Hepburn romanization

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Hepburn romanization(ヘボン式ローマ字,Hebon-shiki Rōmaji, 'Hepburn-type Roman letters') [1] is a system for the romanization of Japanese that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language. It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Latin alphabet [2] and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, and other information such as train tables, road signs, and official communications with foreign countries. [3] Largely based on English writing conventions, consonants closely correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation. [1]

The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language. This method of writing is sometimes referred to in Japanese as rōmaji(ローマ字, literally, "Roman letters"; [ɾoːmaꜜʑi]). There are several different romanization systems. The three main ones are Hepburn romanization, Kunrei-shiki romanization, and Nihon-shiki romanization. Variants of the Hepburn system are the most widely used.

Latin alphabet Alphabet used to write the Latin language

The Latin or Roman alphabet, is the writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language. It includes norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.


The Hepburn style (Hebon-shiki) was developed in the late 19th century by an international commission that was formed to develop a unified system of romanization. The commission's romanization scheme was popularized by the wide dissemination of a Japanese–English dictionary by commission member and American missionary James Curtis Hepburn which was published in 1886. [1] The "modified Hepburn system" (shūsei Hebon-shiki), also known as the "standard system" (Hyōjun-shiki), was published in 1908 with revisions by Kanō Jigorō and the Society for the Propagation of Romanization (Romaji-Hirome-kai). [4] [5]

James Curtis Hepburn American Christian missionary to Japan known for the Hepburn writing system

James Curtis Hepburn was an American physician, translator, educator, and lay Christian missionary. He is known for the Hepburn romanization system for transliteration of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet, which he popularized in his Japanese–English dictionary.

Kanō Jigorō Japanese educator and judoka

Kanō Jigorō was a Japanese educator and athlete, the founder of Judo. Judo was the first Japanese martial art to gain widespread international recognition, and the first to become an official Olympic sport. Pedagogical innovations attributed to Kanō include the use of black and white belts, and the introduction of dan ranking to show the relative ranking among members of a martial art style. Well-known mottoes attributed to Kanō include "maximum efficiency with minimum effort" and "mutual welfare and benefit".

Although Kunrei romanization is officially favored by the Japanese government today, Hepburn romanization is still in use and remains the worldwide standard. [1] The Hepburn style is regarded as the best way to render Japanese pronunciation for Westerners.[ by whom? ] Since it is based on English and Italian pronunciations, people who speak English or Romance languages (e.g., Italian, French, Portuguese and Spanish) will generally be more accurate in pronouncing unfamiliar Japanese words romanized in the Hepburn style compared to Nihon-shiki romanization and Kunrei-shiki romanization. [6] [7]

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in spoken languages and signs in sign languages. It used to be only the study of the systems of phonemes in spoken languages, but it may also cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word or at all levels of language where sound or signs are structured to convey linguistic meaning.

Romance languages All the related languages derived from Vulgar Latin

The Romance languages are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries and that form a subgroup of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

Nihon-shiki, or Nippon-shiki Rōmaji, is a romanization system for transliterating the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet. In discussion about romaji, it is abbreviated as Nihon-shiki or Nippon-shiki. Among the major romanization systems for Japanese, it is the most regular one and has a one-to-one relation to the kana writing system.

Hepburn is based on English phonology and has competed with the alternative Nihon-shiki romanization, which was developed in Japan as a replacement of the Japanese script. [6] In 1930 a Special Romanization Study Commission was appointed to compare the two. [6] The Commission eventually decided in favor of a slightly-modified version of Nihon-shiki, which was proclaimed to be Japan's official romanization for all purposes by a September 21, 1937, cabinet ordinance; it is now known as the Kunrei-shiki romanization. The ordinance was temporarily overturned by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) during the Occupation of Japan, but it was reissued with slight revisions in 1954.

The Cabinet of Japan is the executive branch of the government of Japan. It consists of the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the Emperor after being designated by the National Diet, and up to nineteen other members, called Ministers of State. The Prime Minister is designated by the Diet, and the remaining ministers are appointed and dismissed by the Prime Minister. The Cabinet is collectively responsible to the Diet and must resign if a motion of no confidence is adopted by the Diet.

