Herman Talmadge

Last updated
Herman Talmadge
United States Senator
from Georgia
In office
January 3, 1957 – January 3, 1981
Preceded by Walter F. George
Succeeded by Mack F. Mattingly
Chair of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry
In office
January 21, 1971 January 3, 1981
Preceded by Allen Ellender
Succeeded by Jesse Helms
71st Governor of Georgia
In office
November 17, 1948 January 11, 1955
LieutenantMarvin Griffin
Preceded by Melvin E. Thompson
Succeeded by Marvin Griffin
In office
January 15, 1947 March 18, 1947
LieutenantMelvin E. Thompson
Preceded by Ellis Arnall
Succeeded by Melvin E. Thompson
Personal details
Herman Eugene Talmadge

(1913-08-09)August 9, 1913
McRae, Georgia, U.S.
DiedMarch 21, 2002(2002-03-21) (aged 88)
Hampton, Georgia, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s)1st: Katherine Williamson, 2nd: Betty Shingler, 3rd: Lynda Cowart Pierce
ChildrenHerman Talmadge, Jr.
Robert Shingler Talmadge
Father Eugene Talmadge
Alma mater University of Georgia
Profession Lawyer
Military service
AllegianceFlag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
Branch/serviceUS Naval Jack 48 stars.svg  United States Navy
Years of service1941–1945
Rank Lieutenant Commander
Battles/wars World War II

Herman Eugene Talmadge (August 9, 1913 – March 21, 2002) was an American politician who served as governor of Georgia for a short period in 1947 and then again from 1948 until 1955 then as U.S. Senator from Georgia from 1957 to 1981. Talmadge, a Democrat, was governor at a time of political transition in the state, and he served in the Senate during a time of great political change in the nation as well. [2] Talmadge began his career as a staunch segregationist and was known for his opposition to civil rights, ordering schools to be closed rather than desegregated. [3] However, by the later stages of his career Talmadge had modified his earlier views and his life eventually encapsulated the emergence of his native Georgia from entrenched white supremacy into a political culture where white voters regularly elect black Congressmen. [4] [5]


When his father, Eugene Talmadge, won the 1946 Georgia Gubernatorial election but died before taking office, Herman Talmadge was one of three competitors asserting claims to be the 70th Governor of Georgia, in what is known as the Three Governors Controversy. Talmadge occupied the governor's office from January until March of 1947, before yielding to a court decision in favor of Melvin E. Thompson, the elected lieutenant governor. In 1948 a special election was held to determine who would finish the rest of the term and Herman Talmadge defeated Thompson by over 6% (51.77% vs. 45.14%). Talmadge was re-elected in 1950 to a full term as governor- this time again defeating Thompson in the Democratic Primary in a closer race (49.33% vs. 47.88%). Talmadge would then serve until the end of his term in 1955. [6] [7]

Talmadge, who became governor as a political novice at just age 33, supported the passage of a statewide sales-tax and the construction of new schools. Talmadge also supported infrastructure improvements and increased teachers' salaries. [8] While he remains a controversial figure in Georgia history, especially due to his opposition to civil rights, some Georgians praised him for his infrastructure improvements brought about by the passage of the sales tax. [7] [2]

In the senate, Talmadge first rose to prominence as chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee and later as a member of the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities (better known as the United States Senate Watergate Committee). As chairman of the Agriculture Committee, Talmadge oversaw the passing of several major pieces of legislation, including the expansion of the Child Nutrition Act and the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act of 1972, the first major legislation dealing with rural development since the Rural Electrification Act of 1936. Talmadge was later denounced by the Senate for financial irregularities, which were revealed during a bitter divorce from his second wife. [2] The denunciation by the Senate and the changing demographics of Georgia helped lead to Talmadge's defeat in his 1980 re-election campaign against Republican Mack Mattingly- Talmadge's first ever electoral loss.

