Henry IV of England

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Henry IV
Illumination of Henry IV (cropped).jpg
Illuminated miniature of Henry IV, c. 1402 [1]
King of England
Reign30 September 1399 20 March 1413
Coronation 13 October 1399
Predecessor Richard II
Successor Henry V
Born15 April 1367 [2]
Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, England
Died20 March 1413 (aged 45)
Westminster, London, England
Burial
Spouse
Mary de Bohun
(m. 1381;died 1394)

Joan of Navarre (m. 1403)
Issue
more...
House House of Lancaster
Father John of Gaunt
Mother Blanche of Lancaster

Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke ( /ˈbɒlɪŋbrʊk/ ), was King of England from 1399 to 1413. He asserted the claim of his grandfather King Edward III, a maternal grandson of Philip IV of France, to the Kingdom of France.

Philip IV of France King of France 1285–1314

Philip IV, called Philip the Fair, was King of France from 1285 to 1314. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne. Although Philip was known as handsome, hence the epithet le Bel, his rigid and inflexible personality gained him other nicknames, such as the Iron King. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him: "he is neither man nor beast. He is a statue."

Kingdom of France kingdom in Western Europe from 843 to 1791

The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was among the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War. It was also an early colonial power, with possessions around the world.

Contents

Henry was the son of John of Gaunt (the fourth son of Edward III) and Blanche of Lancaster. John enjoyed a position of considerable influence during much of the reign of his nephew King Richard II, whom Henry eventually deposed. Henry founded the Lancaster branch of the House of Plantagenet. He was the first King of England since the Norman Conquest whose mother tongue was English rather than French. [3]

John of Gaunt 14th-century English nobleman, royal duke, and politician

John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster was an English prince, military leader, and statesman. He was the third of the five sons of King Edward III of England who survived to adulthood. Due to his royal origin, advantageous marriages, and some generous land grants, Gaunt was one of the richest men of his era, and an influential figure during the reigns of both his father, Edward, and his nephew, Richard II. As Duke of Lancaster, he is the founder of the royal House of Lancaster, whose members would ascend to the throne after his death. His birthplace, Ghent, corrupted into English as Gaunt, was the origin for his name. When he became unpopular later in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury.

Blanche of Lancaster 14th-century English noblewoman

Blanche of Lancaster was a member of the English royal House of Plantagenet and the daughter of the kingdom's wealthiest and most powerful peer, Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. She was the first wife of John of Gaunt, the mother of King Henry IV, and the grandmother of King Henry V of England.

House of Lancaster English noble family

The House of Lancaster was the name of two cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet. The first house was created when Henry III of England created the Earldom of Lancaster—from which the house was named—for his second son Edmund Crouchback in 1267. Edmund had already been created Earl of Leicester in 1265 and was granted the lands and privileges of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, after de Montfort's death and attainder at the end of the Second Barons' War. When Edmund's son Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, inherited his father-in-law's estates and title of Earl of Lincoln he became at a stroke the most powerful nobleman in England, with lands throughout the kingdom and the ability to raise vast private armies to wield power at national and local levels. This brought him—and Henry, his younger brother—into conflict with their cousin Edward II of England, leading to Thomas's execution. Henry inherited Thomas's titles and he and his son, who was also called Henry, gave loyal service to Edward's son—Edward III of England.

Siblings

One of Henry IV's elder sisters, Philippa of Lancaster, married King John I of Portugal, and the other, Elizabeth of Lancaster, was the mother of John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter. His younger half-sister Katherine of Lancaster, the daughter of his father's second wife, Constance of Castile, was queen consort of the King of Castile. He also had four natural half-siblings born of Katherine Swynford, originally his sisters' governess, then his father's longstanding mistress and later third wife. These four illegitimate children were given the surname Beaufort from their birthplace at the Château de Beaufort in Champagne, France. [4]

Philippa of Lancaster English noblewoman and Portuguese queen consort

Philippa of Lancaster was Queen of Portugal from 1387 until 1415 by marriage to King John I. Born into the royal family of England, her marriage secured the Treaty of Windsor and produced several children who became known as the "Illustrious Generation" in Portugal.

