Henry Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron Holland

Last updated


The Lord Holland

PC
Henry Richard Vassall Fox, 3rd Baron Holland by Sir George Hayter.jpg
Portrait of Lord Holland by Sir George Hayter, 1820. National Portrait Gallery, London.
Lord Privy Seal
In office
8 October 1806 31 March 1807
Monarch George III
Prime Minister The Lord Grenville
Preceded by The Viscount Sidmouth
Succeeded by The Earl of Westmorland
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
In office
25 November 1830 14 November 1834
Monarch William IV
Prime Minister The Earl Grey
The Viscount Melbourne
Preceded by Charles Arbuthnot
Succeeded by Charles Williams-Wynn
In office
20 February 1835 22 October 1840
Monarch William IV
Victoria
Prime Minister The Viscount Melbourne
Preceded by Charles Williams-Wynn
Succeeded by The Earl of Clarendon
Personal details
Born21 November 1773 (1773-11-21)
Winterslow House, Wiltshire
Died22 October 1840 (1840-10-23) (aged 66)
NationalityBritish
Political party Whig
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Vassall
Children7, including:
Charles Richard Fox
Henry Fox, 4th Baron Holland
Parents Stephen Fox, 2nd Baron Holland
Lady Mary FitzPatrick
Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford
Canting arms of Fox, Baron Holland: Ermine, on a chevron azure three fox's heads and necks erased or on a canton of the second a fleur-de-lys of the third Fox (BaronHolland) Arms.png
Canting arms of Fox, Baron Holland: Ermine, on a chevron azure three fox's heads and necks erased or on a canton of the second a fleur-de-lys of the third

Henry Richard Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron Holland of Holland, and 3rd Baron Holland of Foxley PC (21 November 1773 – 22 October 1840), was an English politician and a major figure in Whig politics in the early 19th century. A grandson of Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, and nephew of Charles James Fox, he served as Lord Privy Seal between 1806 and 1807 in the Ministry of All the Talents headed by Lord Grenville and as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster between 1830 and 1834 and again between 1835 and his death in 1840 in the Whig administrations of Lord Grey and Lord Melbourne.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, commonly known as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or simply the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland British politician

Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, PC, of Holland House in Kensington and of Holland House in Kingsgate, Kent, was a leading British politician. He identified primarily with the Whig faction. He held the posts of Secretary at War, Southern Secretary and Paymaster of the Forces, from which latter post he enriched himself. Whilst widely tipped as a future Prime Minister, he never held that office. His third son was the Whig statesman Charles James Fox.

Charles James Fox 18th/19th-century British statesman

Charles James Fox, styled The Honourable from 1762, was a prominent British Whig statesman whose parliamentary career spanned 38 years of the late 18th and early 19th centuries and who was the arch-rival of William Pitt the Younger. His father Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, a leading Whig of his day, had similarly been the great rival of Pitt's famous father William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. He rose to prominence in the House of Commons as a forceful and eloquent speaker with a notorious and colourful private life, though his opinions were rather conservative and conventional. However, with the coming of the American War of Independence and the influence of the Whig Edmund Burke, Fox's opinions evolved into some of the most radical ever to be aired in the Parliament of his era.

Contents

Background and education

Portrait of Lord Holland by Francois-Xavier Fabre, 1795. Henry Vassall-Fox 3rd Baron Holland (1795).jpg
Portrait of Lord Holland by François-Xavier Fabre, 1795.

Holland was born at Winterslow House, Wiltshire, [1] the son of Stephen Fox, 2nd Baron Holland (1745–1774), and Lady Mary FitzPatrick, daughter of John FitzPatrick, 1st Earl of Upper Ossory, and Lady Evelyn, daughter of John Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Gower. His paternal grandparents were Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, and Lady Caroline Lennox, the eldest of the famous Lennox sisters and a great-granddaughter (through an illegitimate line) of King Charles II.

Wiltshire County of England

Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of 3,485 km2. It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Somerset, Hampshire, Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire and Berkshire. The county town was originally Wilton, after which the county is named, but Wiltshire Council is now based in the county town of Trowbridge.

Stephen Fox, 2nd Baron Holland British politician and peer

Stephen Fox, 2nd Baron Holland of Holland House in Kensington, Middlesex, was a British peer.

John FitzPatrick, 1st Earl of Upper Ossory 1st earl of Upper Ossory

John FitzPatrick, 1st Earl of Upper Ossory lived in County Cork in Ireland.

