Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk

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The Duke of Norfolk
Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk.jpg
Earl Marshal
In office
1672–1684
Monarch
Preceded byIn Commission
Succeeded by The 7th Duke of Norfolk
Personal details
Born(1628-07-12)12 July 1628
Arundel House, London, England
Died13 January 1684(1684-01-13) (aged 55)
Arundel House, London, England
Resting place Arundel Castle, Arundel, West Sussex
Spouse(s)Lady Anne Somerset
Jane Bickerton
Children Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk
Frances de Andía-Irarrazaval, Marchioness of Valparaiso
Lord Thomas Howard
Lord George Howard
Lord James Howard
Lord Frederick Henry Howard
Lady Catherine Howard
Elizabeth Gordon, Duchess of Gordon
Lady Philippa Howard
Parents Henry Howard, 22nd Earl of Arundel
Lady Elizabeth Stuart

Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk (12 July 1628 13 January 1684) was an English nobleman and politician. He was the second son of Henry Howard, 22nd Earl of Arundel, and Lady Elizabeth Stuart. He succeeded his brother Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk after Thomas's death in 1677.

Henry Howard, 22nd Earl of Arundel English politician

Henry Frederick Howard, 22nd Earl of Arundel PC, styled Lord Maltravers until 1640, and Baron Mowbray from 1640 until 1652, was an English nobleman, chiefly remembered for his role in the development of the rule against perpetuities.

Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk was an English nobleman.

Contents

Life

He had previously been created 1st Baron Howard of Castle Rising in 1669 and 1st Earl of Norwich in 1672, on the latter occasion obtaining the restoration of the office of Earl Marshal of England to him and to his family. [1] There had been near unanimity in the House of Lords in persuading King Charles II to revive the Dukedom of Norfolk in 1660; but since the 5th Duke was insane, and confined to an asylum in Padua, it was felt desirable to summon his brother to the Lords in his own right.

Earl Marshal hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom

Earl Marshal is a hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom used in England. He is the eighth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord High Constable and above the Lord High Admiral.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Charles II of England 17th-century King of England, Ireland and Scotland

Charles II was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death.

His career as Duke began inauspiciously when he announced that he had married Jane Bickerton, his mistress of many years: this caused a violent family quarrel, as a result of which he went abroad for a time. Nonetheless, he wielded considerable political influence, and in 1673 was able to find a safe seat in Parliament for Samuel Pepys.

Samuel Pepys English naval administrator and member of parliament

Samuel Pepys was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man. Pepys had no maritime experience, but he rose to be the Chief Secretary to the Admiralty under both King Charles II and King James II through patronage, hard work, and his talent for administration. His influence and reforms at the Admiralty were important in the early professionalisation of the Royal Navy.

In January 1678, he took his seat in the House of Lords, but in August the first development of the Popish Plot was followed by an Act for disabling Catholics from sitting in either house of Parliament. As a sincere Roman Catholic, he would not comply with the oath recognizing the King as Head of the Church; at the same time he urged his fellow peers to do so if their consciences permitted, to ensure the survival of the House of Lords as an institution, whereupon the Lords thanked him for his "good service". He withdrew to Bruges for three years. There he built a house attached to a Franciscan convent and enjoyed freedom of worship. He later gave away the greater part of his library, grounds, and rooms to the Royal Society, and the Arundelian marbles to Oxford University.

House of Lords upper house in the Parliament of the United Kingdom

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.

Popish Plot fictitious anti-Catholic conspiracy in England

The Popish Plot was a conspiracy alleged and purported by Titus Oates that between 1678 and 1681 gripped the Kingdoms of England and Scotland in anti-Catholic hysteria. Oates alleged that there was an extensive Catholic conspiracy to assassinate Charles II, accusations that led to the executions of at least 22 men and precipitated the Exclusion Bill Crisis. Eventually Oates's intricate web of accusations fell apart, leading to his arrest and conviction for perjury.