The Law of Japan refers to the entirety of the legally achieved norms in Japan.

Kunrei-shiki rōmaji (訓令式ローマ字) is a Cabinet-ordered romanization system to transcribe the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet. It is abbreviated as Kunrei-shiki. Its name is rendered Kunreisiki using Kunrei-shiki itself.

In 1972 a revised version of Hepburn was codified as ANSI standard Z39.11-1972. It was proposed in 1989 as a draft for ISO 3602 but rejected in favor of the Kunrei-shiki romanization. The ANSI Z39.11-1972 standard was deprecated on October 6, 1994.

American National Standards Institute non-profit organization in the United States that develops standards

The American National Standards Institute is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide.

As of 1978 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and many other official organizations used Hepburn instead of Kunrei-shiki. In addition The Japan Times , the Japan Travel Bureau, and many other private organizations used Hepburn instead of Kunrei-shiki. The National Diet Library used Kunrei-shiki. [8]

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan) Runs the diplomatic relations of Japan with other countries

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is a cabinet-level ministry of the Japanese government responsible for the country's foreign relations.

The Ministry of International Trade and Industry was one of the most powerful agencies of the Government of Japan. At the height of its influence, it effectively ran much of Japanese industrial policy, funding research and directing investment. In 2001, its role was taken over by the newly created Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

<i>The Japan Times</i> newspaper

The Japan Times is Japan's largest & oldest English-language daily newspaper. It is published by The Japan Times, Ltd., a subsidiary of News2u Holdings, Inc.. It is headquartered in the Kioicho Building in Kioicho, Chiyoda, Tokyo.

Although Hepburn is not a government standard, some government agencies mandate it. For example, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs requires the use of Hepburn on passports, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport requires the use of Hepburn on transport signs, including road signs and railway station signs.[ citation needed ]

In many other areas that it lacks de jure status, Hepburn remains the de facto standard. Signs and notices in city offices and police stations and at shrines, temples and attractions also use it. English-language newspapers and media use the simplified form of Hepburn. Cities and prefectures use it in information for English-speaking residents and visitors, and English-language publications by the Japanese Foreign Ministry use simplified Hepburn as well. Official tourism information put out by the government uses it, as do guidebooks, both local and foreign, on Japan.

Many students of Japanese as a foreign language learn Hepburn.


Former Japan National Railways-style board of Toyooka Station. Between the two adjacent stations, "GEMBUDO" follows the Hepburn romanization system, but "KOKUHU" follows the Nihon-shiki/Kunrei-shiki romanization system. Toyooka Station Sign.jpg
Former Japan National Railways-style board of Toyooka Station. Between the two adjacent stations, “GEMBUDŌ” follows the Hepburn romanization system, but “KOKUHU” follows the Nihon-shiki/Kunrei-shiki romanization system.

There are many variants of the Hepburn romanization. The two most common styles are as follows:

In Japan itself, there are some variants officially mandated for various uses:

Details of the variants can be found below.

Obsolete variants

The romanizations set out in the first and second versions of Hepburn's dictionary are primarily of historical interest. Notable differences from the third and later versions include:

Second version

  • and were written as ye: Yedo
  • and were written as dzu: kudzu, tsudzuku
  • キャ, キョ, and キュ were written as kiya, kiyo and kiu
  • クヮ was written as kuwa [16]

First version

The following differences are in addition to those in the second version:

  • was written as sz.
  • was written as tsz.
  • and were written as du.
  • クヮ was written as kuwa.


The main feature of Hepburn is that its orthography is based on English phonology. More technically, where syllables that are constructed systematically, according to the Japanese syllabary, contain an "unstable" consonant in the modern spoken language, the orthography is changed to something that better matches the real sound as an English-speaker would pronounce it. For example, is written shi not si.

Some linguists such as Harold E. Palmer, Daniel Jones and Otto Jespersen object to Hepburn, as the pronunciation-based spellings can obscure the systematic origins of Japanese phonetic structures, inflections, and conjugations. [17] Supporters [ who? ] argue that Hepburn is not intended as a linguistic tool.