He succeeded in the barony in December 1774, aged one, on the early death of his father, while his mother died shortly before his fifth birthday. [2] He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, [1] [2] where he became the friend of George Canning and John Hookham Frere. Lord Holland's uncle was the great Whig orator Charles James Fox, and he remained steadily loyal to the Whig party. [1]

Eton College school in Windsor and Maidenhead, UK

Eton College is a 13–18 independent boarding school and sixth form for boys in the parish of Eton, near Windsor in Berkshire, England. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as Kynge's College of Our Ladye of Eton besyde Windesore , as a sister institution to King's College, Cambridge, making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference school. Eton's history and influence have made Eton one of the most prestigious schools in the world.

Christ Church, Oxford Constituent college of the University of Oxford in England

Christ Church is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ Church is a joint foundation of the college and the cathedral of the Oxford diocese, which serves as the college chapel and whose dean is ex officio the college head.

George Canning British statesman and politician

George Canning was a British Tory statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from April to August 1827. He occupied various senior cabinet positions under numerous prime ministers, before eventually serving himself as Prime Minister for the final four months of his life.

Political career

On a visit to Paris in 1791, Holland became acquainted with Lafayette and Talleyrand. He took his seat in the House of Lords on 5 October 1796. According to the 1911 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica he for a while "almost ... constituted the Whig party in the upper house." He was appointed to negotiate a treaty with American envoys James Monroe and William Pinkney, [1] was admitted to the Privy Council on 27 August 1806, [3] and on 15 October entered the Ministry of All the Talents led by Lord Grenville as Lord Privy Seal, [4] retiring with the rest of his colleagues in March 1807. [2]

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord French diplomat

Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Duke of Talleyrand, was a French politician and diplomat. After theology studies, he became in 1780 Agent-General of the Clergy and represented the Catholic Church to the French Crown. He worked at the highest levels of successive French governments, most commonly as foreign minister or in some other diplomatic capacity. His career spanned the regimes of Louis XVI, the years of the French Revolution, Napoleon, Louis XVIII, and Louis-Philippe. Those he served often distrusted Talleyrand but, like Napoleon, found him extremely useful. The name "Talleyrand" has become a byword for crafty, cynical diplomacy.

House of Lords upper house in the Parliament of the United Kingdom

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.

<i>Encyclopædia Britannica</i> Eleventh Edition 1910 Encyclopedia

The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1910–11), is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopaedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Holland led the opposition to the Regency bill in 1811, and he attacked the orders in council and other strong measures of the government taken to counteract Napoleon's Berlin decrees. He denounced the treaty of 1813 with Sweden which bound Britain to consent to the forcible union of Norway, and he resisted the bill of 1816 for confining Napoleon in Saint Helena. [1] He was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster between 1830 and 1834 [5] and 1835 and 1840 [6] in the cabinets of Lord Grey and Lord Melbourne, and he was still in office when he died in October 1840. [1] [2]

Saint Helena island in the South Atlantic Ocean

Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the mouth of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa. It is part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. Saint Helena measures about 16 by 8 kilometres and has a population of 4,534. It was named after Saint Helena of Constantinople.

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster ministerial office in Her Majestys Government

The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is a ministerial office in the Government of the United Kingdom that includes as part of its duties the administration of the estates and rents of the Duchy of Lancaster. Since July 2019, the Chancellor also has responsibility for advising the Prime Minister on policy development and implementation.

Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey,, known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from November 1830 to July 1834.

Writings

Lord Holland's statue rises from a pond in Holland Park, London. Statue of Henry Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron Holland 1.jpg
Lord Holland's statue rises from a pond in Holland Park, London.

Holland's protests against the measures of the Tory ministers were collected and published, as the Opinions of Lord Holland (1841), by Dr Moylan of Lincoln's Inn. Lord Holland's Foreign Reminiscences (1850) [7] contain much amusing gossip from the Revolutionary and Napoleonic era. His Memoirs of the Whig Party (1852; 2 vols.) [8] is an important contemporary authority. He also published a small work on Lope de Vega (1806) [1] [9] and a 2-volume work (1817) on the lives and writings of Lope de Vega and Guillén de Castro. [10] [11]

Lincolns Inn one of the four Inns of Court in London, England

The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn is one of the four Inns of Court in London to which barristers of England and Wales belong and where they are called to the Bar. Lincoln's Inn is recognised to be one of the world's most prestigious professional bodies of judges and lawyers.