John I of Portugal King of Portugal, the first of the House of Aviz

John I, also called John of Aviz, was King of Portugal from 1385 until his death in 1433. He is recognized chiefly for his role in Portugal's victory in a succession war with Castile, preserving his country's independence and establishing the Aviz dynasty on the Portuguese throne. His long reign of 48 years, the most extensive of all Portuguese monarchs, saw the beginning of Portugal's overseas expansion. John's well-remembered reign in his country earned him the epithet of Fond Memory ; he was also referred to as "the Good", sometimes "the Great", and more rarely, especially in Spain, as "the Bastard" (Bastardo).

Elizabeth of Lancaster, Duchess of Exeter English noblewoman

Elizabeth of Lancaster was the third child of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his first wife Blanche of Lancaster.

Henry's relationship with his stepmother, Katherine Swynford, was a positive one, but his relationship with the Beauforts varied. In youth he seems to have been close to all of them, but rivalries with Henry and Thomas Beaufort proved problematic after 1406. Ralph Neville, who had married Henry's half-sister Joan Beaufort, remained one of his strongest supporters, and so did his eldest half-brother John Beaufort, even though Henry revoked Richard II's grant to John of a marquessate. Thomas Swynford, a son from Katherine's first marriage to Sir Hugh Swynford, was another loyal companion. Thomas was Constable of Pontefract Castle, where King Richard II is said to have died.

Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter English military commander

Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter was an English military commander during the Hundred Years' War, and briefly Chancellor of England. He was the third of the four children born to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and his mistress Katherine Swynford. To overcome their problematic parentage, his parents were married in 1396, and he and his siblings were legitimated on two separate occasions, in 1390 and again in 1397. He married the daughter of Sir Thomas Neville of Hornby, Margaret Neville, who bore him one son, Henry Beaufort. However, the child died young.

Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland 14th/15th-century English nobleman

Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of WestmorlandEarl Marshal, was an English nobleman of the House of Neville.

Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland 14th/15th-century English noble

Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, was the fourth of the four children of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his mistress, later wife, Katherine Swynford. In her widowhood, she was a powerful landowner in the North of England.

Henry's half-sister Joan Beaufort was the grandmother of Edward IV and Richard III. Joan's daughter Cecily married Richard, Duke of York and had several offspring, including Edward IV and Richard III, making Joan the grandmother of two Yorkist kings of England.

Edward IV of England 15th-century King of England

Edward IV was King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death. He was the first Yorkist king.

Richard III of England 15th-century King of England

Richard III was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1483 until his death in 1485. He was the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty. His defeat and death at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England. He is the protagonist of Richard III, one of William Shakespeare's history plays.

Cecily Neville, Duchess of York 15th-century English duchess

Cecily Neville was an English noblewoman, the wife of Richard, Duke of York (1411–1460), and the mother of two kings of England, Edward IV and Richard III. Cecily Neville was known as "the Rose of Raby", because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, and "Proud Cis", because of her pride and a temper that went with it, although she was also known for her piety. She herself signed her name "Cecylle".

Relationship with Richard II

Henry of Bolingbroke, flanked by the lords spiritual and temporal, claims the throne in 1399. From a contemporary manuscript, British Library, Harleian Collection HenryBolingbrokeClaimsThrone.jpg
Henry of Bolingbroke, flanked by the lords spiritual and temporal, claims the throne in 1399. From a contemporary manuscript, British Library, Harleian Collection

Henry experienced a rather more inconsistent relationship with King Richard II than his father had. First cousins and childhood playmates, they were admitted together to the Order of the Garter in 1377, but Henry participated in the Lords Appellants' rebellion against the king in 1387. [5] After regaining power, Richard did not punish Henry, although he did execute or exile many of the other rebellious barons. In fact, Richard elevated Henry from Earl of Derby to Duke of Hereford.

