Herbert Ross

Last updated

Herbert Ross
Herbert David Ross

(1927-05-13)May 13, 1927
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
DiedOctober 9, 2001(2001-10-09) (aged 74)
Manhattan, New York, U.S.
Resting place Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery
Years active1942–1995
Nora Kaye
(m. 1959;died 1987)

Lee Radziwiłł
(m. 1988;div. 2001)

Herbert David Ross (May 13, 1927 – October 9, 2001) was an American actor, choreographer, director and producer who worked predominantly in the stage and film.


Early life

Ross was born on May 13, 1927 in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Martha (Grundfast) and Louis Chester Ross, [1] a postal clerk. His parents were Russian Jewish immigrants. [2] [3] When Ross was nine, his mother died and his father moved the family to Miami and opened a luncheonette. [4]

Brooklyn Borough in New York City and county in New York state, United States

Brooklyn is a borough of New York City, coterminous with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York, the most populous county in the state, and the second-most densely populated county in the United States. It is New York City's most populous borough, with an estimated 2,504,700 residents in 2010. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, and the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects it with Staten Island.

After dropping out of high school, Ross went to New York to pursue an acting career but became smitten with and studied dance.



In 1942, Ross' stage debut came as "Third Witch" in a touring company of Macbeth . The next year brought his first Broadway performance credits with Something for the Boys , as a dancer.

<i>Macbeth</i> play by William Shakespeare

Macbeth is a tragedy by William Shakespeare; it is thought to have been first performed in 1606. It dramatises the damaging physical and psychological effects of political ambition on those who seek power for its own sake. Of all the plays that Shakespeare wrote during the reign of James I, who was patron of Shakespeare's acting company, Macbeth most clearly reflects the playwright's relationship with his sovereign. It was first published in the Folio of 1623, possibly from a prompt book, and is Shakespeare's shortest tragedy.

Something for the Boys is a musical with music and lyrics by Cole Porter and a book by Herbert Fields and Dorothy Fields. Produced by Mike Todd, the show opened on Broadway in 1943 and starred Ethel Merman in her fifth Cole Porter musical.

Ross was a dancer in Follow the Girls (1943-44), Laffing Room Only (1944-45), Beggar's Holiday (1946-47), and Look, Ma, I'm Dancin'! .

<i>Follow the Girls</i> musical

Follow the Girls is a musical with a book by Guy Bolton, Eddie Davis and Fred Thompson and music and lyrics by Dan Shapiro, Milton Pascal, and Phil Charig.

Laffing Room Only is a vaudeville revue in two acts by Ole Olsen, Chic Johnson, and Eugene Conrad, with music and lyrics by Burton Lane. This was the first show for which Burton Lane wrote both the words and the music. It was produced by the Shuberts, Olsen, and Johnson at the Winter Garden Theatre, New York City, opening December 23, 1944. Laffing Room Only was staged by John Murray Anderson, with comedy directed by Edward Cline, music directed by John McManus, dances by Robert Alton, settings by Stewart Chaney, and costumes by Billy Livingston. The production was supervised by Harry Kaufman. It ran for 232 performances, closing on July 14, 1945.

<i>Beggars Holiday</i> musical

Beggar's Holiday is a musical with a book and lyrics by John La Touche and music by Duke Ellington.


By 1950, he was a choreographer with the American Ballet Theatre and choreographed his first Broadway production, the Arthur Schwartz-Dorothy Fields musical adaptation of A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (1951).

American Ballet Theatre ballet company

American Ballet Theatre (ABT) is a classical ballet company based in New York City. It has an annual eight-week season at the Metropolitan Opera House in the spring and a shorter season at the David H. Koch Theater in the fall; the company tours around the world the rest of the year. ABT was founded in 1939 by Lucia Chase and Richard Pleasant and is recognized as one of the world's leading classical ballet companies. ABT is the parent company of the American Ballet Theatre Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis School, and was recognized as "America's National Ballet Company" in 2006 by the United States Congress.

Arthur Schwartz American film producer and composer

Arthur Schwartz was an American composer and film producer.