Lope de Vega Spanish playwright and poet

Lope Félix de Vega y Carpio was a Spanish playwright, poet, novelist and marine. He was one of the key figures in the Spanish Golden Age of Baroque literature. His reputation in the world of Spanish literature is second only to that of Miguel de Cervantes, while the sheer volume of his literary output is unequalled, making him one of the most prolific authors in the history of literature. He was nicknamed "The Phoenix of Wits" and "Monster of Nature" by Cervantes because of his prolific nature.

Family

After visiting Paris in 1791 Holland again went abroad to travel in France and Italy in 1793. At Florence he met Elizabeth Vassall, at that time Lady Webster, wife of Sir Godfrey Webster, 4th Baronet. She and her husband obtained a divorce, and she married Holland on 6 July 1797, becoming Elizabeth Fox, Baroness Holland. An illegitimate son, Charles Richard Fox, was born to them. He later rose to become a General in the British Army.

They had three more children who survived infancy: the Hon. Stephen Fox (d. 1800), Henry Edward Fox, 4th Baron Holland, and Hon. Mary Elizabeth Fox, married to Thomas Powys, 3rd Baron Lilford. In 1800 he was authorised to take the name of Vassall, and after 1807 he signed himself Vassall Holland, though the name was no part of his title. [1] Lord Holland died in October 1840, aged 66, and was succeeded in his titles by his eldest and only surviving legitimate son, Henry. Lady Holland died in November 1845. [2]

Vassall ward

Vassall ward in the London Borough of Lambeth is named after Henry Richard Vassall-Fox who was responsible for the first building development in the area in the 1820s. Roads in the area such as Holland Grove, Lord Holland Lane, Foxley Square and Vassall Road commemorate this connection.

Related Research Articles

William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville British politician, died 1834

William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, was a British Pittite Tory and politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1806 to 1807, though he was a supporter of the British Whig Party for the duration of the Napoleonic Wars.

Baron Holland

Baron Holland, of Holland in the County of Lincoln, and Baron Holland of Foxley, of Foxley in the County of Wiltshire, were two titles in the Peerage of Great Britain. The first barony was created on 7 March 1762 for Lady Caroline Fox, the daughter of Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond and the eldest of the famous Lennox sisters. The second barony was created on 17 April 1763 for her husband, the prominent Whig politician Henry Fox. Lord and Lady Holland were both succeeded by their eldest son, the second Baron. He had previously represented Salisbury in Parliament. On his early death in 1774 the titles passed to his only son, the third Baron. He was also an influential Whig politician and notably served as Lord Privy Seal from 1806 to 1806 in the Ministry of All the Talents. He was succeeded by his eldest legitimate son, the fourth Baron. He sat as Member of Parliament for Horsham. He had four daughters but no sons and on his death in 1859 the titles became extinct.

George Howard, 6th Earl of Carlisle British politician

George Howard, 6th Earl of Carlisle,, styled Viscount Morpeth until 1825, was a British statesman. He served as Lord Privy Seal between 1827 and 1828 and in 1834 and was a member of Lord Grey's Whig government as Minister without Portfolio between 1830 and 1834.

General Charles Richard Fox was a British army general, and later a politician.

William Ponsonby, 1st Baron Ponsonby British politician

William Brabazon Ponsonby, 1st Baron Ponsonby , PC (Ire) was a leading Irish Whig politician, being a member of the Irish House of Commons, and, after 1800, of the United Kingdom parliament. Ponsonby was the son of the Hon. John Ponsonby, the Speaker of the Irish House of Commons and Lady Elizabeth Cavendish, daughter of the 3rd Duke of Devonshire. He was invested as a Privy Counsellor of Ireland in 1784. He served as Joint Postmaster-General of Ireland (1784–1789).

Henry Parnell, 1st Baron Congleton Irish writer and Whig politician

Henry Brooke Parnell, 1st Baron Congleton PC, known as Sir Henry Parnell, Bt, from 1812 to 1841, was an Irish writer and Whig politician. He was a member of the Whig administrations headed by Lord Grey and Lord Melbourne of the 1830s and also published works on financial and penal questions as well as on civil engineering. He was the great-uncle of Irish nationalist leader Charles Stewart Parnell.

Henry Herbert, 1st Earl of Carnarvon British Whig politician

Henry Herbert, 1st Earl of Carnarvon PC, known as The Lord Porchester from 1780 to 1793, was a British Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1768 to 1780 when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Porchester. He served as Master of the Horse from 1806 to 1807 in the Ministry of All the Talents headed by Lord Grenville.

