Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland

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Henry Percy
Earl of Northumberland, King of Mann
Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland.jpg
18th-century engraving
Born10 November 1341
Alnwick, Northumberland, England
Died20 February 1408(1408-02-20) (aged 66)
Bramham Moor, Yorkshire, England
Noble family House of Percy
Spouse(s)Margaret Neville
Maud, Baroness Lucy
Issue
Harry "Hotspur" Percy
Sir Thomas Percy
Sir Ralph Percy
Alan Percy
Margaret Percy
Father Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy
Mother Mary of Lancaster
Alnwick Castle, held by Henry Percy, possible birthplace of his son "Harry Hotspur" Alnwick Castle - Northumberland - 140804.jpg
Alnwick Castle, held by Henry Percy, possible birthplace of his son "Harry Hotspur"

Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, 4th Baron Percy, titular King of Mann, KG, [1] Lord Marshal (10 November 1341 20 February 1408) was the son of Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy, and a descendant of Henry III of England. His mother was Mary of Lancaster, daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, son of Edmund, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster, who was the son of Henry III.

Contents

Life

Arms of Percy Modern arms of Percy.svg
Arms of Percy

Henry Percy was originally a follower of Edward III of England, for whom he held high offices in the administration of northern England. At a young age, he was made Warden of the Marches towards Scotland in 1362, with the authority to negotiate with the Scottish government. In February 1367, he was entrusted with the supervision of all castles and fortified places in the Scottish marches. He went on to support King Richard II, was formally created an Earl on Richard's coronation in 1377, [2] and was briefly given the title of Marshal of England. Between 1383 and 1384, he was appointed Admiral of the Northern Seas. After Richard elevated his rival Ralph Neville to the position of Earl of Westmorland in 1397, Percy and his son, also Henry and known as "Hotspur", supported the rebellion of Henry Bolingbroke, who became King as Henry IV.

On King Henry IV's coronation, Henry Percy was appointed Constable of England and granted the lordship of the Isle of Man. Percy and Hotspur were given the task of subduing the rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr, but their attempts to make peace with the Welsh rebels did not meet with the king's approval.

Rebellion

In September 1402 the Percys took part in the Battle of Homildon Hill, which led to the capture of many Scots nobles. Henry did not want them to be ransomed, leading to another quarrel. [3] In 1403 the Percys turned against Henry IV in favour of Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, and then conspired with Owain Glyndŵr against Henry. The Percy rebellion failed at the Battle of Shrewsbury, where Hotspur was killed. Since the earl did not directly participate in the rebellion, he was not convicted of treason. However, he lost his office as Constable.

In 1405 all three parties signed the Tripartite Indenture, which divided England up between them. Glyndŵr was to be given Wales, and a substantial part of the west of England, Northumberland was to have received the north of England, as well as Northamptonshire, Norfolk, Warwickshire, and Leicestershire. The Mortimers were to have received the rest of southern England, below the river Trent. [4]

Later in 1405 Percy supported Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York, in another rebellion, after which Percy fled to Scotland, and his estates were confiscated by the king.

In 1408 Percy invaded England in rebellion once more and was killed at the Battle of Bramham Moor. His severed head was subsequently put on display at London Bridge.

Marriages and issue

In 1358, he married Margaret Neville (12 February 1339 12 May 1372), daughter of Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby, and Alice de Audley.[ citation needed ] They had four sons (Harry "Hotspur" Percy, Thomas, Ralph, and Alan) and one daughter (Margaret).

Canting arms of Lucy of Cockermouth Castle: Gules, three lucies hauriant argent Blason Lucy de Cockermouth (selon Gelre).svg
Canting arms of Lucy of Cockermouth Castle: Gules, three lucies hauriant argent

In 1381, he married Maud Lucy (1343 18 December 1398), daughter of Sir Thomas de Lucy, 2nd Baron Lucy, and Margaret de Multon, and thus sister and heiress of Anthony Lucy, 3rd Baron Lucy (died 1368), of Cockermouth Castle, Cumbria, which estate he inherited on condition that he and his heirs male should bear the arms of Lucy (Gules, three lucies hauriant argent) quarterly with their own. [5] They had no issue.