Dorothy Fields American musician

Dorothy Fields was an American librettist and lyricist. She wrote over 400 songs for Broadway musicals and films. Her best-known pieces include "The Way You Look Tonight" (1936), "A Fine Romance" (1936), "On the Sunny Side of the Street" (1930), "Don't Blame Me" (1948), "Pick Yourself Up" (1936), "I'm in the Mood for Love" (1935), "You Couldn't Be Cuter" (1938) and "Big Spender" (1966). Throughout her career, she collaborated with various influential figures in the American musical theater, including Jerome Kern, Cy Coleman, Irving Berlin, and Jimmy McHugh. Along with Ann Ronell, Dana Suesse, Bernice Petkere, and Kay Swift, she was one of the first successful Tin Pan Alley and Hollywood female songwriters.

For TV he choreographed All Star Revue , The Milton Berle Show , and The Steve Allen Plymouth Show . Ross's first film assignment came as an uncredited choreographer on Carmen Jones (1954). [5]

<i>Carmen Jones</i> (film) 1954 film by Otto Preminger

Carmen Jones is a 1954 American musical film starring Dorothy Dandridge and Harry Belafonte, produced and directed by Otto Preminger. The screenplay by Harry Kleiner is based on the lyrics and book by Oscar Hammerstein II, from the 1943 stage musical of the same name, set to the music of Georges Bizet's 1875 opera Carmen. The opera was an adaptation of the 1845 Prosper Mérimée novella Carmen by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy.

Back on Broadway he choreographed House of Flowers (1954) for Peter Brook, and The Body Beautiful (1958). He choreographed some TV specials: The Jerry Lewis Show (1957), Wonderful Town (1958), Meet Me in St Louis (1959) and A Christmas Festival (1959). On Broadway Ross directed and choreographed a revival of Finian's Rainbow (1960).

House of Flowers is a musical by Harold Arlen and Truman Capote, based on his own short story, first published in Breakfast at Tiffany's (1958). This was Capote's first musical, and was the first theatrical production outside of Trinidad and Tobago to feature the new Caribbean instrument—the steel pan. It was produced by Saint Subber who was also responsible for Kiss Me, Kate and seven plays by Neil Simon.

Peter Brook English theatre and film director and innovator

Peter Stephen Paul Brook, CH, CBE is an English theatre and film director who has been based in France since the early 1970s. He has won multiple Tony and Emmy Awards, a Laurence Olivier Award, the Praemium Imperiale, and the Prix Italia. He has been called "our greatest living theatre director".

<i>The Body Beautiful</i> musical

The Body Beautiful is a musical with a book by Joseph Stein and Will Glickman, lyrics by Sheldon Harnick, and music by Jerry Bock.

Film Choreography and Broadway

Ross went to England where he choreographed the feature film The Young Ones (1961) , starring Cliff Richard.

He returned to Broadway to be musical director on The Gay Life (1961-62) and I Can Get It for You Wholesale (1962), the latter directed by Arthur Laurents and starring Barbra Streisand. He did Bondage Gladiator Sexy (1961) for TV.

Ross then choreographed a second Cliff Richard musical in England, Summer Holiday (1963).

On Broadway he choreographed Tovarich (1963) with Vivien Leigh and Anyone Can Whistle (1964) with Laurents.

For TV he did musical numbers for The Fantasticks (1964), The Bell Telephone Hour , Rinaldo in camp ((1963), and The Nut House!! (1964) and staged numbers for the films Inside Daisy Clover (1965), Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966) and Doctor Dolittle (1967).

On Broadway Ross directed and choreographed Kelly (1965), and choreographed Do I Hear a Waltz? (1965) and On a Clear Day You Can See Forever (1965-66). He did some additional staging on The Apple Tree (1966-67) directed by Mike Nichols.

Ross was choreographer and director of musical numbers for Funny Girl (1968), produced by Ray Stark. [6] [5]

Film Director

His film directorial debut came with the musical version of Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1969), made by MGM-British, with Peter O'Toole and Petula Clark. It was produced by Arthur P. Jacobs who had made Doctor Dolittle two years prior and, just like that film, Goodbye, Mr. Chips was a box office disappointment. However, Ross' second feature as director, The Owl and the Pussycat (1970), was a big hit. The film was produced by Ray Stark and starred Streisand.

