Henry Hallett Dale

Last updated

Sir

Henry Dale

Henry Hallett Dale3.jpg
Born
Henry Hallett Dale

(1875-06-09)9 June 1875
Died23 July 1968(1968-07-23) (aged 93)
Education Tollington School
The Leys School
Alma mater
Known for
Awards
Scientific career
Fields
Website www.rigb.org/our-history/people/d/henry-hallett-dale

Sir Henry Hallett Dale OM GBE FRS [2] (9 June 1875 – 23 July 1968) was an English pharmacologist and physiologist. [3] For his study of acetylcholine as agent in the chemical transmission of nerve pulses (neurotransmission) he shared the 1936 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Otto Loewi. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

Contents

Early life and education

Henry Hallett Dale was born in Islington, London, to Charles James Dale, a pottery manufacturer from Staffordshire, and his wife, Frances Anne Hallett, daughter of a furniture manufacturer, from South Devon. [2] [9] Henry was the third of seven children, one of whom (his younger brother, Benjamin Dale) became an accomplished composer and warden of the Royal Academy of Music. Henry was educated at the local Tollington Park College and then The Leys School Cambridge (one of the school's houses is named after him) and in 1894 entered Trinity College, Cambridge, [10] working under the physiologist John Langley. For a few months in 1903 he also studied under Paul Ehrlich in Frankfurt, Germany. Also in 1903, Dale assisted Ernest Starling and William Bayliss in the vivisection of a dog, by removing the dog's pancreas and then killing the dog with a knife, which ultimately led to the events of the Brown Dog affair. Dale received his Doctor of Medicine degree from Cambridge in 1909. [11] [3]

Career and research

While working at the University College London, he met and became friends with Otto Loewi. Dale became the director of the Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology at the National Institute for Medical Research in London in 1914. He became a Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution in 1942. [12] During World War II he served on the scientific advisory panel to the Cabinet.

Although Dale and his colleagues first identified acetylcholine in 1914 as a possible neurotransmitter, Loewi showed its importance in the nervous system. The two men shared the 1936 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

During the 1940s Dale was embroiled in the scientific debate over the nature of signaling at the synapse. Dale and others believed that signaling at the synapse was chemical, while John Carew Eccles and others believed that the synapse was electrical. It was later found that most synaptic signalling is chemical, but there are some synapses that are electrical.

Dale also originated the scheme used to differentiate neurons according to the neurotransmitters they release. Thus, neurons releasing noradrenaline (known in the United States as norepinephrine) are called noradrenergic, neurons releasing GABA are GABAergic, and so on. This is called Dale's principle (sometimes erroneously referred to as Dale's Law), one interpretation of which holds that each neuron releases only one type of neurotransmitter. This particular interpretation of Dale's principle has been shown to be false, as many neurons release neuropeptides and amino acids in addition to classical neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine or biogenic amines (see cotransmission) [ citation needed ](Bear, et al. 2001). This finding, that numerous neurotransmitters can be released by the same neuron, is referred to as the "coexistence principle." This phenomenon was most popularized by the Swedish neuroanatomist and neuropharmacologist Tomas Hökfelt, who is considered to be the "Father of the Coexistence Principle."

Between 1938 and 1960 Dale served as chairman of the Wellcome Trust. [13]

Awards and honours

Dale was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1914. [2] In 1926, he was awarded the Cameron Prize for Therapeutics of the University of Edinburgh. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1927, the American Philosophical Society in 1939, and the United States National Academy of Sciences in 1940. [14] [15] [16] He was knighted in 1932, receiving the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in 1943 and the Order of Merit in 1944. He served as president of the Royal Society from 1940 to 1945 and president of the Royal Society of Medicine from 1948 to 1950. The Sir Henry Dale Fellowships of the Wellcome Trust are named in his honour [17] and the Society for Endocrinology awards the Dale Medal [18] annually in his honour.