Parliament of England historic legislature of the Kingdom of England

The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it united with the Parliament of Scotland to become the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.

He was presented as a recusant at Thetford assizes in 1680, and felt obliged to return to England to answer the charge, which was not pursued; a previous accusation by the notorious informer William Bedloe in 1678 that he had been party to, or at least aware of, a plot to kill the King had simply been ignored.

Thetford town in Norfolk, England

Thetford is a market town and civil parish in the Breckland district of Norfolk, England. It is on the A11 road between Norwich and London, just south of Thetford Forest. After World War II Thetford became an ‘overspill town’ taking people from London, as a result of which its population increased substantially. The civil parish, covering an area of 29.55 km2 (11.41 sq mi), has a population of 24,340.

William Bedloe English spy

William Bedloe was an English fraudster and Popish Plot informer.

He remained in England long enough to sit as a peer at the trial for treason of his uncle, William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, a fellow victim of the Popish Plot. Unfortunately for Stafford, who was notoriously "a man not beloved by his family", he had quarreled with most of his relatives, including Norfolk, and with the exception of Norfolk's eldest son, the future 7th Duke of Norfolk, the eight Howard peers present, including the 6th Duke, voted him Guilty. Stafford was beheaded on 29 December; the Duke does not seem to have interceded for his uncle's life. He returned to Bruges for a time.

Treason Crime against ones sovereign or nation

In law, treason is criminal disloyalty to the state. It is a crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign. This usually includes things such as participating in a war against one's native country, attempting to overthrow its government, spying on its military, its diplomats, or its secret services for a hostile and foreign power, or attempting to kill its head of state. A person who commits treason is known in law as a traitor.

William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford English Royalist and Catholic martyr

William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, FRS was the youngest son of Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, and his wife, the former Alethea Talbot. A Fellow of the Royal Society from 1665, he was a Royalist supporter before being falsely implicated by Titus Oates in the later discredited "Popish Plot", and executed for treason. He was beatified as a Catholic martyr in 1929.

With the waning of the hysteria he felt it safe to return home. John Evelyn in his diary for 9 May 1683 records visiting him to discuss buying some of his artworks, and gives the diarist's very low opinion of the Duchess. From Evelyn's description it is clear that the Duke then had an impressive collection of "cartoons and drawings of Raphael and the Great Masters".

Marriages and issue

Portrait of Henry Howard by Gilbert Soest, c. 1670-1675. This portrait was once part of the Lenthall collection and is now owned by the Tate Gallery. 6thDukeOfNorfolk.jpg
Portrait of Henry Howard by Gilbert Soest, c. 1670-1675. This portrait was once part of the Lenthall collection and is now owned by the Tate Gallery.

About 1652, Howard married Lady Anne Somerset, daughter of Edward Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Worcester, and Elizabeth Dormer. They had at least four children:

His second wife was Jane Bickerton. She had been his mistress for many years prior to the marriage in 1676 or 1677, and its announcement caused a violent quarrel with his eldest son and heir. They had four sons, all of whom died childless, and three daughters:

The peerages created for him died out with his grandson the 9th Duke in 1777, though the current Baron Mowbray descends from the 9th Duke's brother. The 10th and 11th Dukes of Norfolk, who inherited the associated peerages and office of Earl Marshal, descended from his brother Lord Charles Howard of Greystoke, and the 12th and later Dukes from his brother Lord Bernard Howard of Glossop.

Ancestry

See also

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References

  1. Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Norfolk, Earls and Dukes of"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 744.

Attribution:

Political offices
Vacant
In commission
Title last held by
The Earl of Suffolk
Earl Marshal
1672–1684
Succeeded by
The Duke of Norfolk
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Thomas Howard
Duke of Norfolk
1677–1684
Succeeded by
Henry Howard
Baron Mowbray
(descended by acceleration)

1677–1678
New creation Earl of Norwich
1672–1684
Baron Howard of Castle Rising
1669–1684