Hermagoras of Aquileia

Last updated
Saint Hermagoras of Aquileia
Hermagoras and Fortunatus.jpg
Hermagoras and Fortunatus
Diedtraditionally ~70, but probably 3rd or 4th century
Aquileia or Singidunum (Belgrade)
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church
Feast July 12
Attributes depicted as bishop.
Patronage Aquileia, Udine

Saint Hermagoras of Aquileia (also spelled Hermenagoras, Hermogenes, Ermacoras) (Italian : Sant'Ermagora, Friulian : San Macôr, Slovene : sveti Mohor; fl. 3rd century – c. 305) is considered the first bishop of Aquileia, northern Italy. Christian tradition states that he was chosen by Saint Mark to serve as the leader of the nascent Christian community in Aquileia, and that he was consecrated bishop by Saint Peter. Hermagoras and his deacon Fortunatus (Slovene: sveti Fortunat) evangelized the area but were eventually arrested by Sebastius, a representative of Nero. They were tortured and beheaded.

Italian language Romance language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to Vulgar Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. In spite of not existing any Italian community in their respective national territories and of not being spoken at any level, Italian is included de jure, but not de facto, between the recognized minority languages of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Romania. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages.

Friulian or Friulan is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy. Friulian has around 600,000 speakers, the vast majority of whom also speak Italian. It is sometimes called Eastern Ladin since it shares the same roots as Ladin, but, over the centuries, it has diverged under the influence of surrounding languages, including German, Italian, Venetian, and Slovene. Documents in Friulian are attested from the 11th century and poetry and literature date as far back as 1300. By the 20th century, there was a revival of interest in the language that has continued to this day.

Slovene language language spoken in Slovenia

Slovene or Slovenian belongs to the group of South Slavic languages. It is spoken by approximately 2.5 million speakers worldwide, the majority of whom live in Slovenia. It is the first language of about 2.1 million Slovenian people and is one of the 24 official and working languages of the European Union.

Contents

Veneration

Statue of Hermagoras in the city of Hermagor. Hermagor Statue hl Hermagoras 24092006 02.jpg
Statue of Hermagoras in the city of Hermagor.
St. Hermagoras and Fortunatus Church in Gornji Grad, Slovenia Gornji Grad (4).jpg
St. Hermagoras and Fortunatus Church in Gornji Grad, Slovenia
SS Ermagora and Fortunato's church-belfry, Lorenzago di Cadore, Veneto, Italy. Lorenzago Cadore belfry.jpg
SS Ermagora and Fortunato's church-belfry, Lorenzago di Cadore, Veneto, Italy.

"Hermagoras" was listed as the name of the first bishop of Aquileia. He was probably a bishop or lector living in the second half of the 3rd century or at the beginning of the fourth. [1] However, because the name or origins of the very first bishop was unknown, Aquileian traditions arising in the 8th century made Hermagoras a bishop of the apostolic age, who had been consecrated by Saint Peter himself. [1] As Hippolyte Delehaye writes, "To have lived among the Savoir's immediate following was...honorable...and accordingly old patrons of churches were identified with certain persons in the gospels or who were supposed to have had some part of Christ's life on earth." Thus, false apostolic origins were ascribed to Hermagoras and the church at Aquileia. The tradition that Fortunatus was Hermagoras' deacon is also probably apocryphal, but a Christian named Fortunatus may have been a separate martyr at Aquileia. [2]

Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J., was a Belgian Jesuit who was a hagiographical scholar and an outstanding member of the Society of Bollandists.

Hermagoras and Fortunatus may have been martyrs killed in Singidunum (today's Belgrade). There, around 304 during the religious persecutions led by Emperor Diocletian, [3] Hermagoras, or Hermogenes, was a lector and Fortunatus a deacon. Their relics may have been brought to Aquileia a century later, and that city became the center of their cult as it was at Aquileia that the belief in their apostolic origin arose. [3] Aquileia was one of the first cities in which Christianity could be practised unhindered; the Patriarch of Aquileia was the second most important person of the Western Church after the bishop of Rome. [4]

Singidunum human settlement

Singidunum was an ancient city which later evolved into modern Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. The name is of Celtic origin, going back to the time when Celtic tribe Scordisci settled the area in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans. Later on, the Roman Republic conquered the area in 75 BC and incorporated it into the province of Moesia. It was an important fort of the Danubian Limes and Roman Legio IV Flavia Felix was garrisoned there since 86 AD. Singidunum was the birthplace to the Roman Emperor Jovian. It was conquered by Huns in 441, and by Avars and Slavs in 584. At the beginning of the 7th century, the Singidunum fort was finally destroyed.

Belgrade City in Serbia

Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans. The urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within its administrative limits.

Diocletian Roman Emperor from 284 to 305 A.C.N.

Diocletian, born Diocles, was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become Roman cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor. The title was also claimed by Carus' surviving son, Carinus, but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus.