Richard II of England 14th-century King of England and Duke of Aquitaine

Richard II, also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Richard's father, Edward the Black Prince, died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent to King Edward III. Upon the death of his grandfather Edward III, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.

Order of the Garter Order of chivalry in England

The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry founded by King Edward III of England in 1348. It is the most senior order of knighthood in the British honours system, outranked in precedence only by the Victoria Cross and the George Cross. The Order of the Garter is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George, England's patron saint.

Lords Appellant Rebel lords under King Richard II

The Lords Appellant were a group of nobles in the reign of King Richard II, who, in 1388, sought to impeach some five of the King's favourites in order to restrain what was seen as tyrannical and capricious rule. The word appellant simply means '[one who is] appealing [in a legal sense]'. It is the older (Norman) French form of the present participle of the verb appeler, the equivalent of the English 'to appeal'. The group was called the Lords Appellant because its members invoked a procedure under law to start prosecution of the king's unpopular favourites known as 'an appeal': the favourites were charged in a document called an appeal of treason, a device borrowed from civil law which led to some procedural complications.

Henry spent the full year of 1390 supporting the unsuccessful siege of Vilnius (capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania) by Teutonic Knights with 70 to 80 household knights. [6] During this campaign he bought captured Lithuanian women and children and took them back to Königsberg to be converted. [7] Henry's second expedition to Lithuania in 1392 illustrates the financial benefits to the Order of these guest crusaders. His small army consisted of over 100 men, including longbow archers and six minstrels, at a total cost to the Lancastrian purse of £4,360. Despite the efforts of Henry and his English crusaders, two years of attacks on Vilnius proved fruitless. In 1392–93 Henry undertook a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, where he made offerings at the Holy Sepulchre and at the Mount of Olives. [8] Later he vowed to lead a crusade to 'free Jerusalem from the infidel,' but he died before this could be accomplished. [9]

The relationship between Henry Bolingbroke and the king met with a second crisis. In 1398, a remark by Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk regarding Richard II's rule was interpreted as treason by Henry and Henry reported it to the king. [10] The two dukes agreed to undergo a duel of honour (called by Richard II) at Gosford Green near Caludon Castle, Mowbray's home in Coventry. Yet before the duel could take place, Richard II decided to banish Henry from the kingdom (with the approval of Henry's father, John of Gaunt) to avoid further bloodshed. Mowbray himself was exiled for life. [11]

John of Gaunt died in February 1399. [11] Without explanation, Richard cancelled the legal documents that would have allowed Henry to inherit Gaunt's land automatically. Instead, Henry would be required to ask for the lands from Richard. [12] After some hesitation, Henry met with the exiled Thomas Arundel, former Archbishop of Canterbury, who had lost his position because of his involvement with the Lords Appellant. [12] Henry and Arundel returned to England while Richard was on a military campaign in Ireland. With Arundel as his advisor, Henry began a military campaign, confiscating land from those who opposed him and ordering his soldiers to destroy much of Cheshire. Henry initially announced that his intention was to reclaim his rights as Duke of Lancaster, though he quickly gained enough power and support to have himself declared King Henry IV, imprison King Richard (who died in prison under mysterious circumstances) and bypass Richard's 7-year-old heir-presumptive, Edmund de Mortimer. [13] Henry's coronation, on 13 October 1399 at Westminster Abbey, [14] may have marked the first time since the Norman Conquest when the monarch made an address in English.

Henry consulted with Parliament frequently, but was sometimes at odds with the members, especially over ecclesiastical matters. On Arundel's advice, Henry obtained from Parliament the enactment of De heretico comburendo in 1401, which prescribed the burning of heretics, an act done mainly to suppress the Lollard movement. [15] [16] In 1410, Parliament suggested confiscating church land. Henry refused to attack the Church that had helped him to power, and the House of Commons had to beg for the bill to be struck off the record. [17]

Reign

The Coronation of Henry IV of England. From a 15th-century manuscript of Jean Froissart's Chronicles. Henry IV Coronation.jpg
The Coronation of Henry IV of England. From a 15th-century manuscript of Jean Froissart's Chronicles .