Long vowels

The long vowels are generally indicated by macrons ( ¯ ). [18] [19] Since the diacritical sign is usually missing on typewriters and people may not know how to input it on computer keyboards, the circumflex accent ( ˆ ) is often used in its place. [20] [21]

The combinations of vowels are written as follows in traditional/modified Hepburn:

A + A

In traditional and modified:

The combination of a + a is written aa if they are in two adjacent syllables.
  • 邪悪(じゃあく): {ji + ya} + {a + ku} = jaaku – evil

In traditional Hepburn:

The long vowel a is written aa
  • お婆さん(おばあさん): {o} + {ba + a} + {sa + n} = obaa-san [18] – grandmother

In modified Hepburn:

The long vowel a is indicated by a macron:
  • お婆さん(おばあさん): {o} + {ba + a} + {sa + n} = obāsan [19] [ obsolete source ] – grandmother

I + I

In traditional and modified:

The combination i + i is always written ii.
  • お兄さん(おにいさん): o + ni + i + sa + n = oniisan – older brother
  • お爺さん(おじいさん): o + ji + i + sa + n = ojiisan – grandfather
  • 美味しい(おいしい): o + i + shi + i = oishii – delicious
  • 新潟(にいがた): ni + i + ga + ta = Niigata
  • 灰色(はいいろ): ha + i + i + ro = haiiro – grey

U + U

In traditional and modified:

The combination u + u is written uu if they are in two adjacent syllables or it is the end part of terminal form of a verb:
  • 食う(くう): {ku} + {-u} = kuu – to eat
  • 縫う(ぬう): {nu} + {-u} = nuu – to sew
  • 湖(みずうみ): {mi + zu} + {u + mi} = mizuumi - lake

The long vowel u is indicated by a macron:
  • 数学(すうがく): {su + u} + {ga + ku} = sūgaku – mathematics
  • 注意(ちゅうい): {chu + u} + {i} = chūi – attention
  • ぐうたら: {gu + u + ta + ra} = gūtara – loafer
  • 憂鬱(ゆううつ): {yu + u} + {u + tsu} = yūutsu - depression

E + E

In traditional and modified:

The combination e + e is written ee if they are in two adjacent syllables:
  • 濡れ縁(ぬれえん): {nu + re} + {e + n} = nureen – open veranda

In traditional Hepburn:

The long vowel e is written ee:
  • お姉さん(おねえさん): {o} + {ne + e} + {sa + n} = oneesan [18] – older sister

In modified Hepburn:

The long vowel e is indicated by a macron:
  • お姉さん(おねえさん): {o} + {ne + e} + {sa + n} = onēsan [19] [ obsolete source ] – older sister

O + O

In traditional and modified:[ citation needed ]

The combination o + o is written oo if they are in two adjacent syllables:
  • 小躍り(こおどり): {ko} + {o + do + ri} = koodori – dance
The long vowel o is indicated by a macron:
  • 氷(こおり): {ko + o + ri} = kōri – ice
  • 遠回り(とおまわり): {to + o} + {ma + wa + ri} = tōmawari – roundabout route
  • 大阪(おおさか): {o + o} + {sa + ka} = ŌsakaOsaka

O + U

In traditional and modified:

The combination o + u is written ou if they are in two adjacent syllables or it is the end part of terminal form of a verb:
  • 追う(おう): {o} + {-u} = ou – to chase
  • 迷う(まよう): {ma + yo} + {-u} = mayou – to get lost
  • 子馬(こうま): {ko} + {u + ma} = kouma – foal
  • 仔牛(こうし): {ko} + {u + shi} = koushi – calf
The long vowel o is indicated by a macron:
  • 学校(がっこう): {ga + (sokuon)} + {ko + u} = gakkō – school
  • 東京(とうきょう): {to + u} + {kyo + u} = TōkyōTokyo
  • 勉強(べんきょう): {be + n} + {kyo + u} = benkyō – study
  • 電報(でんぽう): {de + n} + {po + u} = dempō [18] or denpō [19] telegraphy
  • 金曜日(きんようび): {ki + n} + {yo + u} + {bi} = kinyōbi [18] or kin'yōbi [19] – Friday
  • 格子(こうし): {ko + u} + {shi} = kōshi – lattice

E + I

In traditional and modified:

