Henry Liddell

Last updated

Henry Liddell, in an 1858 portrait by George Richmond Portrait of Henry George Liddell.jpg
Henry Liddell, in an 1858 portrait by George Richmond

Henry George Liddell ( /ˈlɪdəl/ ; [lower-alpha 1] 6 February 1811 – 18 January 1898) was dean (1855–1891) of Christ Church, Oxford, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University (1870–1874), headmaster (1846–1855) of Westminster School [3] (where a house is now named after him), author of A History of Rome (1855), and co-author (with Robert Scott) of the monumental work A Greek–English Lexicon , [4] known as "Liddell and Scott", which is still widely used by students of Greek. Lewis Carroll wrote Alice's Adventures in Wonderland for Henry Liddell's daughter Alice.

Contents

Life

Liddell received his education at Charterhouse and Christ Church, Oxford. He gained a double first degree in 1833, then became a college tutor, and was ordained in 1838. [5]

Henry Liddell, in an 1891 portrait by Sir Hubert von Herkomer HenryLiddell.jpg
Henry Liddell, in an 1891 portrait by Sir Hubert von Herkomer

Liddell was Headmaster of Westminster School from 1846 to 1855. Meanwhile, his life work, the great lexicon (based on the German work of Franz Passow), which he and Robert Scott began as early as 1834, had made good progress, and the first edition of Liddell and Scott's Lexicon appeared in 1843. It immediately became the standard Greek–English dictionary, with the 8th edition published in 1897. [5]

As Headmaster of Westminster Liddell enjoyed a period of great success, followed by trouble due to the outbreak of fever and cholera in the school. In 1855 he accepted the deanery of Christ Church, Oxford. In the same year he brought out his History of Ancient Rome and took a very active part in the first Oxford University Commission. His tall figure, fine presence and aristocratic mien were for many years associated with all that was characteristic of Oxford life. Coming just at the transition period when the "old Christ Church," which Pusey strove so hard to preserve, was inevitably becoming broader and more liberal, it was chiefly due to Liddell that necessary changes were effected with the minimum of friction.

In 1859 Liddell welcomed the then Prince of Wales when he matriculated at Christ Church, being the first holder of that title who had matriculated since Henry V. [5] While Liddell was Dean of Christ Church, he arranged for the building of a new choir school and classrooms for the staff and pupils of Christ Church Cathedral School on its present site. Before then the school was housed within Christ Church itself.[ citation needed ]

In July 1846, Liddell married Lorina Reeve (1826–1910), with whom he had nine children including Alice Liddell (1852–1934) of Lewis Carroll fame.

In conjunction with Sir Henry Acland, Liddell did much to encourage the study of art at Oxford, and his taste and judgment gained him the admiration and friendship of Ruskin. In 1891, owing to advancing years, he resigned the deanery. The last years of his life were spent at Ascot, where he died on 18 January 1898. [5] Two roads in Ascot, Liddell Way and Carroll Crescent honour the relationship between Henry Liddell and Lewis Carroll.

Liddell as caricatured by 'Ape' in Vanity Fair (1875) Liddell caricature.jpg
Liddell as caricatured by 'Ape' in Vanity Fair (1875)

Liddell was an Oxford "character" in later years. He figures in contemporary undergraduate doggerel: [6]

I am the Dean, this is Mrs Liddell.
She plays first, I, second fiddle.
She is the Broad,
I am the High –

We are the University.

The Victorian journalist, George W. E. Russell (1853–1919), conveys something of Liddell's image: [7]

The Vice-Chancellor who matriculated me [1872] was the majestic Liddell, who, with his six feet of stately height draped in scarlet, his 'argent aureole' of white hair, and his three silver maces borne before him, always helped me to understand what Sydney Smith meant when he said, of some nonsensical proposition, that no power on earth, save and except the Dean of Christ Church, should induce him to believe it.

Works

Henry George Liddell was the author of

Family

His father was Henry Liddell, Rector of Easington (1787–1872), the younger son of Sir Henry Liddell, 5th Baronet (1749–1791) and the former Elizabeth Steele. His father's elder brother, Sir Thomas Liddell, 6th Baronet (1775–1855), was raised to the Peerage as Baron Ravensworth in 1821.

His mother was the former Charlotte Lyon (1785–1871), a daughter of Thomas Lyon (1741–1796) (who was the youngest son of the 8th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne) and the former Mary Wren (died 1811).

Three of Liddell's children (l to r) Lorina, Edith and Alice, photographed by Julia Margaret Cameron in 1872. The central figure is Charles Hay Cameron as King Lear. King Lear allotting his Kingdom to his three daughters, by Julia Margaret Cameron.jpg
Three of Liddell's children (l to r) Lorina, Edith and Alice, photographed by Julia Margaret Cameron in 1872. The central figure is Charles Hay Cameron as King Lear.

On 2 July 1846, Henry married Lorina Reeve (3 March 1826 – 25 June 1910). They were parents of ten children:

See also

Notes

  1. Naiditch quotes "a variant of the Balliol Rhymes: [1] 'I am the Dean, and this is Mrs Liddell: / She plays the first, and I the second fiddle.'" [2]

Related Research Articles

<i>Alices Adventures in Wonderland</i> 1865 childrens novel by Lewis Carroll

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is an 1865 English children's novel by Lewis Carroll. A young girl named Alice falls through a rabbit hole into a fantasy world of anthropomorphic creatures. It is seen as a prime example of the literary nonsense genre. Its play with logic gives the story lasting popularity with adults as well as children.

