Henry Hallett Dale

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Sir

Henry Dale

Henry Hallett Dale3.jpg
Born
Henry Hallett Dale

(1875-06-09)9 June 1875
Died23 July 1968(1968-07-23) (aged 93)
Nationality United Kingdom
Education Tollington School
The Leys School
Alma mater
Known for
Awards
Scientific career
Fields
Website www.rigb.org/our-history/people/d/henry-hallett-dale

Sir Henry Hallett Dale OM GBE PRS [2] (9 June 1875 – 23 July 1968) was an English pharmacologist and physiologist. [3] For his study of acetylcholine as agent in the chemical transmission of nerve pulses (neurotransmission) he shared the 1936 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Otto Loewi. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

Contents

Early life and education

Henry Hallett Dale was born in Islington, London, to Charles James Dale, a pottery manufacturer from Staffordshire, and his wife, Frances Anne Hallett, daughter of a furniture manufacturer, from South Devon. [2] [9] Henry was the third of seven children, one of whom (his younger brother, Benjamin Dale) became an accomplished composer and warden of the Royal Academy of Music. Henry was educated at the local Tollington Park College and then The Leys School Cambridge (one of the school's houses is named after him) and in 1894 entered Trinity College, Cambridge, [10] working under the physiologist John Langley. For a few months in 1903 he also studied under Paul Ehrlich in Frankfurt, Germany. Also in 1903, Dale assisted Ernest Starling and William Bayliss in the vivisection of a dog, by removing the dog's pancreas and then killing the dog with a knife, which ultimately led to the events of the Brown Dog affair. Dale received his Doctor of Medicine degree from Cambridge in 1909. [11] [3]

Career and research

While working at the University College London, he met and became friends with Otto Loewi. Dale became the director of the Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology at the National Institute for Medical Research in London in 1914. He became a Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution in 1942. [12] During World War II he served on the scientific advisory panel to the Cabinet.

Although Dale and his colleagues first identified acetylcholine in 1914 as a possible neurotransmitter, Loewi showed its importance in the nervous system. The two men shared the 1936 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

During the 1940s Dale was embroiled in the scientific debate over the nature of signaling at the synapse. Dale and others believed that signaling at the synapse was chemical, while John Carew Eccles and others believed that the synapse was electrical. It was later found that most synaptic signalling is chemical, but there are some synapses that are electrical.

Dale also originated the scheme used to differentiate neurons according to the neurotransmitters they release. Thus, neurons releasing noradrenaline (known in the United States as norepinephrine) are called noradrenergic, neurons releasing GABA are GABAergic, and so on. This is called Dale's principle (sometimes erroneously referred to as Dale's Law), one interpretation of which holds that each neuron releases only one type of neurotransmitter. This particular interpretation of Dale's principle has been shown to be false, as many neurons release neuropeptides and amino acids in addition to classical neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine or biogenic amines (see cotransmission) [ citation needed ](Bear, et al. 2001). This finding, that numerous neurotransmitters can be released by the same neuron, is referred to as the "coexistence principle." This phenomenon was most popularized by the Swedish neuroanatomist and neuropharmacologist Tomas Hökfelt, who is considered to be the "Father of the Coexistence Principle."

Between 1938 and 1960 Dale served as chairman of the Wellcome Trust. [13]

Awards and honours

Dale was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1914. [2] In 1926, he was awarded the Cameron Prize for Therapeutics of the University of Edinburgh. He was knighted in 1932, receiving the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in 1943 and the Order of Merit in 1944. He served as president of the Royal Society from 1940 to 1945 and president of the Royal Society of Medicine from 1948 to 1950. The Sir Henry Dale Fellowships of the Wellcome Trust are named in his honour [14] and the Society for Endocrinology awards the Dale Medal [15] annually in his honour.

