refused to attend. [6] Henry's titles of Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay passed to Charles, who until then had lived in Henry's shadow. Four years later Charles, by then sixteen years old, was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester.

Literature and music occasioned by the prince's death

Sermons

Portrait aged 13 or 14. He stands on a shield bearing his Prince of Wales's feathers. Royal Palace of Turin. PrinceHenry.jpg
Portrait aged 13 or 14. He stands on a shield bearing his Prince of Wales's feathers. Royal Palace of Turin.

Henry's chaplain, Daniel Price, delivered a series of sermons about the young man's death. (Price borrowed from John Donne's unrelated The first Anniversary, published in 1611, and The second Anniversary, published in 1612, for some of his language and ideas.): [11]

Prose memorials

Posthumous portrait by George Geldorp George Geldorp (Attr.) - Portrait of Henry, Prince of Wales (1594-1612).jpg
Posthumous portrait by George Geldorp

Price also wrote two prose "Anniversaries" on the death:

Verses

Within a few months of the prince's death, at least 32 poets had versified on it. In addition to those listed below, the writers included Sir Walter Ralegh (a friend), John Donne, Edward Herbert, Thomas Heywood and Henry King. [6]

These poems were published in 1612 (see 1612 in poetry):

These poems and songs were published in 1613 (see 1613 in poetry):

Music

In addition to the above verse-setting by Coperario, both Thomas Tomkins and Thomas Weelkes composed settings of "When David heard", a Biblical passage in which King David laments the loss of his son Absalom in battle; it is thought that both settings were directly inspired by the death of the prince. [13]

The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography refers to a mourning song in memory of Prince Henry by John Ward remaining unpublished during the composer's lifetime; [14] however, a "newly composed" song on the same subject was included in his First Set of Madrigals (1613). [15]

Ancestry

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Coat of arms of Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales Coat of Arms of the Stuart Princes of Wales (1610-1688).svg
Coat of arms of Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales

Titles

Honours

Arms

Henry Frederick as Prince of Wales bore the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points. [17]

See also

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References

  1. Bath, Michael, "Rare Shewes, the Stirling Baptism of Prince Henry" in Journal of the Northern Renaissance, no.4 (2012)
  2. Register of the Privy Council, vol. 5 (Edinburgh, 1882), pp. 151-2, 153-4, for details of the expense see NRS E35/13.
  3. 1 2 Fritze, Ronald H. and William B. Robison, Historical Dictionary of Stuart England, 1603–1689, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996, retrieved via Google Books on 19 July 2009
  4. 'The Bass Rock in History' in Transactions of the East Lothian Antiquarian and Field Naturalists' Society, vol. 5, 1948: 55
  5. Roy Strong, Henry Prince of Wales, Thames & Hudson (1986), pp. 27–29
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Carlton, Charles, Charles I: The Personal Monarch, second edition, Routledge, 1995, retrieved via Google Books on 19 July 2009
  7. 1 2 McCullough, Peter E., Sermons at Court: Politics and Religion in Elizabethan and Jacobean Preaching, Cambridge University Press, 1998, retrieved via Google Books on 19 July 2009
  8. Oxford DNB
  9. McCavitt p.136-37
  10. McCavitt p.203
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Smith, Albert James, editor, John Donne: The Critical Heritage, p 37, Routledge, 1995, ISBN   978-0-415-13412-5, retrieved via Google Books, 19 July 2009
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Cox, Michael, editor, The Concise Oxford Chronology of English Literature, Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN   0-19-860634-6
  13. Graham Ross, notes to Harmonia Mundi recording Remembrance, HMU907654 (2016).
  14. “Ward, John (bap. 1590, d. 1638),” Ian Payne in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, See online ed., ed. Lawrence Goldman, Oxford: OUP (subscription or UK public library membership required). http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/28689 (accessed November 14, 2014).
  15. Wikisource:Ward, John (fl.1613) (DNB00)
  16. The Prince of Wales – Previous Princes of Wales
  17. Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family

Bibliography

Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
Born: 19 February 1594 Died: 6 November 1612
British royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Edward Tudor
Prince of Wales
1610–1612
Succeeded by
Charles Stuart
Duke of Cornwall
1603–1612
Preceded by
James Stuart
Duke of Rothesay
1594–1612