Personal life

In 1904, Dale had married his first cousin Ellen Harriett Hallett and had a son and two daughters. One of their daughters, Alison Sarah Dale, married Alexander R. Todd, who won the Nobel Prize and served as President of the Royal Society from 1940 to 1945. The Dales lived at Mount Vernon House from 1919 to 1942. [19]

Dales's residency at the house is marked by a Greater London Council blue plaque erected in 1981 on the garden wall of the house. [20]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Eccles (neurophysiologist)</span> Australian neurophysiologist (1903–1997)

Sir John Carew Eccles was an Australian neurophysiologist and philosopher who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the synapse. He shared the prize with Andrew Huxley and Alan Lloyd Hodgkin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Neurotransmitter</span> Chemical substance that enables neurotransmission

A neurotransmitter is a signaling molecule secreted by a neuron to affect another cell across a synapse. The cell receiving the signal, or target cell, may be another neuron, but could also be a gland or muscle cell.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chemical synapse</span> Biological junctions through which neurons signals can be sent

Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be sent to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands. Chemical synapses allow neurons to form circuits within the central nervous system. They are crucial to the biological computations that underlie perception and thought. They allow the nervous system to connect to and control other systems of the body.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Acetylcholine</span> Organic chemical and neurotransmitter

Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic compound that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals as a neurotransmitter. Its name is derived from its chemical structure: it is an ester of acetic acid and choline. Parts in the body that use or are affected by acetylcholine are referred to as cholinergic. Substances that increase or decrease the overall activity of the cholinergic system are called cholinergics and anticholinergics, respectively.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bernard Katz</span> German-British biophysicist (1911–2003)

Sir Bernard Katz, FRS was a German-born British physician and biophysicist, noted for his work on nerve physiology. He shared the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1970 with Julius Axelrod and Ulf von Euler. He was made a Knight Bachelor in 1969.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Electrical synapse</span> Type of connection between neurons

An electrical synapse is a mechanical and electrically conductive link between two neighboring neurons that is formed at a narrow gap between the pre- and postsynaptic neurons known as a gap junction. At gap junctions, such cells approach within about 3.8 nm of each other, a much shorter distance than the 20- to 40-nanometer distance that separates cells at chemical synapse. In many animals, electrical synapse-based systems co-exist with chemical synapses.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Otto Loewi</span> German pharmacologist (1873–1961)

Otto Loewi was a German-born pharmacologist and psychobiologist who discovered the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter. For this discovery, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936, which he shared with Sir Henry Dale, who was a lifelong friend that helped to inspire the neurotransmitter experiment. Loewi met Dale in 1902 when spending some months in Ernest Starling's laboratory at University College, London.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ulf von Euler</span> Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist (1905–1983)

Ulf Svante von Euler was a Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1970 for his work on neurotransmitters.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dale's principle</span> Principle in neuroscience

In neuroscience, Dale's principle is a rule attributed to the English neuroscientist Henry Hallett Dale. The principle basically states that a neuron performs the same chemical action at all of its synaptic connections to other cells, regardless of the identity of the target cell. However, there has been disagreement about the precise wording.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">National Institute for Medical Research</span> Medical research institute in London, United Kingdom

The National Institute for Medical Research, was a medical research institute based in Mill Hill, on the outskirts of north London, England. It was funded by the Medical Research Council (MRC);

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vagusstoff</span>

Vagusstoff refers to the substance released by stimulation of the vagus nerve which causes a reduction in the heart rate. Discovered in 1921 by physiologist Otto Loewi, vagusstoff was the first confirmation of chemical synaptic transmission and the first neurotransmitter ever discovered. It was later confirmed to be acetylcholine, which was first identified by Sir Henry Hallett Dale in 1914. Because of his pioneering experiments, in 1936 Loewi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which he shared with Dale.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wilhelm Feldberg</span> German-British physiologist and biologist

Wilhelm Siegmund Feldberg was a German-British physiologist and biologist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Gaddum</span> English pharmacologist

Sir John Henry Gaddum was an English pharmacologist who, along with Ulf von Euler, co-discovered the neuropeptide Substance P in 1931. He was a founder member of the British Pharmacological Society and first editor of the British Journal of Pharmacology.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marthe Vogt</span> German neuroscientist

Marthe Louise Vogt was a German scientist recognized as one of the leading neuroscientists of the twentieth century. She is mainly remembered for her important contributions to the understanding of the role of neurotransmitters in the brain, especially epinephrine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thomas C. Südhof</span> German-American biochemist

Thomas Christian Südhof, ForMemRS, is a German-American biochemist known for his study of synaptic transmission. Currently, he is a professor in the school of medicine in the department of molecular and cellular physiology, and by courtesy in neurology, and in psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford University.