Personal life

In 1904, Dale had married his first cousin Elen Harriet Hallett and had a son and two daughters. One of their daughters, Alison Sarah Dale, married Alexander R. Todd, who too won the Nobel Prize and served as President of the Royal Society from 1940 to 1945. The Dales lived at Mount Vernon House from 1919 to 1942. [16] Dales's residency at the house is marked by a Greater London Council blue plaque erected in 1981 on the garden wall of the house. [17]

Related Research Articles

John Eccles (neurophysiologist) Australian neurophysiologist (1903–1997)

Sir John Carew Eccles was an Australian neurophysiologist and philosopher who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the synapse. He shared the prize with Andrew Huxley and Alan Lloyd Hodgkin.

Neurotransmitter Chemical substance that enables neurotransmission

A neurotransmitter is a signaling molecule secreted by a neuron to affect another cell across a synapse. The cell receiving the signal, any main body part or target cell, may be another neuron, but could also be a gland or muscle cell.

Chemical synapse Biological junctions through which neurons signals can be sent

Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be sent to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands. Chemical synapses allow neurons to form circuits within the central nervous system. They are crucial to the biological computations that underlie perception and thought. They allow the nervous system to connect to and control other systems of the body.

Acetylcholine Organic chemical and neurotransmitter

Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals as a neurotransmitter. Its name is derived from its chemical structure: it is an ester of acetic acid and choline. Parts in the body that use or are affected by acetylcholine are referred to as cholinergic. Substances that increase or decrease the overall activity of the cholinergic system are called cholinergics and anticholinergics, respectively.

Bernard Katz

Sir Bernard Katz, FRS was a German-born British physician and biophysicist, noted for his work on nerve physiology. He shared the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1970 with Julius Axelrod and Ulf von Euler. He was made a Knight Bachelor in 1969.

Electrical synapse Type of connection between neurons

An electrical synapse is a mechanical and electrically conductive link between two neighboring neurons that is formed at a narrow gap between the pre- and postsynaptic neurons known as a gap junction. At gap junctions, such cells approach within about 3.8 nm of each other, a much shorter distance than the 20- to 40-nanometer distance that separates cells at chemical synapse. In many animals, electrical synapse-based systems co-exist with chemical synapses.

Otto Loewi

Otto Loewi was a German-born pharmacologist and psychobiologist who discovered the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter. For his discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936, which he shared with Sir Henry Dale, who was a lifelong friend that helped to inspire the neurotransmitter experiment. Loewi met Dale in 1902 when spending some months in Ernest Starling's laboratory at University College, London.

Medical Research Council (United Kingdom) State institution responsible for co-ordinating and funding medical research in the United Kingdom

The Medical Research Council (MRC) is responsible for co-coordinating and funding medical research in the United Kingdom. It is part of United Kingdom Research and Innovation (UKRI), which came into operation 1 April 2018, and brings together the UK's seven research councils, Innovate UK and Research England. UK Research and Innovation is answerable to, although politically independent from, the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy.

Ulf von Euler Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist (1905–1983)

Ulf Svante von Euler was a Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1970 for his work on neurotransmitters.

Curare Group of chemical substances used as poison

Curare is a common name for various plant extract alkaloid arrow poisons originating from indigenous peoples in Central and South America. Used as a paralyzing agent for hunting and for therapeutic purposes, curare only becomes active by a direct wound contamination by a poison dart or arrow or via injection. These poisons function by competitively and reversibly inhibiting the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), which is a subtype of acetylcholine receptor found at the neuromuscular junction. This causes weakness of the skeletal muscles and, when administered in a sufficient dose, eventual death by asphyxiation due to paralysis of the diaphragm. Curare is prepared by boiling the bark of one of the dozens of plant alkaloid sources, leaving a dark, heavy paste that can be applied to arrow or dart heads. Historically, curare has been used as an effective treatment for tetanus or strychnine poisoning and as a paralyzing agent for surgical procedures.

Dales principle Principle in neuroscience

In neuroscience, Dale's principle is a rule attributed to the English neuroscientist Henry Hallett Dale. The principle basically states that a neuron performs the same chemical action at all of its synaptic connections to other cells, regardless of the identity of the target cell. However, there has been disagreement about the precise wording.