Ross did T.R. Baskin (1971) then Play It Again, Sam (1972), the latter produced by Jacobs and starring Woody Allen based on his play.

Ross made The Last of Sheila (1973) and Funny Lady (1975) with Stark and Streisand.

Neil Simon

He did The Sunshine Boys (1975) based on a play and script by Neil Simon, starting a long collaboration between the two men; Stark produced.

Ross directed The Seven-Per-Cent Solution (1976), and The Turning Point (1977); Ross produced the latter. [6]

Ross had two big hits with Simon scripts produced by Stark, The Goodbye Girl (1977) and California Suite (1978). Ross returned to Broadway to direct Neil Simon's Chapter Two (1977-79).

After doing the ballet film Nijinsky (1980) [7] he directed Simon's I Ought to Be in Pictures (1980-81) on Broadway. He followed this with Pennies from Heaven (1981) and the film version of I Ought to Be in Pictures (1982). His last film with Simon was Max Dugan Returns (1983).

Later Career

Ross had a huge hit with Footloose (1984). He followed this with two comedies, Protocol (1984) with Goldie Hawn and The Secret of My Success (1987) with Michael J. Fox. Less successful was Dancers (1987). [8] [9] [10]

Ross had one last big hit with another play adaptation, Steel Magnolias (1989). He did My Blue Heaven (1990), True Colors (1991), Undercover Blues (1993) and Boys on the Side (1995).

Personal life

In 1959, he married Nora Kaye, a ballerina, [11] with whom he produced four films. [12] In 1987, when Ross was 60, he was widowed as his wife Nora succumbed to cancer. [4] [13]

In September 1988, he married for the second time to Lee Radziwiłł, [14] the younger sister of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. [15] The marriage ended in divorce in 2001, shortly before his death. [16] In 2013, Radziwiłł described their relationship as follows: [17]

He was certainly different from anybody else I'd been involved with, and the film world sounded exciting. Well, it wasn't. I hated Hollywood, and the provincialism of the industry ... Herbert had been married to the ballerina Nora Kaye until she died, and unbeknownst to me was still obsessed by her. It was 'Nora said this, Nora did it like that, Nora liked brown and orange.' [18]

On October 9, 2001, Ross died from heart failure in New York City. [19] [20] A memorial was held for him at the Majestic Theater on West 44th Street in New York where Leslie Browne, Barbara Cook, Arthur Laurents, Marsha Mason, Mike Nichols and Mary-Louise Parker spoke of Ross. [21] He was interred with Kaye in the Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles. [22]