The combination e + i is written ei.
  • 学生(がくせい): ga + ku + se + i = gakusei – student
  • 経験(けいけん): ke + i + ke + n = keiken – experience
  • 制服(せいふく): se + i + fu + ku = seifuku – uniform
  • 姪(めい): me + i = mei – niece
  • 招いて(まねいて): ma + ne + i + te = maneite – call/invite and then

Other combination of vowels

All other combinations of two different vowels are written separately:

  • 軽い(かるい): ka + ru + i = karui – light (for weight)
  • 鴬(うぐいす): u + gu + i + su = uguisu – bush warbler
  • 甥(おい): o + i = oi – nephew


The long vowels indicated by chōonpu (ー) within loanwords are written with macrons (ā, ī, ū, ē, ō) as follows:

  • セーラー: se + (chōonpu) + ra + (chōonpu) = sērā – sailor
  • パーティー: pa + (chōonpu) + ti + (chōonpu) = pātī – party
  • ヒーター: hi + (chōonpu) + ta + (chōonpu) = hītā – heater
  • タクシー: ta + ku + shi + (chōonpu) = takushī – taxi
  • スーパーマン: su + (chōonpu) + pa + (chōonpu) + ma + n = Sūpāman – Superman
  • バレーボール: ba + re + (chōonpu) + bo + (chōonpu) + ru = barēbōru – volleyball
  • ソール: so + (chōonpu) + ru = sōru – sole

The combinations of two vowels within loanwords are written separately:

  • バレエ: ba + re + e = baree – ballet
  • ソウル: so + u + ru = souru – soul, Seoul
  • ミイラ: mi + i + ra = miira – mummy


There are many variations on the Hepburn system for indicating the long vowels. For example, 東京(とうきょう) can be written as:

  • Tōkyō – indicated with macrons. That follows the rules of the traditional and modified Hepburn systems and is considered to be standard.
  • Tokyo – not indicated at all. That is common for Japanese words that have been adopted into English and is also the convention used in the de facto Hepburn used in signs and other English-language information around Japan, mentioned in the paragraph on legal status.
  • Tôkyô – indicated with circumflex accents, like the alternative Nihon-shiki and Kunrei-shiki romanizations. They are often used when macrons are unavailable or difficult to input, due to their visual similarity.
  • Tohkyoh – indicated with an h (only applies after o). It is sometimes known as "passport Hepburn" as the Japanese Foreign Ministry has authorized (but not required) it in passports. [22] [23] [24]
  • Toukyou – written using kana spelling: ō as ou or oo (depending on the kana) and ū as uu. That is sometimes called wāpuro style, as it is how text is entered into a Japanese word processor by using a keyboard with Roman characters. The method most accurately represents the way that vowels are written in kana by differentiating between おう (as in とうきょう(東京), written Toukyou in this system) and おお (as in とおい(遠い), written tooi in this system).
    • However, using this method makes the pronunciation of ou become ambiguous, either a long o or two different vowels: o and u. See Wāpuro rōmaji#Phonetic accuracy for details.
  • Tookyoo – written by doubling the long vowels. Some dictionaries such as Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese dictionary [25] and Basic English writers' Japanese-English wordbook follow this style, and it is also used in the JSL form of romanization. It is also used to write words without reference to any particular system. [26]


In traditional and modified:

In traditional Hepburn:

In modified Hepburn: [19] [ obsolete source ]

Syllabic n

In traditional Hepburn: [18]

Syllabic n () is written as n before consonants, but as m before labial consonants: b, m, and p. It is sometimes written as n- (with a hyphen) before vowels and y (to avoid confusion between, for example, んあn + a and na, and んやn + ya and にゃnya), but its hyphen usage is not clear.

In modified Hepburn: [19] [ obsolete source ]

The rendering m before labial consonants is not used and is replaced with n. It is written n' (with an apostrophe) before vowels and y.