Early life, education and military service

Herman Talmadge was born on August 9, 1913, on a farm near the small town of McRae in Telfair County in the southeastern part of Georgia. He was the only son of Eugene Talmadge and his wife, Mattie (Thurmond) and through his mother, he was a second cousin of South Carolina Senator and 1948 Dixiecrat Presidential Candidate Strom Thurmond. [9] [10] [11] Herman attended public schools in Telfair County until his senior year of high school when his family moved to Atlanta and he enrolled at Druid Hills High School, graduating in 1931. [12] In the fall of 1931, he entered the University of Georgia for his undergraduate degree and was a member of the Demosthenian Literary Society and Sigma Nu fraternity. After completing his undergraduate studies, Talmadge enrolled in the University of Georgia School of Law. Talmadge received his law degree in 1936 and joined his father’s law practice. [13]

In 1937 he married his first wife, Katherine Williamson and the marriage ended in divorce after three years. In 1941 he married his second wife, Betty Shingler, and they had two sons, Herman Eugene Jr. and Robert Shingler. [14]

When World War II broke out, Talmadge volunteered to serve in the United States Navy. Talmadge served as an ensign with the Sixth Naval District at Charleston,SC and with the Third Naval District in New York after graduating from midshipman's school at Northwestern University. In 1942, Talmadge participated in the invasion of Guadalcanal aboard the USS Tyron. He served as flag secretary to the commandant of naval forces in New Zealand from June 1943 to April 1944 and then as executive officer of the USS Dauphin. Talmadge participated in the battle of Okinawa and he was present in Tokyo Bay for the Japanese surrender. He attained rank of lieutenant commander and was discharged in November 1945. [15]

After his service in World War II, Talmadge returned to his home in Lovejoy, Georgia. While continuing to practice law and to farm, Talmadge took over publishing his father’s weekly newspaper, The Statesman, and started a ham-curing business. [16]

The Three Governors Controversy

After returning from the war, Talmadge became active in Democratic Party politics. He ran his father's successful 1946 campaign for governor. Eugene Talmadge had been ill, and his supporters were worried about his surviving long enough to be sworn in. They studied the state constitution and found that if the governor-elect died before his term began, the Georgia General Assembly would choose between the second and third-place finishers for the successor. The elder Talmadge ran unopposed among Democrats, so the party officials arranged for write-in votes for Herman Talmadge as insurance.

In December 1946, the elder Talmadge died before taking office. Melvin E. Thompson, the lieutenant governor-elect; Ellis Arnall, the prior governor; and Herman Talmadge as write-in candidate, all arranged to be sworn in and were concurrently trying to conduct state business from the Georgia State Capitol. Arnall relinquished his claim in favor of Thompson. Ultimately, Thompson was supported by the Supreme Court of Georgia.

Career after 1946

Talmadge prepared to run for the special gubernatorial election in 1948, and defeated incumbent Governor Thompson. Two years later, Talmadge was elected to a full term in the 1950 election. During his terms, Talmadge attracted new industries to Georgia. He remained a staunch supporter of racial segregation, even as the Civil rights movement gained momentum in the postwar years.

Talmadge was barred by law from seeking another full term as governor in 1954. That year the United States Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregated public schools were unconstitutional, and advised school systems to integrate.

United States Senate career

Talmadge was elected to the United States Senate in 1956. Most blacks in Georgia were still disenfranchised under state laws passed by white Democrats and discriminatory practices they had conducted since the turn of the 20th century. During his time as U.S. Senator, Talmadge continued as a foe of civil rights legislation, even as the Civil rights movement gained media coverage and increasing support across the country. After President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Talmadge, along with more than a dozen other southern senators, boycotted the 1964 Democratic National Convention. [17]

With the help of Senator Richard Russell, Talmadge had gained appointment to the Agriculture Committee during his first year in Washington and to the Senate Finance Committee shortly thereafter. As a junior member of the Agriculture Committee, Talmadge worked to address the constantly changing needs of the nation's farmers in an evolving global economy. Talmadge also worked to expand support for both farmers and children and families in hunger through his work on the passage Child Nutrition Act of 1966, but most significantly in 1969 and 1970 as part of the re-authorization and expansion of the 1946 School Lunch Act which Russell had authored and considered to be his greatest legislative achievement.

Talmadge was a great admirer of the work Russell had done on the 1946 act but recognized that significant improvements were needed. Talmadge, after noting that only one-third of American children living in families making less than $2000 a year were able to participate in the program said “We must use food as a tool of education. A child cannot learn if he is hungry. It has been the experience of school administrators in economically deprived areas that there is a marked improvement in school attendance when children can look forward to the prospect of a good meal at school.” Major goals of the new Talmadge proposal were in providing funding for equipment, increasing the required level of support from states, allowing the “lunch to follow the child”- allowing students from low income families that lived in higher income areas to remain eligible for the program, establishment of the  National Advisory Council on Child Nutrition, and special assistance for needy children. The amendments for these purposes became law on May 14, 1970. [18] [19]

When Sen. Allen Ellender of Louisiana assumed chairmanship of the Senate Appropriations Committee following Richard Russell's death in January of 1971, Talmadge became chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee, a position he held until leaving office in 1981. [20]