The previous ruler

Henry's first major problem as monarch was what to do with the deposed Richard. After an early assassination plot (the Epiphany Rising) was foiled in January 1400, Richard died in prison, probably of starvation. He was 33 years old. Though Henry is often suspected of having his predecessor murdered, there is no substantial evidence to prove that claim. Some chroniclers claimed that the despondent Richard had starved himself, [18] which would not have been out of place with what is known of Richard's character. Though council records indicate that provisions were made for the transportation of the deposed king's body as early as 17 February, there is no reason to believe that he did not die on 14 February, as several chronicles stated. It can be positively said that he did not suffer a violent death, for his skeleton, upon examination, bore no signs of violence; whether he did indeed starve himself or whether that starvation was forced upon him are matters for lively historical speculation. [18]

Silver half groat of Henry IV, York Museums Trust Silver half groat of Henry IV (YORYM 1994 151 102) obverse.jpg
Silver half groat of Henry IV, York Museums Trust

After his death, Richard's body was put on public display in the old St Paul's Cathedral, both to prove to his supporters that he was truly dead and also to prove that he had not suffered a violent death. This did not stop rumours from circulating for years after that he was still alive and waiting to take back his throne. Henry had Richard discreetly buried in the Dominican Priory at King's Langley, Hertfordshire, where he remained until King Henry V brought his body back to London and buried him in the tomb that Richard had commissioned for himself in Westminster Abbey. [19]

Rebellions

Henry spent much of his reign defending himself against plots, rebellions and assassination attempts.

English Royalty
Second House of Lancaster
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg
Henry IV

Rebellions continued throughout the first 10 years of Henry's reign, including the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr, who declared himself Prince of Wales in 1400, and the rebellions led by Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, from 1402. The king's success in putting down these rebellions was due partly to the military ability of his eldest son, Henry of Monmouth, who later became king (though the son managed to seize much effective power from his father in 1410).

In the last year of Henry's reign, the rebellions picked up speed. "The old fable of a living Richard was revived", notes one account, "and emissaries from Scotland traversed the villages of England, in the last year of Henry's reign, declaring that Richard was residing at the Scottish Court, awaiting only a signal from his friends to repair to London and recover his throne."

A suitable-looking impostor was found and King Richard's old groom circulated word in the city that his master was alive in Scotland. "Southwark was incited to insurrection" by Sir Elias Lyvet (Levett) and his associate Thomas Clark, who promised Scottish aid in carrying out the insurrection. Ultimately, the rebellion came to naught. The knight Lyvet was released and his follower thrown into the Tower. [20]

Foreign relations

Early in his reign, Henry hosted the visit of Manuel II Palaiologos, the only Byzantine emperor ever to visit England, from December 1400 to January 1401 at Eltham Palace, with a joust being given in his honour. Henry also sent monetary support with Manuel II upon his departure to aid him against the Ottoman Empire. [21]

In 1406, English pirates captured the future James I of Scotland, aged eleven, off the coast of Flamborough Head as he was sailing to France. [22] James was delivered to the English king and remained a prisoner for the rest of Henry's reign.

Final illness and death

The later years of Henry's reign were marked by serious health problems. He had a disfiguring skin disease and, more seriously, suffered acute attacks of some grave illness in June 1405; April 1406; June 1408; during the winter of 1408–09; December 1412; and finally a fatal bout in March 1413. Medical historians have long debated the nature of this affliction or afflictions. The skin disease might have been leprosy (which did not necessarily mean precisely the same thing in the 15th century as it does to modern medicine), perhaps psoriasis, or some other disease. The acute attacks have been given a wide range of explanations, from epilepsy to some form of cardiovascular disease. [23] Some medieval writers felt that he was struck with leprosy as a punishment for his treatment of Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York, who was executed in June 1405 on Henry's orders after a failed coup. [24]

According to Holinshed, it was predicted that Henry would die in Jerusalem, and Shakespeare's play repeats this prophecy. Henry took this to mean that he would die on crusade. In reality, he died in the Jerusalem Chamber in the abbot's house of Westminster Abbey, on 20 March 1413 during a convocation of Parliament. [25] His executor, Thomas Langley, was at his side.