In literature and media

Northumberland is a major character in Shakespeare's Richard II , Henry IV, part 1 , and Henry IV, part 2.

His position as a character in the Shakespearean canon inspired the character of Lord Percy Percy, heir to the duchy of Northumberland in the historical sitcom The Black Adder , set during the very late Plantagenet era.

The novel Lion of Alnwick by Carol Wensby-Scott is the first volume of the Percy Saga trilogy which retells the story of "the wild and brilliant Percy family" and relates a fictionalised account of the lives of the 1st Earl of Northumberland and his son Henry "Hotspur" Percy. The other novels in the trilogy, Lion Dormant and Lion Invincible tell the story of his other descendants and their role in the English War of the Roses.

Henry Percy and his son Hotspur are also essential characters in Edith Pargeter's novel, A Bloody Field by Shrewsbury which recounts the events leading up to the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403.

He is a major character in My Lord John by Georgette Heyer.

Ancestry

Related Research Articles

Owain Glyndŵr Welsh rebel and prince

Owain ap Gruffydd, lord of Glyndyfrdwy, or simply Owain Glyndŵr or Glyn Dŵr, was a Welsh leader who instigated a fierce and long-running yet ultimately unsuccessful war of independence with the aim of ending English rule in Wales during the Late Middle Ages. He was the last native Welshman to hold the title Prince of Wales.

Henry Percy (Hotspur) 14th-century English noble

Sir Henry Percy, nicknamed Hotspur, was an English knight who fought in several campaigns against the Scots in the northern border and against the French during the Hundred Years' War. The nickname "Hotspur" was given to him by the Scots as a tribute to his speed in advance and readiness to attack. The heir to a leading noble family in northern England, Hotspur was one of the earliest and prime movers behind the deposition of King Richard II in favour of Henry Bolingbroke in 1399. He later fell out with the new regime and rebelled, being slain at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403 at the height of his fame.

Battle of Shrewsbury 15th-century battle of the Glyndŵr Rising

The Battle of Shrewsbury was a battle fought on 21 July 1403, waged between an army led by the Lancastrian King Henry IV and a rebel army led by Henry "Harry Hotspur" Percy from Northumberland. The battle, the first in which English archers fought each other on English soil, reaffirmed the effectiveness of the longbow and ended the Percy challenge to King Henry IV of England.

Thomas Percy, 1st Earl of Worcester 14th-century English nobleman

Thomas Percy, 1st Earl of Worcester, KG was an English medieval nobleman and naval commander best known for leading the rebellion with his nephew Henry Percy, known as 'Harry Hotspur', and his elder brother, Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland.

Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March 14th/15th-century English noble

Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, 7th Earl of Ulster, was an English nobleman and a potential claimant to the throne of England. A great-great-grandson of King Edward III of England, he was heir presumptive to King Richard II of England when he was deposed in favour of Henry IV. Edmund Mortimer's claim to the throne was the basis of rebellions and plots against Henry IV and his son Henry V, and was later taken up by the House of York in the Wars of the Roses, though Mortimer himself was an important and loyal vassal of Henry V and Henry VI. Edmund was the last Earl of March of the Mortimer family.

Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland 14th/15th-century English nobleman

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Earl of Northumberland

The title of Earl of Northumberland has been created several times in the Peerage of England and of Great Britain, succeeding the title Earl of Northumbria. Its most famous holders are the House of Percy, who were the most powerful noble family in Northern England for much of the Middle Ages. The heirs of the Percys, via a female line, were ultimately made Duke of Northumberland in 1766, and continue to hold the earldom as a subsidiary title.

Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland English nobleman and military commander

Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland was an English nobleman and military commander in the lead up to the Wars of the Roses. He was the son of Henry "Hotspur" Percy, and the grandson of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland. His father and grandfather were killed in different rebellions against Henry IV in 1403 and 1408 respectively, and the young Henry spent his minority in exile in Scotland. Only after the death of Henry IV in 1413 was he reconciled with the Crown, and in 1414 he was created Earl of Northumberland.