Talmadge’s elevation to Agriculture Committee Chairman came at a time when many analysts were forecasting that the world’s need for food would soon outstrip its productive capacity. Under Talmadge’s leadership, the Senate Agriculture Committee confronted these problems throughout the ’70s.  Talmadge oversaw the passage of several bills that more than doubled spending on farm programs by the end of the 1970’s. In addition to the Rural Development Act of 1972, some of the other major bills passed under Talmadge’s chairmanship included: The Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 (also known as the 1973 U.S. Farm Bill) which provided for commodity price support, soil conservation, and food stamp expansion for four years. The four year period established a cycle that ensured the next three farm bills appeared on the congressional agenda after presidential elections, and thereby preventing them from becoming entangled in election-year politics. The Food and Agriculture Act of 1977 continued the market-oriented loan and target-pricing policies of its predecessor.  Title XIV of the Act confirmed the USDA’s historic role in agricultural research under the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act.  The bill also made major modifications to food stamps and solidified the program as a part of the Farm Bill.

Additionally in 1977, as a result of Senate committee reorganization and in recognition of the Agriculture Committee’s increased role in addressing hunger and nutrition, growing spending for federally-supported child nutrition (which rose from $2.4 billion to more than $8 billion during the decade), and increase of staff size (rising from seven in 1971 to 32 in 1980), the Committee’s name was changed to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. This was the first change to the Committee’s name since adding “Forestry” in 1884. [21]

In 1968, Talmadge faced the first of his three Republican challengers for his Senate seat. E. Earl Patton (1927–2011), later a member of the Georgia State Senate, received 256,796 votes (22.5 percent) to Talmadge's 885,103 (77.3 percent). Patton, a real estate developer, was the first Republican in Georgia to run for the U.S. Senate since the Reconstruction era, when most Republicans had been African-American freedmen. [22] He was a sign of the shifting white electorate in the South, where white suburbanites moved into the Republican Party.

Talmadge ran a disciplined office, requiring his staff to respond to every constituent letter within 24 hours of receipt. [23] In 1969, Talmadge hired Curtis Lee Atkinson onto his senate staff as an administrative aide, making Atkinson the first African-American hired to work on a Southern senator's personal staff since the Reconstruction Era. [24]

In early 1973, Talmadge was appointed to the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities (better known as the United States Senate Watergate Committee) which investigated the activities of members of the Nixon administration. He served on the committee until its final report was issued in June 1974. Talmadge's service on the committee is generally considered the high-water mark of his time as a U.S. Senator. [25]


Late in his Senate career, Talmadge became embroiled in a financial scandal. After an extensive investigation by the Senate, on October 11, 1979, the U.S. Senate voted 81-15 to "denounce" Talmadge for "improper financial conduct" between 1973 and 1978. He was found to have accepted reimbursements of $43,435.83 for official expenses not incurred, and to have improperly reported the "expenses" as campaign expenditures. [26] [27] [28] [29]

After the trial, he faced significant opposition in the state's Democratic primary for the first time in 24 years. Lieutenant Governor Zell Miller challenged Talmadge in the primary with the support of liberals disenchanted with Talmadge's conservatism. [30] Though he succeeded in winning the primary runoff against Miller, Talmadge's ethical conduct was a significant issue and he was defeated by the Republican candidate, former state GOP chairman Mack Mattingly. [31] It was also believed that the bruising primary battle with Miller left Talmadge weakened for the general election. [30]


Talmadge filed for divorce from his wife, Betty, in 1977 following a long period of personal troubles for Talmadge, including self-admitted alcoholism, which spiraled out of control after his son, Bobby, drowned in 1975. [32] The Talmadges eventually reached a divorce settlement in 1978, with Betty receiving $150,000 in cash and 100 acres of their Lovejoy plantation. [33] She was also allowed to use the remaining 1,200 acres on the plantation. [33] His wife testified against him in 1980 during the investigation into his finances, resulting in a denunciation from the U.S. Senate, which contributed to the end his long political career.

Later life

After his defeat, Talmadge retired to his home; his plantation and mansion were now in the hands of his ex-wife, Betty. In 1984, he married his third wife, Lynda Pierce, who was 26 years younger than himself. [34] He lived on for more than two decades, dying at the age of 88. Talmadge and his second wife, Betty, who eventually reconciled and remained on respectful terms after the divorce, had had two sons together, Herman E. Talmadge, Jr. (died 2014), and Robert Shingler Talmadge (died 1975). Betty Talmadge died in 2005, surrounded by family, on her estate. [35] At the time of his death, Herman Talmadge was the earliest serving former governor.