Burial

16th-century imaginary painting of Henry IV, National Portrait Gallery, London King Henry IV from NPG (2).jpg
16th-century imaginary painting of Henry IV, National Portrait Gallery, London

Despite the example set by most of his recent predecessors, Henry and his second wife, Joan of Navarre, Queen of England, were buried not at Westminster Abbey but at Canterbury Cathedral, on the north side of Trinity Chapel and directly adjacent to the shrine of St Thomas Becket. Becket's cult was then still thriving, as evidenced in the monastic accounts and in literary works such as The Canterbury Tales , and Henry seemed particularly devoted to it, or at least keen to be associated with it. Reasons for his interment in Canterbury are debatable, but it is highly likely that Henry deliberately associated himself with the martyr saint for reasons of political expediency, namely, the legitimisation of his dynasty after seizing the throne from Richard II. [26] Significantly, at his coronation, he was anointed with holy oil that had reportedly been given to Becket by the Virgin Mary shortly before his death in 1170; [27] [28] this oil was placed inside a distinct eagle-shaped container of gold. According to one version of the tale, the oil had then passed to Henry's maternal grandfather, Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. [29]

Proof of Henry's deliberate connection to St Thomas lies partially in the structure of the tomb itself. The wooden panel at the western end of his tomb bears a painting of the martyrdom of Becket, and the tester, or wooden canopy, above the tomb is painted with Henry's personal motto, 'Soverayne', alternated by crowned golden eagles. Likewise, the three large coats of arms that dominate the tester painting are surrounded by collars of SS, a golden eagle enclosed in each tiret. [30] The presence of such eagle motifs points directly to Henry's coronation oil and his ideological association with St Thomas. Sometime after the King's death, an imposing tomb was built for him and his queen, probably commissioned and paid for by Queen Joan herself. [31] Atop the tomb chest lie detailed alabaster effigies of the King and Queen, crowned and dressed in their ceremonial robes. Henry's body was evidently well embalmed, as an exhumation in 1832 established, allowing historians to state with reasonable certainty that the effigies do represent accurate portraiture. [32] [33]

Titles and arms

Titles

Arms

Before his father's death in 1399, Henry bore the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label of five points ermine. After his father's death, the difference changed to a label of five points per pale ermine and France. [35] Upon his accession as king, Henry updated the arms of the kingdom to match an update in those of royal France – from a field of fleur-de-lys to just three.

Seniority in line from Edward III

When Richard II was forced to abdicate the throne in 1399, Henry was next in line to the throne according to Edward III's entailment of 1376. That entailment clearly reflects the operation of agnatic primogeniture, also known as the Salic law. At this time, it was by no means a settled custom for the daughter of a king to supersede the brothers of that king in the line of succession to the throne. Indeed, it was not an established belief that women could inherit the throne at all by right: the only previous instance of succession passing through a woman had been that which involved the Empress Matilda, and this had involved protracted civil war, with the other protagonist being the son of Matilda's father's sister (not his brother). Yet, the heir of the royal estate according to common law (by which the houses and tenancies of common people like peasants and tradesmen passed) was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, who descended from the daughter of Edward III's third son (second to survive to adulthood), Lionel of Antwerp. Bolingbroke's father, John of Gaunt, was Edward's fourth son and the third to survive to adulthood. The problem was solved by emphasising Henry's descent in a direct male line, whereas March's descent was through his grandmother.