Play1942 Macbeth actor (Third Witch)Debut (touring company)
Play1943 Something for the Boys Debut (Broadway), music and lyrics by Cole Porter
Play1944Laffing Room Only
Play1946 Beggar's Holiday
Play1948"Look, Ma, I'm Dancin'!"
Play1950 American Ballet Theatre choreographer
Play1951 A Tree Grows in Brooklyn choreographerDebut (Broadway production)
Play1952 Three Wishes for Jamie choreographerBroadway
Film1954 Carmen Jones choreographer, uncreditedDebut (Film)
Play1954 House of Flowers choreographerBroadway
Play1958 The Body Beautiful choreographerBroadway
TV1958 Wonderful Town directorDebut (TV film)
Play1960 Finian's Rainbow choreographerBroadway, revival
Play1961 The Gay Life choreographerBroadway
Film1961 The Young Ones choreographer Cliff Richard
Play1962 I Can Get It for You Wholesale choreographerBroadway
Film1963 Summer Holiday choreographer Cliff Richard
Play1963 Tovarich choreographerBroadway
Play1964 Anyone Can Whistle choreographerBroadway, music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim
Play1965 Do I Hear a Waltz? choreographerBroadway, music by Richard Rodgers, lyrics by Stephen Sondheim
Play1965 Kelly director, choreographerBroadway
Play1965 On a Clear Day You Can See Forever choreographerBroadway
Play1965 The Apple Tree choreographerBroadway
Film1968 Funny Girl choreographermusical numbers with Barbra Streisand
Film1969 Goodbye, Mr. Chips directorDebut (Film director), 2 Academy Award nominations.
Film1970 The Owl and the Pussycat director Barbra Streisand
Film1971 T.R. Baskin director Peter Hyams
Film1972 Play It Again, Sam director Woody Allen
Film1973 The Last of Sheila director, producerDebut (Film producer)
Film1975 The Sunshine Boys director4 Academy Award nominations. The film won Best Supporting Actor.
Neil Simon's play
Film1975 Funny Lady director5 Academy Award nominations. Barbra Streisand
Film1976 The Seven-Per-Cent Solution director, producer2 Academy Award nominations.
Film1977 The Turning Point director, producer11 Academy Award nominations, but no wins.
Ross won the Golden Globe Award for Best Director.
Play1977 Chapter Two directorNeil Simon's play
Film1977 The Goodbye Girl director5 Academy Award nominations. The film won Best Actor.
Film1978 California Suite director3 Academy Award nominations. The film won Best Supporting Actress. Neil Simon's play
Play1980 I Ought to Be in Pictures directorBroadway, Neil Simon's play
Film1980 Nijinsky director
Film1981 Pennies From Heaven director, producer3 Academy Award nominations.
Film1982 I Ought to Be in Pictures director, producerNeil Simon's play
Film1983 Max Dugan Returns director, producerNeil Simon's play
Film1984 Footloose director2 Academy Award nominations.
Film1984 Protocol director
Film1987 The Secret of My Success director, producer
Film1987 Dancers director
Film1989 Steel Magnolias director1 Academy Award nomination for Julia Roberts.
Biggest hit film.
Adaptation of Robert Harling's play (1987).
Film1990 My Blue Heaven director, producer
Film1991 True Colors director, producer
Film1991 Soapdish executive producerOnly film project he did not direct
Film1993 Undercover Blues director
Film1995 Boys on the Side director, producerLast film
The film was entered into the 19th Moscow International Film Festival. [23]

Related Research Articles

Bob Fosse American actor, dancer, choreographer, director, and screenwriter

Robert Louis Fosse was an American dancer, musical-theatre choreographer, and theatre and film director. He directed and choreographed musical works on stage and screen, including the stage musicals The Pajama Game (choreography) in 1954 and Chicago in 1975 and the film Cabaret in 1972.

George Balanchine Georgian choreographer, dancer and ballet master

George Balanchine was an American ballet choreographer who was one of the most influential 20th century choreographers. Styled as the father of American ballet, he co-founded the New York City Ballet and remained its Artistic Director for more than 35 years.

Janet Lee Bouvier American socialite

Janet Norton Lee Auchincloss, formerly Bouvier, was an American socialite and the mother of the former First Lady Jacqueline Onassis.

Alvin Ailey American dancer, choreographer and activist

Alvin Ailey was an African-American dancer, director, choreographer, and activist who founded the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, one of the most successful dance companies in the world. He created AAADT and its affiliated Ailey School as havens for nurturing black artists and expressing the universality of the African-American experience through dance. His work fused theatre, modern dance, ballet, and jazz with black vernacular, creating hope-fueled choreography that continues to spread global awareness of black life in America. Ailey's choreographic masterpiece Revelations is recognized as one of the most popular and most performed ballets in the world. On July 15, 2008, the United States Congress passed a resolution designating AAADT a “vital American Cultural Ambassador to the World.” That same year, in recognition of AAADT's 50th year anniversary, then Mayor Michael Bloomberg declared December 4 "Alvin Ailey Day" in New York City while then Governor David Paterson honoured the organization on behalf of New York State.

Michael Kidd American film choreographer

Michael Kidd was an American film and stage choreographer, dancer and actor, whose career spanned five decades, and staged some of the leading Broadway and film musicals of the 1940s and 1950s. Kidd, who was strongly influenced by Charlie Chaplin and Léonide Massine, was an innovator in what came to be known as the "integrated musical", in which dance movements are integral to the plot.