Saint Ermagora by Matteo Giovannetti, about 1345. Gold and tempera on panel, 55 x 18 cm. Venice, Museo Correr Matteo Giovannetti01.jpg
Saint Ermagora by Matteo Giovannetti, about 1345. Gold and tempera on panel, 55 x 18 cm. Venice, Museo Correr

Their feast day was recorded as July 12, which was further recorded in the Roman Martyrology , the Church of Aquileia, and in various other Churches. However, Venantius Fortunatus did not mention Hermagoras in his works, but mentioned the name of Fortunatus twice: once in a life of Saint Martin: Ac Fortunati benedictam urnam, and the second time in his Miscellanea: Et Fortunatum fert Aquileiam suum. [1] The Martyrologium Hieronymianum mentions Hermagoras, but in a corrupted form: Armageri, Armagri, Armigeri. There is some confusion, as the Martyrologium Hieronymianum also lists "sanctorum Fortunate Hermogenis" under August 22 or 23. [1] The Bollandists considered this simply a repetition of the same saints. [1] However, the cult of Saint Felix and Saint Fortunatus of Aquileia was also mentioned in calendars for August 14. [1]

A martyrology is a catalogue or list of martyrs and other saints and beati arranged in the calendar order of their anniversaries or feasts. Local martyrologies record exclusively the custom of a particular Church. Local lists were enriched by names borrowed from neighbouring churches. Consolidation occurred, by the combination of several local martyrologies, with or without borrowings from literary sources.

Venantius Fortunatus Italian saint-bishop

Venantius Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus was a Latin poet and hymnodist in the Merovingian Court, and a Bishop of the Early Church. He has been venerated as Saint Venantius Fortunatus since the Middle Ages.

Martin of Tours Christian saint

Saint Martin of Tours was the third bishop of Tours. He has become one of the most familiar and recognizable Christian saints in Western tradition.

Hermagoras featured on the coat-of-arms of Hermagor Wappen at hermagor-pressegger-see.png
Hermagoras featured on the coat-of-arms of Hermagor

Hermagoras' name survives in the Carinthian city of Hermagor, in the modern state of Austria. His cult was also popular in Udine, Gorizia and Gurk. The basilica of Aquileia today contains 12th-century frescoes, one of which depicts Hermagoras and Saint Peter. [4]

Hermagor-Pressegger See Place in Carinthia, Austria

Hermagor-Pressegger See is a town in the Austrian state of Carinthia. It is the administrative centre of Hermagor District. The town is named after Saint Hermagoras, the first bishop of Aquileia.

Austria Federal republic in Central Europe

Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi), a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.

Udine Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Udine is a city and comune in north-eastern Italy, in the middle of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic Sea and the Alps. Its population was 100,514 in 2012, 176,000 with the urban area.

Hermagoras and Fortunatus have been particularly venerated among the Slovenes because they were Christianised by missionaries from Aquileia. Since 1961, St. Hermagoras and St. Fortunatus have been the secondary patrons of the Archdiocese of Ljubljana, re-established that year; previously, from 1461 until 1961, they were the main patrons of the diocese. In Slovenia, there are altogether seven parish churches and 25 branch churches dedicated to St. Hermagoras and/or St. Fortunatus. The oldest Slovene publishing house, established in 1851, is named the Hermagoras Society (Mohorjeva družba). The village of Šmohor in eastern Slovenia (the Municipality of Laško) is named after St. Hermagoras. [5]

Slovenes South Slavic ethnic group living in historical Slovene lands

The Slovenes, also known as Slovenians, are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia, and also to Italy, Austria and Hungary in addition to having a diaspora throughout the world. Slovenes share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak Slovene as their native language.

Aquileia Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Aquileia is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 kilometres (6 mi) from the sea, on the river Natiso, the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. Today, the city is small, but it was large and prominent in Antiquity as one of the world's largest cities with a population of 100,000 in the 2nd century AD. and is one of the main archeological sites of Northern Italy.

Parish church church which acts as the religious centre of a parish

A parish church in Christianity is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish. In many parts of the world, especially in rural areas, the parish church may play a significant role in community activities, often allowing its premises to be used for non-religious community events. The church building reflects this status, and there is considerable variety in the size and style of parish churches. Many villages in Europe have churches that date back to the Middle Ages, but all periods of architecture are represented.

Related Research Articles

Saint Afra christian martyr

Saint Afra was martyred during the Diocletian persecution. Along with Saint Ulrich, she is a patron saint of Augsburg. Her feast day is August 5.

July 12 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) day in the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar

July 11 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - July 13

<i>Martyrologium Hieronymianum</i>

The Martyrologium Hieronymianum or Martyrologium sancti Hieronymi is an ancient martyrology or list of Christian martyrs in calendar order, one of the most used and influential of the Middle Ages. It is the oldest surviving general or "universal" martyrology, and the precursor of all later Western martyrologies.