The official account of events claims that Richard voluntarily agreed to resign his crown to Henry on 29 September. The country had rallied behind Henry and supported his claim in parliament. However, the question of the succession never went away. The problem lay in the fact that Henry was only the most prominent male heir, but not the most senior in terms of agnatic descent from Edward III. Although he was heir to the throne according to Edward III's entail to the crown of 1376, [36] Dr. Ian Mortimer has pointed out in his 2008 biography of Henry IV that this entail had probably been supplanted by an entail made by Richard II in 1399 (see Ian Mortimer, The Fears of Henry IV, appendix two, pp. 366–9). Henry thus had to overcome the superior claim of the Mortimers in order to maintain his inheritance. This difficulty compounded when the Mortimer claim was merged with the Yorkist claim in the person of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York. The Duke of York was the heir-general of Edward III, and the heir presumptive (due to agnatic descent, the same principle by which Henry IV claimed the throne in 1399) of Henry's grandson Henry VI (since Henry IV's other sons did not have male heirs, and the legitimated Beauforts were excluded from the throne). The House of Lancaster was finally deposed by Edward IV, son of Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, during the Wars of the Roses.

Henry avoided the problem of Mortimer having a superior claim by ignoring his own descent from Edward III. He claimed the throne as the right heir to King Henry III by claiming that Edmund Crouchback was the elder and not the younger son of King Henry. He asserted that every monarch from Edward I was a usurper, and he, as his mother Blanche of Lancaster was a great-granddaughter of Edmund, was the rightful king. Henry also claimed to be king of France, but Henry III had no claim to that throne. [37]

Ancestry

Marriages and issue

First marriage: Mary de Bohun

The date and venue of Henry's first marriage to Mary de Bohun (died 1394) are uncertain, but her marriage licence, purchased by Henry's father John of Gaunt in June 1380 is preserved at the National Archives. The accepted date of the ceremony is 5 February 1381, at Mary's family home of Rochford Hall, Essex. [39] Alternately, the near-contemporary chronicler Jean Froissart reports a rumour that Mary's sister Eleanor de Bohun kidnapped Mary from Pleshey Castle and held her at Arundel Castle, where she was kept as a novice nun; Eleanor's intention was to control Mary's half of the Bohun inheritance (or to allow her husband, Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, to control it). [40] [41] There Mary was persuaded to marry Henry. They had six children: [42]

NameArmsBlazon
Henry V of England (1386–1422), 1st son Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Arms of King Henry IV: France modern quartering Plantagenet
Thomas of Lancaster, Duke of Clarence (1387–1421), 2nd son, who married Margaret Holland, widow of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, and daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent. Without progeny. Arms of Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence.svg Arms of King Henry IV with a label of three points argent each charged with three ermine spots and a canton gules for difference
John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford (1389–1435), 3rd son, who married twice: firstly to Anne of Burgundy (d.1432), daughter of John the Fearless, without progeny. Secondly to Jacquetta of Luxembourg, without progeny. Arms of John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford.svg Arms of King Henry IV with a label of five points per pale ermine and France for difference
Humphrey of Lancaster, Duke of Gloucester (1390–1447), 4th son, who married twice but left no surviving legitimate progeny: firstly to Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland (d.1436), daughter of William VI, Count of Hainaut. Through this marriage Gloucester assumed the title "Count of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault". Secondly to Eleanor Cobham, his mistress. Arms of Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester.svg Arms of King Henry IV with bordure argent for difference
Blanche of England (1392–1409) married in 1402 Louis III, Elector Palatine [43]
Philippa of England (1394–1430) married in 1406 Eric of Pomerania, king of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

Henry had four sons from his first marriage, which was undoubtedly a clinching factor in his acceptability for the throne. By contrast, Richard II had no children and Richard's heir-presumptive Edmund Mortimer was only seven years old. The only two of Henry's six children who produced children to survive to adulthood were Henry V and Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester. Henry IV's male Lancaster line ended in 1471 during the War of the Roses, between the Lancastrians and the Yorkists, with the deaths of his grandson Henry VI and Henry VI's son Edward, Prince of Wales. The descendants of Henry IV's son Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, include Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, queen consort of George VI and mother of Elizabeth II, [44] and the Queen's current daughters-in-law Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex. [45]

Second marriage: Joanna of Navarre

Mary de Bohun died in 1394, and on 7 February 1403 Henry married Joanna of Navarre, the daughter of Charles d'Évreux, King of Navarre, at Winchester. She was the widow of John IV, Duke of Brittany (known in traditional English sources as John V), [46] with whom she had had four daughters and four sons; however, her marriage to the King of England was childless.