Autopharmacology relates to the scientific study of the regulation of body functions by the activity of its naturally existent chemical factors of the tissues. A more restricted definition would consider substances that were first identified as external agents which had a documented action on physiological functions, but later were discovered as existing as endogenous factors. The best example is the class of endorphins, which, as its name implies, were discovered to exist in the brain and have specific receptors in it, by investigations on the mechanism of action of opioids, such as morphine.

The Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, (PDN) is a part of the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Cambridge. Research in PDN focuses on three main areas: Cellular and Systems Physiology, Developmental and Reproductive Biology, and Neuroscience and is currently headed by Sarah Bray and William Colledge. The department was formed on 1 January 2006, within the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Cambridge from the merger of the Departments of Anatomy and Physiology. The department hosts the Centre for Trophoblast Research and has links with the Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, the Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, and the Gurdon Institute.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tilli Tansey</span>

Elizabeth Matilda Tansey is an Emerita Professor of the history of medicine and former neurochemist, best known for her role in the Wellcome Trust's witness seminars. She previously worked at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wellcome Research Laboratories</span>

Wellcome Research Laboratories was a site in Beckenham, south-east London, that was a main research centre for pharmaceuticals. Until 1965, this laboratory site was situated in Kent.

The Cameron Prize for Therapeutics of the University of Edinburgh is awarded by the College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine to a person who has made any highly important and valuable addition to Practical Therapeutics in the previous five years. The prize, which may be awarded biennially, was founded in 1878 by Andrew Robertson Cameron of Richmond, New South Wales, with a sum of £2,000. The University's senatus academicus may require the prizewinner to deliver one or more lectures or to publish an account on the addition made to Practical Therapeutics. A list of recipients of the prize dates back to 1879.

References

  1. Waddington, Keir (2003). Medical education at St. Bartholomew's hospital, 1123–1995. Boydell & Brewer. p. 123. ISBN   9780851159195 . Retrieved 20 March 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Feldberg, W. S. (1970). "Henry Hallett Dale. 1875–1968". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society . 16: 77–174. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1970.0006. PMID   11615480. S2CID   7383038.
  3. 1 2 Tansey, Elizabeth M. (1990). The early scientific career of Sir Henry Dale FRS (1875–1968). ucl.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University of London. OCLC   556469190. EThOS   uk.bl.ethos.294137.
  4. Halpern, B. (1969). "Obituary notice: Henry Hallet Dale". Revue française d'allergologie. 9 (2): 117–119. doi:10.1016/s0370-4688(69)80008-6. PMID   4896522.
  5. Vogt, M. (1969). "Obituary. Sir Henry Hallett Dale, O.M., F.R.S". International Journal of Neuropharmacology. 8 (2): 83–84. doi:10.1016/0028-3908(69)90001-X. PMID   4890938.
  6. Bynum, William (1970–1980). "Dale, Henry Hallett". Dictionary of Scientific Biography . Vol. 15. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 104–107. ISBN   978-0-684-10114-9.
  7. Abigail O'Sullivan: Henry Dale's Nobel Prize winning 'discovery'. Minerva, 2001; 38: 409–424. [ ISBN missing ]
  8. Sabbatini, R.M.E.: Neurons and synapses. The history of its discovery. IV. Chemical transmission. Brain & Mind, 2004.
  9. Feldberg W, rev. Tansey EM (2004–2011). Dale, Sir Henry Hallett (1875–1968), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-08. doi : 10.1093/ref:odnb/32694
  10. "Dale, Henry Hallett (DL894HH)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  11. Henry Hallett Dale on Nobelprize.org OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg , accessed 1 May 2020
  12. "Fullerian Professorships".
  13. Anon (2015). "Biography of Henry Hallett Dale (1875–1968)". rigb.org. London: Royal Institution. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016.
  14. "Henry Hallett Dale". American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Retrieved 12 May 2023.
  15. "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved 12 May 2023.
  16. "Henry Dale". www.nasonline.org. Retrieved 12 May 2023.
  17. Anon (2016). "Sir Henry Dale Fellowships". wellcome.ac.uk. London: Wellcome Trust. Archived from the original on 22 June 2016.
  18. "Medals | Society for Endocrinology".
  19. Christopher Hibbert; Ben Weinreb; John Keay; Julia Keay (2010). The London Encyclopaedia. Macmillan Publishers. pp. 563–. ISBN   978-1-4050-4925-2.
  20. "DALE, Sir Henry (1875–1968)". English Heritage . Retrieved 4 July 2020.
Professional and academic associations
Preceded by47th President of the Royal Society
1940–1945
Succeeded by