Henry the Mild
|Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg|
|Died||14 October 1416|
|Noble family||House of Guelph|
|Spouse(s)||Sophie of Pomerania|
Margaret of Hesse
|Father||Magnus with the Necklace, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg|
|Mother||Catherine of Anhalt-Bernburg|
Henry of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Latin Henricus, died 14 October 1416), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, called Henry the Mild, was prince of Lüneburg from 1388 to 1409 jointly with his brother Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, from 1400 to 1409 also of Wolfenbüttel, and from 1409 until his death sole prince of Lüneburg.
Henry was the fourth son of Magnus with the Necklace, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. He participated in the prosecution of the murderers of his brother Frederick, elected King of the Romans, after 1400. Henry ravaged the Eichsfeld, a possession of the archbishop of Mainz, who was suspected to be involved in the murder. Only in 1405, a peace was ratified between Brunswick-Lüneburg and the Archbishopric.
In 1404, Henry was kidnapped by Bernard VI, Count of Lippe; when he paid a ransom, he was released, and later, with the support of King Rupert, took revenge on Bernard.
After the death of Gerhard, Count of Schleswig, Henry's sister's husband, Queen Margaret I of Denmark tried to take control of Schleswig, but Henry, together with Holstein, successfully defended Schleswig.
Henry married Sophie (died 1406), daughter of Wartislaw VI, Duke of Pomerania, in 1388. Children were:
Henry married Margaret (c. 1389–1446), daughter of Hermann II, Landgrave of Hesse, in 1409. They had one known child:
Frederick was the last Burgrave of Nuremberg from 1397 to 1427, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach from 1398, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach from 1420, and Elector of Brandenburg from 1415 until his death. He became the first member of the House of Hohenzollern to rule the Margraviate of Brandenburg.
Albert I was a Duke of Saxony, Angria, and Westphalia; Lord of Nordalbingia; Count of Anhalt; and Prince-elector and Archmarshal of the Holy Roman Empire. Even though his grandfather Albert the Bear had held the Saxon dukedom between 1138 and 1142, this Albert is counted as the first.
The Duchy of Brunswick was a historical German state. Its capital was the city of Brunswick (Braunschweig). It was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. In the course of the 19th-century history of Germany, the duchy was part of the German Confederation, the North German Confederation and from 1871 the German Empire. It was disestablished after the end of World War I, its territory incorporated into the Weimar Republic as the Free State of Brunswick.
Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg, also frequently called Ernest the Confessor, was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a champion of the Protestant cause during the early years of the Protestant Reformation. He was the Prince of Lüneburg and ruled the Lüneburg-Celle subdivision of the Welf family's Brunswick-Lüneburg duchy from 1520 until his death.
Otto I of Brunswick-Lüneburg, a member of the House of Welf, was the first duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1235 until his death. He is called Otto the Child to distinguish him from his uncle, Emperor Otto IV.
Louis Rudolph, a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Wolfenbüttel from 1731 until his death. Since 1707, he ruled as an immediate Prince of Blankenburg.
William I KG, called the Victorious, a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. He was reigning Prince of Lüneburg from 1416 to 1428 and of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1428 to 1432, counted either as William III or William IV. From 1432 he ruled over the newly established Principality of Calenberg, from 1463 also over the Principality of Göttingen. In 1473 he stepped down in favour of his sons, to assume the rule in Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
Magnus I (1304–1369), called the Pious, was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
Magnus, called Magnus with the Necklace or Magnus II, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruling the Brunswick-Lüneburg principalities of Wolfenbüttel and, temporarily, Lüneburg.
Adolph I of Cleves was the second Count of Cleves and the fourth Count of Mark.
The House of Griffin or Griffin dynasty was a dynasty ruling the Duchy of Pomerania from the 12th century until 1637. The name "Griffins" was used by the dynasty after the 15th century and had been taken from the ducal coat of arms. Duke Wartislaw I was the first historical ruler of the Duchy of Pomerania and the founder of the Griffin dynasty. The most prominent Griffin was Eric of Pomerania, who became king of the Kalmar Union in 1397, thus ruling Denmark, Sweden and Norway. The last Griffin duke of Pomerania was Bogislaw XIV, who died during the Thirty Years' War, which led to the division of Pomerania between Brandenburg-Prussia and Sweden. Duchess Anna von Croy, daughter of Duke Bogislaw XIII and the last Griffin, died in 1660.
Frederick, a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1373 until his death. In May 1400, he unsuccessfully stood as a candidate for the election as German king-elect at Frankfurt, in opposition to Wenceslaus of Luxembourg, and was murdered on his way home.
Bernard, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruled over several principalities of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In the genealogy of the House of Welf, he is considered the first member of the Second House of Lüneburg.
Wenceslas I, Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg from the House of Ascania ruled from 1370 to 1388 and was a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire as well as Prince of Lüneburg. He was the son of Rudolf I and his 3rd wife, Agnes of Lindow-Ruppin.
Catherine Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg was Duchess consort of Schleswig and Countess consort of Holstein-Rendsburg. She was the regent of some of the fiefs of her son Henry during his minority from 1404 to 1415.
Gerhard VI was the Count of Holstein-Rendsburg from 1382, and Duke of Schleswig as of 1386.
Otto II of Brunswick-Göttingen, a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and, after the death of his father Otto the Evil in 1394, ruling Prince of Göttingen.
Nicholas, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein-Rendsburg was a titular Count of Schauenburg. Together first with his brother and then with his nephews, Nicholas was the co-ruling Count of Holstein-Rendsburg from 1340 until his death. In 1390 Nicholas and his nephews inherited Holstein-Kiel, which itself included former Holstein-Plön through reversion in 1350. So except of Holstein-Pinneberg Nicholas and his nephews had united all of Holstein. He was also co-ruler of Schleswig from 1375 to 1386. He was thus a leading member of the House of Schauenburg and an influential figure in the area north of the Elbe. He was the second son of Count Gerhard III of Holstein-Rendsburg and his wife, Sophia of Werle.