Jerome Robbins American theater producer, director, and choreographer

Jerome Robbins was an American choreographer, director, dancer, and theater producer who worked in classical ballet, on stage, film, and television. Among his numerous stage productions were On the Town, Peter Pan, High Button Shoes, The King and I, The Pajama Game, Bells Are Ringing, West Side Story, Gypsy, and Fiddler on the Roof. Robbins was a five-time Tony Award-winner and a recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors. He received two Academy Awards, including the 1961 Academy Award for Best Director with Robert Wise for West Side Story.

Susan Stroman American theatre director

Susan P. Stroman is an American theatre director, choreographer, film director and performer. She is a five-time Tony Award winner, four for Best Choreography and one as Best Director of a Musical for The Producers. In 2005, she directed the film version of The Producers.

Lee Radziwill American socialite and sister of Jackie Kennedy Onassis

Caroline Lee Radziwill, usually known as Princess Lee Radziwill, was an American socialite, public-relations executive, and interior decorator. She was the younger sister of First Lady Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy and sister-in-law of President John F. Kennedy. Radziwill was married three times, with the marriage to third husband Herbert Ross ending in divorce shortly before his death in 2001.

Geoffrey Holder Trinidadian-American actor and dancer

Geoffrey Lamont Holder was a Trinidadian-American actor, voice actor, dancer, choreographer, singer, director and painter. A multifaceted performer and creator, he is best remembered by audiences for his performance as the villainous Baron Samedi in the 1973 Bond-movie Live and Let Die and as the pitchman for 7 Up.

Ann Reinking American actress, dancer, and choreographer.

Ann Reinking is an American actress, dancer, and choreographer. Her extensive work in musical theater includes starring in Broadway productions of Coco (1969), Over Here! (1974), Goodtime Charley (1975), Chicago (1977), Dancin' (1978) and Sweet Charity (1986). In the 1996 revival of Chicago, she reprised the role of Roxie Hart and was also the choreographer, winning the Tony Award for Best Choreography. For the 2000 West End production of Fosse, she won the Olivier Award for Best Theatre Choreographer. She has also appeared in the films All That Jazz (1979), Annie (1982), and Micki & Maude (1984).

Vera Zorina Norwegian ballerina

Vera Zorina, born Eva Brigitta Hartwig, was a Norwegian ballerina, theatre and film actress, and choreographer. Today, she is chiefly remembered for her films choreographed by her then-husband George Balanchine. They include the Slaughter on Tenth Avenue sequence from On Your Toes, The Goldwyn Follies, I Was an Adventuress with Erich Von Stroheim and Peter Lorre, Louisiana Purchase with Bob Hope, and dancing to "That Old Black Magic" in Paramount Pictures' Star Spangled Rhythm.

<i>The Turning Point</i> (1977 film) 1977 film by Herbert Ross

The Turning Point is a 1977 American drama film centered on the world of ballet in New York City, written by Arthur Laurents and directed by Herbert Ross. The film stars Shirley MacLaine and Anne Bancroft, along with Leslie Browne, Mikhail Baryshnikov, and Tom Skerritt. The film was nominated for eleven Academy Awards, including Best Picture. The script is a fictionalized version of the real-life Brown family and the friendship between ballerinas Isabel Mirrow Brown and Nora Kaye.

Nora Kaye-Ross was an American prima-ballerina known for her ability to perform dramatic roles. Called the Duse of Dance after the acclaimed actress Eleonora Duse, she also worked in films as a choreographer and producer and performed on Broadway.

Leslie Browne is an American prima ballerina and actress. She was a principal dancer with the American Ballet Theatre in New York City from 1986 until 1993. She was also nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, as well as a Golden Globe Award at age 20, for portraying a young dancer invited to join a large New York ballet company in The Turning Point (1977).

Eliot Feld is an American modern ballet choreographer, performer, teacher, and director. Feld works in contemporary ballet. His company and schools, including the Feld Ballet and Ballet Tech, are deeply committed to dance and dance education in New York City.