Long consonants

Elongated (or "geminate") consonant sounds are marked by doubling the consonant following a sokuon, ; for consonants that are digraphs in Hepburn (sh, ch, ts), only the first consonant of the set is doubled, except for ch, which is replaced by tch. [18] [19]

Romanization charts

Gojūon Yōon
あ ア aい イ iう ウ uえ エ eお オ o
か カ kaき キ kiく ク kuけ ケ keこ コ koきゃ キャ kyaきゅ キュ kyuきょ キョ kyo
さ サ saし シ shiす ス suせ セ seそ ソ soしゃ シャ shaしゅ シュ shuしょ ショ sho
た タ taち チ chiつ ツ tsuて テ teと ト toちゃ チャ chaちゅ チュ chuちょ チョ cho
な ナ naに ニ niぬ ヌ nuね ネ neの ノ noにゃ ニャ nyaにゅ ニュ nyuにょ ニョ nyo
は ハ haひ ヒ hiふ フ fuへ ヘ heほ ホ hoひゃ ヒャ hyaひゅ ヒュ hyuひょ ヒョ hyo
ま マ maみ ミ miむ ム muめ メ meも モ moみゃ ミャ myaみゅ ミュ myuみょ ミョ myo
や ヤ yaゆ ユ yuよ ヨ yo
ら ラ raり リ riる ル ruれ レ reろ ロ roりゃ リャ ryaりゅ リュ ryuりょ リョ ryo
わ ワ waゐ ヰ i ゑ ヱ e を ヲ o 
ん ン n /n'
が ガ gaぎ ギ giぐ グ guげ ゲ geご ゴ goぎゃ ギャ gyaぎゅ ギュ gyuぎょ ギョ gyo
ざ ザ zaじ ジ jiず ズ zuぜ ゼ zeぞ ゾ zoじゃ ジャ jaじゅ ジュ juじょ ジョ jo
だ ダ daぢ ヂ jiづ ヅ zuで デ deど ド doぢゃ ヂャ jaぢゅ ヂュ juぢょ ヂョ jo
ば バ baび ビ biぶ ブ buべ ベ beぼ ボ boびゃ ビャ byaびゅ ビュ byuびょ ビョ byo
ぱ パ paぴ ピ piぷ プ puぺ ペ peぽ ポ poぴゃ ピャ pyaぴゅ ピュ pyuぴょ ピョ pyo

Extended katakana

These combinations are used mainly to represent the sounds in words in other languages.

Digraphs with orange backgrounds are the general ones used for loanwords or foreign places or names, and those with blue backgrounds are used for more accurate transliterations of foreign sounds, both suggested by the Cabinet of Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. [30] Katakana combinations with beige backgrounds are suggested by the American National Standards Institute [31] and the British Standards Institution as possible uses. [32] Ones with purple backgrounds appear on the 1974 version of the Hyōjun-shiki formatting. [27]

イィ yiイェ ye
ウァ wa*ウィ wiウゥ wu*ウェ weウォ wo
ウュ wyu
ヴァ vaヴィ vivuヴェ veヴォ vo
ヴャ vyaヴュ vyuヴィェ vyeヴョ vyo
キェ kye
ギェ gye
クァ kwaクィ kwiクェ kweクォ kwo
クヮ kwa
グァ gwaグィ gwiグェ gweグォ gwo
グヮ gwa
シェ she
ジェ je
スィ si
ズィ zi
チェ che
ツァ tsaツィ tsiツェ tseツォ tso
ツュ tsyu
ティ tiトゥ tu
テュ tyu
ディ diドゥ du
デュ dyu
ニェ nye
ヒェ hye
ビェ bye
ピェ pye
ファ faフィ fiフェ feフォ fo
フャ fyaフュ fyuフィェ fyeフョ fyo
ホゥ hu
ミェ mye
リェ rye
ラ゜ laリ゜ liル゜ luレ゜ leロ゜ lo
リ゜ャ lyaリ゜ュ lyuリ゜ェ lyeリ゜ョ lyo