Mistresses

By an unknown mistress, Henry IV had one illegitimate child:

See also

Notes

  1. Mortimer 2007, p. 176.
  2. Mortimer, I. (6 December 2006). "Henry IV's date of birth and the royal Maundy". Historical Research . 80 (210): 567–576. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2006.00403.x. ISSN   0950-3471.
  3. Janvrin, Isabelle; Rawlinson, Catherine (6 June 2016). The French in London: From William the Conqueror to Charles de Gaulle. Translated by Emily Read. Wilmington Square Books. p. 16. ISBN   978-1-908524-65-2.
  4. Armitage-Smith, Sydney (1905). John of Gaunt. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 318.
  5. B. Bevan, Henry IV, New York, 1994, pp. 6, 13.
  6. Given-Wilson 2016, p. 66–68.
  7. Given-Wilson 2016, p. 69.
  8. Bevan, Bryan (1994). Henry IV. London: Macmillan. p.  32. ISBN   0-948695-35-8.
  9. B. Bevan, Henry IV, New York, 1994, p. 1.
  10. A. Lyon, Constitutional History of the UK, London – Sydney – Portland, 2003, p. 122
  11. 1 2 H. Barr, Signes and Sothe: Language in the Piers Plowman Tradition, Cambridge, 1994, p. 146.
  12. 1 2 B. Bevan, Henry IV, New York, 1994, p. 51.
  13. B. Bevan, Henry IV, New York, 1994, p. 66.
  14. B. Bevan, Henry IV, New York, 1994, p. 67.
  15. Fiona Somerset; Jill C. Havens; Derrick G. Pitard (2003). Lollards and Their Influence in Late Medieval England. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN   978-0-85115-995-9.
  16. Gwilym Dodd; Douglas Biggs (2008). The Reign of Henry IV: Rebellion and Survival, 1403-1413. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. 137. ISBN   978-1-903153-23-9.
  17. T. Jones – A. Ereira, Terry Jones' Medieval Lives , London, 2004, p. 112.
  18. 1 2 Anthony Tuck, 'Richard II (1367–1400)', in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).
  19. Joel Burden, 'How Do You Bury a Deposed King?', in Henry IV: The Establishment of the Regime, 1399–1406, ed. Gwilym Dodd and Douglas Biggs (York: York Medieval Press, 2003), pp. 35–53.
  20. The Book of the Princes of Wales, Heirs to the Crown of England, Dr. John Doran, London, Richard Bentley, New Burlington Street, Publisher in Ordinary to Her Majesty, 1860. 1860. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  21. G. Dennis, The Letters of Manuel II Palaeologus (Washington DC, 1977) Letter 38.
  22. E W M Balfour-Melville, James I King of Scots, London 1936
  23. Peter McNiven, "The Problem of Henry IV's Health, 1405–1413", English Historical Review, 100 (1985), pp. 747–772
  24. Swanson Religion and Devotion p. 298
  25. Brown & Summerson 2010.
  26. Christopher Wilson, 'The Tomb of Henry IV and the Holy Oil of St Thomas of Canterbury', in Medieval Architecture and its Intellectual Context, ed. Eric Fernie and Paul Crossley (London: The Hambledon Press, 1990), pp. 181–190.
  27. Thomas Walsingham, The St Albans Chronicle: The Chronica Maiora of Thomas Walsingham, Volume II, 1394–1422, ed. and trans. John Taylor et al. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2011), p. 237.
  28. 'Pope John XXII to King Edward II of England, 2 June 1318', English Coronation Records, ed. L.G.W. Legg (London: Archibald Constable & Co. Ltd., 1901), pp. 73–75.
  29. Thomas Walsingham, The St Albans Chronicle: The Chronica Maiora of Thomas Walsingham, Volume II, 1394–1422, ed. and trans. John Taylor et al. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2011), pp. 237–241.