George de la Peña is an American ballet dancer, musical theatre performer, choreographer, actor, and teacher. He was born in 1955 in New York City, New York, U.S.

John Taras was a prominent American ballet master, repetiteur, and choreographer.

Lawrence Leritz is an American actor, dancer, singer, producer, director, fitness expert and choreographer.

Valerie Bettis American dancer

Valerie Elizabeth Bettis was an American modern dancer and choreographer. She found success in musical theatre, ballet, and as a solo dancer.

Isabel Mirrow Brown was an American ballerina. A fictionalized version of her life was documented in the 1977 film The Turning Point, in which she was portrayed by Shirley Maclaine, who was nominated for an Academy Award for her performance.


  1. http://www.filmreference.com/film/47/Herbert-Ross.html
  2. https://www.nytimes.com/1978/11/12/archives/that-hollywood-touch-hollywood.html
  3. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:X4JQ-WL6
  4. 1 2 Lyman, Rick (October 11, 2001). "Herbert Ross, Broadway Choreographer Turned Hollywood Director, Dies at 74". The New York Times . Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  5. 1 2 Kisselgoff, Anna (January 6, 1994). "Review/Dance; From Perfectionism to Pastiche In the Films of Herbert Ross". The New York Times . Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  6. 1 2 Bosworth, Patricia (November 20, 1977). "On Stage and Screen, It's All Coming Up Ross's". The New York Times . Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  7. Canby, Vincent (March 20, 1980). "The Screen: 'Nijinsky,' Filmed by Herbert Ross; Pointeless". The New York Times . Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  8. Kisselgoff, Anna (October 25, 1987). "DANCE VIEW; Dancers': More Than Meets The Eye". The New York Times . Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  9. Maslin, Janet (February 3, 1995). "FILM REVIEW; Another Buddy Story, With a Twist or Two". The New York Times . Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  10. Gates, Anita (February 19, 1995). "TAKING THE CHILDREN; Zipping Through School, but, Boy, Is He Dumb". The New York Times . Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  11. Martin, John (June 26, 1943). "NORA KAYE MAKES 'SWAN LAKE' DEBUT; Her Performance High Point of Ballet Program at the Lewisohn Stadium EGLEVSKY AS THE PRINCE Markova, Massine, Laing and Tudor Dance in 'Aleko' --'Bluebeard' Also Seen". The New York Times . Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  12. Kisselgoff, Anna (June 8, 1977). "Nora Kaye Recollects". The New York Times . Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  13. Anderson, Jack (January 5, 1988). "Nora Kaye Honored In Memorial Tribute By Artist Colleagues". The New York Times . Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  14. Nemy, Enid (August 12, 1999). "Anthony Stanislas Radziwill, 40, Award-Winning TV Producer". The New York Times . Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  15. "Lee Bouvier Radziwill Weds Herbert Ross, Film Director". The New York Times . September 24, 1988. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  16. "Lee Bouvier Radziwill Weds Herbert Ross, Film Director". New York Times . September 24, 1988. Retrieved June 21, 2007. Lee Bouvier Radziwill (younger sister of the late former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis), and Herbert Ross were married yesterday evening at the bride's home in New York by Justice E. Leo Milonas of the Appellate Division of State Supreme Court, First Department. After the ceremony, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, the sister of the bride, gave a dinner party for the couple at her home in New York. Rudolf Nureyev, the dancer and director of the Paris Opera Ballet, and John Taras, the associate director of American Ballet Theatre, attended the couple.
  17. Haslam, Nicky (February 7, 2013). "The Real Lee Radziwill". The New York Times Magazine . The New York Times . Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  18. Template:If news
  19. "Paid Notice: Deaths ROSS, HERBERT D." The New York Times . October 12, 2001. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  20. "Paid Notice: Deaths ROSS, HERBERT". The New York Times . October 16, 2001. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  21. "Memorial for Herbert Ross". The New York Times . December 14, 2001. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  22. NNDB
  23. "19th Moscow International Film Festival (1995)". MIFF. Archived from the original on March 22, 2013. Retrieved March 16, 2013.