Earl of Westmorland Title in the peerage of England

Earl of Westmorland is a title that has been created twice in the Peerage of England. The title was first created in 1397 for Ralph Neville. It was forfeited in 1571 by Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland for leading the Rising of the North. It was revived in 1624 in favour of Sir Francis Fane, whose mother, Mary Neville, was a descendant of a younger son of the first Earl. The first Earl of the first creation had already become Baron Neville de Raby, and that was a subsidiary title for his successors. The current Earl holds the subsidiary title Baron Burghersh (1624).

House of Percy Powerful noble family in northern England for much of the Middle Ages

The House of Percy is an English noble family. They were one of the most powerful noble families in Northern England for much of the Middle Ages, known for their long rivalry with another powerful northern English family, the House of Neville.

Reynold Grey, 3rd Baron Grey of Ruthin

Reynold Grey, 3rd Baron Grey of Ruthin, a powerful Welsh marcher lord, succeeded to the title on his father's death in July 1388.

The Battle of Holmedon Hill or Battle of Homildon Hill was a conflict between English and Scottish armies on 14 September 1402 in Northumberland, England. The battle was recounted in Shakespeare's Henry IV, part 1. Although Humbleton Hill is the modern name of the site, over the centuries it has been variously named Homildon, Hameldun, Holmedon, and Homilheugh.

Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas

Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas, Duke of Touraine, was a Scottish nobleman and warlord. He is sometimes given the epithet "Tyneman", but this may be a reference to his great-uncle Sir Archibald Douglas.

Battle of Bramham Moor Final battle in the Percy Rebellion

The Battle of Bramham Moor on 19 February 1408 was the final battle in the Percy Rebellion of 1402 – 1408, which pitted Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, head of the rich and influential Percy family, against the usurper King of England, Henry IV. The Percys had previously supported Henry in his coup d'etat against his cousin King Richard II in 1399.

Josceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland

JoscelinePercy, 11th Earl of Northumberland, 5th Baron Percy, of Alnwick Castle, Northumberland and Petworth House, Sussex, was an English peer.

Events from the 1400s in England.

Glyndŵr Rising

The Glyndŵr Rising, Welsh Revolt or Last War of Independence was an uprising of the Welsh between 1400 and 1415, led by Owain Glyndŵr, against the Kingdom of England. It was the last major manifestation of a Welsh independence movement before the incorporation of Wales into England by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542.

Sir Edmund Mortimer IV was an English nobleman and landowner who played a part in the rebellions of the Welsh leader Owain Glyndŵr and of the Percy family against King Henry IV, at the beginning of the 15th century. He perished at the siege of Harlech as part of these conflicts. He was related to many members of the English royal family through his mother, Philippa, Countess of Ulster, who was a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

William Willoughby, 5th Baron Willoughby de Eresby

William Willoughby, 5th Baron Willoughby de Eresby KG was an English baron.

References

  1. Shaw, Wm. A. (1971). The Knights of England: A Complete Record from the Earliest Time to the Present Day of the Knights of All the Orders of Chivalry in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and of the Knights Bachelors. 1. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company. p. 3. OCLC   247620448.
  2. Chisholm 1911, p. 787.
  3. Chisholm 1911, p. 788.
  4. Trevor Royle, The Wars of the Roses; England's First Civil War, Abacus, 2009, ISBN   978-0-349-11790-4 p. 95
  5. Daniel Lysons and Samuel Lysons, 'Cockermouth', in Magna Britannia: Volume 4, Cumberland (London, 1816), pp. 40-45 http://www.british-history.ac.uk/magna-britannia/vol4/pp40-45

Sources

Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by
The Countess of Norfolk
Lord Marshal
1377
Succeeded by
The Lord Maltravers
Peerage of England
Preceded by
New Creation
Earl of Northumberland
1377–1405
Succeeded by
forfeit/Henry Percy
Preceded by
Henry de Percy
Baron Percy
1368–1405
Succeeded by
forfeit/Henry Percy
Head of State of the Isle of Man
Preceded by
William le Scrope
King of Mann
1399–1405
Succeeded by
John I Stanley