George Kinnaird, 9th Lord Kinnaird British noble

George William Fox Kinnaird, 9th Lord Kinnaird, KT, PC was a Scottish Whig politician. He served as Master of the Buckhounds under Lord Melbourne from 1839 to 1841.

Fox Primary School is a primary school in London for children between the ages of 4 and 11, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. It is located on Kensington Place, between Kensington Church Street and Notting Hill Gate.

Henry Fox, 4th Baron Holland British politician

Henry Edward Fox, 4th Baron Holland of Holland, 4th Baron Holland of Foxley, MP, was briefly a British Whig politician and later an ambassador.

Henry Fox-Strangways, 3rd Earl of Ilchester Earl of Ilchester

Henry Stephen Fox-Strangways, 3rd Earl of Ilchester, PC, styled Lord Stavordale from birth until 1802, was a British peer and Whig politician. He served as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard under Lord Melbourne from 1835 to 1841.

Thomas Foley, 3rd Baron Foley British politician

Thomas Foley, 3rd Baron Foley PC, DL, was a British peer and Whig politician. He served as Captain of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen Pensioners under Lord Grey between 1830 and 1833.

Thomas Atherton Powys, 3rd Baron Lilford, was a British peer and Whig politician.

John FitzPatrick, 2nd Earl of Upper Ossory British politician

John FitzPatrick, 2nd Earl of Upper Ossory FRS DL, styled 'Lord Gowran' from 1751 to 1758, was an Irish peer and member of parliament.

George Byng, 2nd Earl of Strafford British politician

George Stevens Byng, 2nd Earl of Strafford, PC, styled Viscount Enfield between 1847 and 1860, of Wrotham Park in Middlesex and of 5 St James's Square, London, was a British peer and Whig politician.

John Allen (historian) historian

John Allen was a prominent eighteenth and nineteenth century political and historical writer, and Master of the College of God's Gift in Dulwich. More than one street in Kensington, London, is named after him.

Little Holland House dower house of Holland House, where a salon was held

Little Holland House was the dower house of Holland House in the parish of Kensington, Middlesex, England. It was situated at the end of Nightingale Lane, now the back entrance to Holland Park and was demolished when Melbury Road was made. Number 14 Melbury Road marks its approximate location.

Elizabeth Fox, Baroness Holland Political hostess, wife of Henry Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron Holland

Elizabeth Vassall Fox, Baroness Holland was an English political hostess and the wife of Whig politician Henry Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron Holland. With her husband, and after his death, she hosted political and literary gatherings at their home, Holland House.

Philip Shuttleworth English churchman and academic, Bishop of Chichester

Philip Nicholas Shuttleworth was an English churchman and academic, Warden of New College, Oxford, from 1822 and Bishop of Chichester.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Holland, Henry Richard Vassall Fox, 3rd Baron". Encyclopædia Britannica . 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 586–587.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 thepeerage.com Henry Richard Vassall Fox, 3rd Baron Holland of Foxley
  3. "No. 15949". The London Gazette . 26 August 1806. p. 1121.
  4. "No. 15966". The London Gazette . 14 October 1806. p. 1361.
  5. "No. 18750". The London Gazette . 26 November 1830. p. 2479.
  6. "No. 19263". The London Gazette . 24 April 1835. p. 808.
  7. Foreign Reminiscences by Henry Richard Lord Holland; edited by his son Henry Edward Lord Holland. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. 1850.
  8. Memoirs of the Whig Party by Henry Richard Lord Holland; edited by his son Henry Edward Lord Holland. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. 1852.
  9. Holland, Henry Richard Vassall, Baron (1806). Some account of the life and writings of Lope Felix de Vega Carpio. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. Holland, Henry Richard Vassal, Baron (1817). Some account of the lives and writings of Lope Felix de Vega Carpio and Guillen de Castro. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. "Review of Some Account of the Lives and Writings of Lope Felix de Vega Carpio, and Guillen de Castro by Henry Richard Lord Holland". The Quarterly Review. 18: 1–46. October 1817.
Political offices
Preceded by
The Viscount Sidmouth
Lord Privy Seal
1806–1807
Succeeded by
The Earl of Westmorland
Preceded by
Charles Arbuthnot
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1830–1834
Succeeded by
Charles Williams-Wynn
Preceded by
Charles Williams-Wynn
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1835–1840
Succeeded by
The Earl of Clarendon
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Stephen Fox
Baron Holland of Holland
1774–1840
Succeeded by
Henry Edward Fox
Baron Holland of Foxley
1774–1840