See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 Hadamitzky, Wolfgang; Spahn, Mark (October 2005). "Romanization systems". Wolfgang Hadamitzky: Japan-related Textbooks, Dictionaries, and Reference Works. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  2. Backhaus, Peter (29 December 2014). "To shine or to die: the messy world of romanized Japanese". The Japan Times Online. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  3. "'Ti' or 'chi'? Educators call to unify romanization styles in Japan". Mainichi Daily News. 2 April 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  4. Seeley, Christopher (2000). A History of Writing in Japan (Illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 140. ISBN   9780824822170.
  5. Unger, J. Marshall (1996). Literacy and Script Reform in Occupation Japan: Reading between the Lines. Oxford University Press. p. 53. ISBN   9780195356380.
  6. 1 2 3 Carr, Denzel. The New Official Romanization of Japanese . Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 59, No. 1 (Mar., 1939), pp. 99-102.
  7. Haruhiko Kindaichi, Takeshi Shibata, Naoki Hayashi (1988). 日本語百科大事典[Japanese encyclopedia]. Taishukan Shoten.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. Kent, et al. "Oriental Literature and Bibliography." p. 155.
  9. 和英語林集成第三版 [Digital 'Japanese English Forest Collection']. Meiji Gakuin University Library (in Japanese). Meiji Gakuin University. March 2010 [2006]. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  10. "明治学院大学図書館 - 『和英語林集成』デジタルアーカイブス". Meijigakuin.ac.jp. Retrieved 2012-06-29.
  11. "Japanese" (PDF). Library of Congress . Retrieved July 13, 2012.
  12. "UHM Library : Japan Collection Online Resources". Hawaii.edu. 2005-10-06. Retrieved 2012-06-29.
  13. "鉄道掲示基準規程". Homepage1.nifty.com. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  14. 道路標識のローマ字(ヘボン式) の綴り方 [How to spell Roman letters (Hepburn style) of road signs]. Kictec (in Japanese). Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  15. "パスポートセンター ヘボン式ローマ字表 : 神奈川県". Pref.kanagawa.jp. Archived from the original on 2012-07-30. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  16. James Curtis Hepburn (1872). A Japanese-English And English-Japanese Dictionary (2nd ed.). American Presbyterian mission press. pp. 286–290. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
  17. 松浦四郎 (October 1992). "104年かかった標準化". 標準化と品質菅理 -Standardization and Quality Control-. Japanese Standards Association. 45: 92–93.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 James Curtis Hepburn (1886). A Japanese-English And English-Japanese Dictionary. (Third Edition). Z. P Maruyama & Co. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary (Fourth Edition). Kenkyūsha. 1974.
  20. 1 2 Fujino Katsuji (1909). ローマ字手引き[RÔMAJI TEBIKI] (in Japanese). Rômaji-Hirome-kai.
  21. Cabinet of Japan (December 9, 1954). 昭和29年内閣告示第1号 ローマ字のつづり方 [Japanese Cabinet Order No.1 in 1954 - How to write Romanization] (in Japanese). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology . Retrieved 2011-05-19.
  22. Bureau of Citizens and Culture Affairs of Tokyo. "PASSPORT_ヘボン式ローマ字綴方表" [Table of Spelling in Hepburn Romanization] (in Japanese). Archived from the original on December 5, 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  23. Consulate-General of Japan in San Francisco. ヘボン式ローマ字綴方表 [Table of Spelling in Hepburn Romanization](PDF) (in Japanese). Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  24. Consulate-General of Japan in Detroit. "Example of Application Form for Passport" (PDF) (in Japanese). Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  25. Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese Dictionary. "Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese Dictionary (9780198607489): Shigeru Takebayashi, Kazuhiko Nagai: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2012-06-29.
  26. "ローマ字の長音のつづり方". Xembho.s59.xrea.com. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  27. 1 2 "標準式ローマ字つづり―引用" . Retrieved 2016-02-27.[ self-published source ]
  28. 1 2 Cabinet of Japan (November 16, 1946). 昭和21年内閣告示第33号 「現代かなづかい」 [Japanese Cabinet Order No.33 in 1946 - Modern kana usage] (in Japanese). Archived from the original on October 6, 2001. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  29. 1 2 Cabinet of Japan (July 1, 1986). 昭和61年内閣告示第1号 「現代仮名遣い」 [Japanese Cabinet Order No.1 in 1986 - Modern kana usage] (in Japanese). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology . Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  30. Cabinet of Japan. "平成3年6月28日内閣告示第2号:外来語の表記" [Japanese cabinet order No.2 (June 28, 1991):The notation of loanword]. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology . Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  31. "米国規格(ANSI Z39.11-1972)―要約" . Retrieved 2016-02-27.[ self-published source ]
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