Christ Church, Oxford Constituent college of the University of Oxford in England

Christ Church is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ Church is a joint foundation of the college and the cathedral of the Oxford diocese, which serves as the college chapel and whose dean is ex officio the college head.

Alice Liddell Basis of the character in "Alice in Wonderland"

Alice Pleasance Hargreaves, was, in her childhood, an acquaintance and photography subject of Lewis Carroll. One of the stories he told her during a boating trip became the children's classic 1865 novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. She shared her name with "Alice", the heroine of the story, but scholars disagree about the extent to which the character was based upon her.

William Markham (bishop) Archbishop of York

William Markham, English divine, served as Archbishop of York from 1777 until his death.

George Cornewall Lewis

Sir George Cornewall Lewis, 2nd Baronet, was a British statesman and man of letters. He is best known for preserving neutrality in 1862 when the British cabinet debated intervention in the American Civil War.

Baron Ravensworth, of Ravensworth Castle in the County Palatine of Durham and of Eslington Park in the County of Northumberland, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

<i>A Greek–English Lexicon</i> 1843–1940 lexicon by Liddell, Scott, Jones

"A Greek–English Lexicon", often referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, is a standard lexicographical work of the Ancient Greek language originally edited by Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, Henry Stuart Jones and Roderick McKenzie and published in 1843 by the Oxford University Press.

Robinson Duckworth

Robinson Duckworth was a British priest, who was present on the original boating expedition of 4 July 1862 during which Alice's adventures were first told by Lewis Carroll. He is represented by the Duck in the book, a play on his last name.

George Kitchin

George William Kitchin was the first Chancellor of the University of Durham, from the institution of the role in 1908 until his death in 1912. He was also the last Dean of Durham to govern the university.

Robert Scott was a British academic philologist and Church of England priest.

Theophilus Carter

Theophilus Carter was an eccentric British furniture dealer who may have been an inspiration for the illustration by Sir John Tenniel of Lewis Carroll's characters the Mad Hatter in his 1865 novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Hatta in the 1871 sequel Through the Looking-Glass.

Alices Shop

Alice's Shop is a shop at 83 St Aldate's, Oxford, England. With 82 St Aldate's next door it is part of a stone-built 15th-century house that was remodelled in the 17th century. It is now a gift shop selling gifts, souvenirs and memorabilia, all based on Alice.

Twyford School is a co-educational, independent, preparatory boarding and day school, located in the village of Twyford, Hampshire, England.

Francis Needham, 3rd Earl of Kilmorey

Francis Charles Needham, 3rd Earl of Kilmorey, styled Viscount Newry from 1851 to 1880, was an Anglo-Irish peer and Conservative Member of Parliament.

Christ Church Cathedral School Independent day and boarding school in Oxford, England

Christ Church Cathedral School is an independent preparatory school for boys in Oxford, England. It is one of three choral foundation schools in the city and educates choristers of Christ Church Cathedral, and the Chapels of Worcester College and Pembroke College. It is a member of the IAPS and the Choir Schools Association.

William Freind (c.1715–1766) was an 18th-century Church of England clergyman who was Dean of Canterbury from 1760 to 1766.

Lewis Carroll British writer, Anglican deacon and photographer (1832–1898)

Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer of children's fiction, notably Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass. He was noted for his facility with word play, logic, and fantasy. The poems "Jabberwocky" and The Hunting of the Snark are classified in the genre of literary nonsense. He was also a mathematician, photographer, inventor, and Anglican deacon.

St Frideswides Church Church in United Kingdom

St Frideswide's Church is a Church of England church on the south side of the Botley Road in New Osney, west Oxford, England. The church is in a district originally part of the parish of St Thomas the Martyr.

Henry Jacobs (priest)

Henry Jacobs was a Church of England priest and schoolmaster, and the first Dean of Christchurch, New Zealand.

Samuel Smith (Dean of Christ Church)

Samuel Smith was an English clergyman and academic administrator at the University of Oxford.

References

  1. Balliol Rhymes, p. 29.
  2. Naiditch, P. G. (1993). "On Pronouncing the Names of Certain British Classical Scholars". The Classical Journal. 89 (1): 57. JSTOR   3297619.
  3. Henry George Liddell, English Literature, 19th Century, Biographies Archived 8 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  4. Henry Liddell at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  5. 1 2 3 4 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Liddell, Henry George". Encyclopædia Britannica . 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 588.
  6. Wilson, Robin (2008). Lewis Carroll in Numberland: His Fantastical Mathematical Logical Life. UK: Penguin. p. 83. ISBN   978-0141016108.
  7. Fifteen Chapters of Autobiography. 1914. p. 84.
  8. 1 2 "No. 31840". The London Gazette (3rd supplement). 30 March 1920. p. 3844.
  9. "Albert Liddell – Historical records and family trees – MyHeritage". myheritage.com. Retrieved 4 April 2018.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Henry George Liddell at Wikimedia Commons

Academic offices
Preceded by
Dean of Christ Church, Oxford
1855–1891
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University
1870–1874
Succeeded by