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Vagusstoff

Vagusstoff refers to the substance released by stimulation of the vagus nerve which causes a reduction in the heart rate. Discovered in 1921 by physiologist Otto Loewi, vagusstoff was the first confirmation of chemical synaptic transmission and the first neurotransmitter ever discovered. It was later confirmed to be acetylcholine, which was first identified by Sir Henry Hallett Dale in 1914. Because of his pioneering experiments, in 1936 Loewi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which he shared with Dale.

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Autopharmacology relates to the scientific study of the regulation of body functions by the activity of its naturally existent chemical factors of the tissues. A more restricted definition would consider substances that were first identified as external agents which had a documented action on physiological functions, but later were discovered as existing as endogenous factors. The best example is the class of endorphins, which, as its name implies, were discovered to exist in the brain and have specific receptors in it, by investigations on the mechanism of action of opioids, such as morphine.

The Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, (PDN) is a part of the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Cambridge. Research in PDN focuses on three main areas: Cellular and Systems Physiology, Developmental and Reproductive Biology, and Neuroscience and is currently headed by Sarah Bray and William Colledge. The department was formed on 1 January 2006, within the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Cambridge from the merger of the Departments of Anatomy and Physiology. The department hosts the Centre for Trophoblast Research and has links with the Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, the Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, and the Gurdon Institute.

Tilli Tansey

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References

  1. Waddington, Keir (2003). Medical education at St. Bartholomew's hospital, 1123–1995. Boydell & Brewer. p. 123. ISBN   9780851159195 . Retrieved 20 March 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Feldberg, W. S. (1970). "Henry Hallett Dale. 1875–1968". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society . 16: 77–174. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1970.0006. PMID   11615480. S2CID   7383038.
  3. 1 2 Tansey, Elizabeth M. (1990). The early scientific career of Sir Henry Dale FRS (1875–1968). ucl.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University of London. OCLC   556469190. EThOS   uk.bl.ethos.294137.
  4. Halpern, B. (1969). "Obituary notice: Henry Hallet Dale". Revue française d'allergologie. 9 (2): 117–119. doi:10.1016/s0370-4688(69)80008-6. PMID   4896522.
  5. Vogt, M. (1969). "Obituary. Sir Henry Hallett Dale, O.M., F.R.S". International Journal of Neuropharmacology. 8 (2): 83–84. doi:10.1016/0028-3908(69)90001-X. PMID   4890938.
  6. Bynum, William (1970–1980). "Dale, Henry Hallett". Dictionary of Scientific Biography . Vol. 15. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 104–107. ISBN   978-0-684-10114-9.
  7. Abigail O'Sullivan: Henry Dale's Nobel Prize winning 'discovery'. Minerva, 2001; 38: 409–424. [ ISBN missing ]
  8. Sabbatini, R.M.E.: Neurons and synapses. The history of its discovery. IV. Chemical transmission. Brain & Mind, 2004.
  9. Feldberg W, rev. Tansey EM (2004–2011). Dale, Sir Henry Hallett (1875–1968), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-08. doi : 10.1093/ref:odnb/32694
  10. "Dale, Henry Hallett (DL894HH)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  11. Henry Hallett Dale on Nobelprize.org OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg , accessed 1 May 2020
  12. "Fullerian Professorships".
  13. Anon (2015). "Biography of Henry Hallett Dale (1875–1968)". rigb.org. London: Royal Institution. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016.
  14. Anon (2016). "Sir Henry Dale Fellowships". wellcome.ac.uk. London: Wellcome Trust. Archived from the original on 22 June 2016.
  15. "Medals | Society for Endocrinology".
  16. Christopher Hibbert; Ben Weinreb; John Keay; Julia Keay (2010). The London Encyclopaedia. Macmillan Publishers. pp. 563–. ISBN   978-1-4050-4925-2.
  17. "DALE, Sir Henry (1875–1968)". English Heritage . Retrieved 4 July 2020.
Professional and academic associations
Preceded by47th President of the Royal Society
1940–1945
Succeeded by