Gornji Grad, Gornji Grad Place in Styria, Slovenia

Gornji Grad is the largest settlement and the administrative centre of the Municipality of Gornji Grad in Slovenia.

Žetale Town and Municipality in Slovenia

Žetale is a village and a municipality in eastern Slovenia, on the border with Croatia. The area traditionally belonged to the region of Styria. It is now included in the Drava Statistical Region.

Saint Chrysogonus martyr and saint

Saint Chrysogonus is a saint and martyr of ancient Rome venerated by the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church.

Fortunatus is a Latin word meaning "happy, lucky, rich, blessed". A masculine given name, it can refer to:

Saint Peregrine (Peregrinus) of Auxerre is venerated as the first bishop of Auxerre and the builder of its first cathedral. A strong local tradition states that he was a priest of Rome appointed by Pope Sixtus II to evangelize this area at the request of the Christians resident in that part of Gaul. He preached at Marseilles, Lyon, and converted most of the inhabitants of Auxerre to Christianity.

Orontius of Lecce Bishop of Lecce

Saint Orontius of Lecce is venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, along with two other figures associated with his legend, Fortunatus and Justus. He is called the first bishop of Lecce.

Quirinus of Neuss German saint

Saint Quirinus of Neuss, sometimes called Quirinus of Rome is venerated as a martyr and saint of the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. His cult was centered at Neuss in Germany, though he was a Roman martyr.

Zabrekve Place in Upper Carniola, Slovenia

Zabrekve is a settlement in the Municipality of Železniki in the Upper Carniola region of Slovenia. It includes the hamlets of Sveti Mohor and Bezovnica.

Leskovica, Gorenja Vas–Poljane Place in Upper Carniola, Slovenia

Leskovica is a village in the Municipality of Gorenja Vas–Poljane in the Upper Carniola region of Slovenia. It is around 35 kilometers (22 mi) northwest of Ljubljana.

Rodica, Domžale Place in Upper Carniola, Slovenia

Rodica is a settlement on the outskirts of Domžale in the Upper Carniola region of Slovenia. It includes the hamlet of Groblje.

Male Rodne in Styria, Slovenia

Male Rodne is a settlement in the Municipality of Rogaška Slatina in eastern Slovenia. The entire area traditionally belonged to the Styria region and is now included in the Savinja Statistical Region.

Moravče pri Gabrovki in Lower Carniola, Slovenia

Moravče pri Gabrovki is a settlement in the Municipality of Litija in central Slovenia. Traditionally the entire area was part of Lower Carniola and is now included with the rest of the municipality in the Central Sava Statistical Region.

Podstran in Upper Carniola, Slovenia

Podstran is a settlement north of Moravče in central Slovenia. Traditionally the area was part of Upper Carniola. It is now included with the rest of the Municipality of Moravče in the Central Slovenia Statistical Region. It includes the hamlet of Sveti Mohor.

Šmohor Place in Styria, Slovenia

Šmohor is a settlement in the Municipality of Laško in eastern Slovenia. It lies in the hills northwest of Laško. The area was traditionally part of the Styria region. It is now included with the rest of the municipality in the Savinja Statistical Region.

The Hermagoras Society is Slovenia's oldest publishing house and has branches in Klagenfurt (Austria), Celje (Slovenia), and Gorizia (Italy). Named after Catholic Saint Hermagoras of Aquileia it originated on July 27, 1851 at the behest of Bishop Anton Martin Slomšek for the purpose of instructing Slovenes in reading and writing. By 1918 the society had over 90,000 members and had published more than 16.3 million books. In 1940 during World War II both the Klagenfurt and Celje locations were closed down by the Nazis, who confiscated the printing presses and destroyed books.

<i>The Vision of Saint Nicholas</i> (Tintoretto) c.1582 painting by the Italian artist Tintoretto

The Vision of Saint Nicholas is a c.1582 painting by the Italian artist Tintoretto. It is now in Novo Mesto Cathedral in Slovenia. Giovanni VI Grimani, patriarch of Aquileia and provost Polidoro de Montagnana acquired it to stand on the new high altarpiece in the cathedral, built after it was severely damaged by fire in 1576.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Santi Ermagora e Fortunato di Aquileia santiebeati.it.
  2. "saintpatrickdc.org". www.saintpatrickdc.org.
  3. 1 2 Ekkart Sauser (2003). "Hermagoras und Fortunatus". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 21. Nordhausen: Bautz. col. 650. ISBN   3-88309-110-3.
  4. 1 2 Hermagoras in Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon.
  5. "Mohor in Fortunat (umrla 4. st.)" [Hermagoras and Fortunatus (died 4th cent.)]. Revija.ognjisce.si (in Slovenian). Ognjišče d.o.o.