  30. Christopher Wilson, 'The Tomb of Henry IV and the Holy Oil of St Thomas of Canterbury', in Medieval Architecture and its Intellectual Context, ed. Eric Fernie and Paul Crossley (London: The Hambledon Press, 1990), pp.186–189.
  31. Christopher Wilson, 'The Medieval Monuments', in A History of Canterbury Cathedral, ed. Patrick Collinson et al. (Oxford: OUP, 1995), pp. 451–510
  32. C. Eveleigh Woodruff and William Danks, Memorials of the Cathedral and Priory of Christ in Canterbury (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1912), pp. 192–194.
  33. Antiquary (10 May 1902). "Exhumation of Henry IV". Notes and Queries . 9th series. 9 (228): 369. doi:10.1093/nq/s9-IX.228.369c.
  34. 1 2 3 4 Complete Peerage 1926, p. 477.
  35. Francois R. Velde. "Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family". Heraldica.org. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  36. Given-Wilson, Chris (2004). Alfonso Antón, Isabel (ed.). Building Legitimacy: Political Discourses and Forms of Legitimacy in Medieval Societies. Boston, MA: Brill. pp. &nbsp, 90. ISBN   90-04-13305-4.
  37. Ashdown-Hill, John (2003). "The Lancastrian Claim to the Throne". The Ricardian. XIII: 27–38. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  38. Watson 1896, p. 114.
  39. Brown & Summerson 2008.
  40. Johnes, Thomas; Froissart, Jean (1806). Chronicles of England, France and Spain. 5. London: Longman. p. 242. OCLC   465942209.
  41. Strickland, Agnes (1840). Lives of the queens of England from the Norman conquest with anecdotes of their courts. 3. London: Henry Colborn. p. 144. OCLC   459108616.
  42. The idea that he and Mary had a child in 1382 (Edward) (born and died April 1382) is based on a misreading of an account which was published in an erroneous form by JH Wylie in the 19th century. It missed a line which made clear that the boy in question was the son of Thomas of Woodstock. The attribution of the name Edward to this boy is conjecture based on the fact that Henry was the grandson of Edward III and idolised his uncle Edward of Woodstock yet did not call any of his sons Edward. However, there is no evidence that there was any child at this time (when Mary de Bohun was 12), let alone that he was called Edward. See appendix 2 in Ian Mortimer's book The Fears of Henry IV.
  43. Panton 2011, p. 74.
  44. Bernard Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland Volume 4. p. 134.
  45. Charles Mosley, editor. Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 2, p. 2720.
  46. Jones, Michael (1988). The Creation of Brittany. London: Hambledon Press. p. 123. ISBN   090762880X.
  47. Richardson, D. (2011). Kimball G. Everingham (ed.). Magna Carta Ancestry. 2 (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. p. 554. ISBN   978-1-4499-6638-6.
  48. Mortimer 2007, p. 372.

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References

Henry IV of England
Cadet branch of the House of Plantagenet
Born: 15 April 1367 Died: 20 March 1413
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Richard II
King of England
1399–1413
Succeeded by
Henry V
Duke of Aquitaine
1399–1400
Peerage of England
Preceded by
John of Gaunt
Duke of Lancaster
1399
Succeeded by
Henry of Monmouth
In abeyance
Title last held by
Humphrey de Bohun
Earl of Northampton
1384–1399
Succeeded by
Anne of Gloucester
Political offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Lancaster
Lord High Steward
1399
Succeeded by
The Duke of Clarence