See also

Related Research Articles

James Eastland American politician

James Oliver Eastland was an American politician from Mississippi who served in the United States Senate in 1941 and again from 1943 until his resignation on December 27, 1978. He has been called the "Voice of the White South" and the "Godfather of Mississippi Politics." A Democrat, Eastland was known as the symbol of Southern resistance to racial integration during the civil rights movement, often speaking of blacks as "an inferior race."

Zell Miller American politician

Zell Bryan Miller was an American author and politician from the state of Georgia. A Democrat, Miller served as lieutenant governor from 1975 to 1991, 79th Governor of Georgia from 1991 to 1999, and as U.S. Senator from 2000 to 2005.

Richard Russell Jr. 66th Governor of Georgia (1931–1933), U.S. Senator from Georgia (1933–1971)

Richard Brevard Russell Jr. was an American politician. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as the 66th Governor of Georgia from 1931 to 1933 before serving in the United States Senate for almost 40 years, from 1933 to 1971. Russell was a founder and leader of the conservative coalition that dominated Congress from 1937 to 1963, and at his death was the most senior member of the Senate. He was for decades a leader of Southern opposition to the civil rights movement.

Hugh Scott

Hugh Doggett Scott Jr. was an American lawyer and politician. A member of the Republican Party, he represented Pennsylvania in the US House of Representatives from 1947 to 1959 and in the US Senate, from 1959 to 1977. He served as Senate Minority Leader from 1969 to 1977.

George Aiken American politician

George David Aiken was an American politician and horticulturist. A member of the Republican Party, he was the 64th Governor of Vermont (1937–1941) before serving in the United States Senate for 34 years, from 1941 to 1975. At the time of his retirement, he was the most senior member of the Senate, and is the most recent Senator to have never served alongside any currently sitting Senators as of 2021.

Eugene Talmadge American politician (1884–1946)

Eugene Talmadge was an attorney and American politician who served three terms as the 67th Governor of Georgia, from 1933 to 1937, and then again from 1941 to 1943. Elected to a fourth term in November 1946, he died before his inauguration, scheduled for January 1947. Only Talmadge and Joe Brown, in the mid-19th century, have been elected four times as Governor of Georgia.

Ellis Arnall American politician, Governor of Georgia

Ellis Gibbs Arnall was an American politician who served as the 69th Governor of Georgia from 1943 to 1947. A liberal Democrat, he helped lead efforts to abolish the poll tax and to reduce Georgia's voting age to 18. Following his departure from office, he became a highly successful attorney and businessman.

Ernest Vandiver American politician

Samuel Ernest Vandiver Jr. was an American politician who was the 73rd Governor of the U.S. state of Georgia from 1959 to 1963.

Mack Mattingly American politician

Mack Francis Mattingly is an American diplomat and politician who served one term as a United States senator from Georgia, the first Republican to have served in the U.S. Senate from that state since Reconstruction.

Ronald Bo Ginn

Ronald Bryan Ginn, known as 'Bo' Ginn, represented Georgia's 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives.

In American politics, a conservative Democrat is a member of the Democratic Party with conservative political views, or with views that are conservative compared to the positions taken by other members of the Democratic Party. Traditionally, conservative Democrats have been elected to office from the Southern states, rural areas, the Rust Belt, and the Midwest.

Walter F. George American judge

Walter Franklin George was an American politician from the state of Georgia. He was a longtime Democratic United States Senator from 1922 to 1957 and was President pro tempore of the United States Senate from 1955 to 1957.

Milton Young American politician

Milton Ruben Young was an American politician, most notable for representing North Dakota in the United States Senate from 1945 until 1981. At the time of his retirement, he was the most senior Republican in the Senate.

The Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies is an archive of political and historic primary documents relating to the modern American political system. The Russell Library is one of three Special Collections Libraries located in the Richard B. Russell Building on the campus of the University of Georgia in Athens. The address is 300 S. Hull Street. The Russell Library is a department within the University of Georgia Libraries that reports to the University Librarian.

Georgia Davis Powers American politician

Georgia Davis Powers was an American politician who served for 21 years as a state senator in the Kentucky Senate. In 1967, she was the first person of color and the first woman elected to the senate. During her term, she was "regarded as the leading advocate for blacks, women, children, the poor, and the handicapped," and was the chair of the Health and Welfare committee from 1970–76 and the Labor and Industry committee from 1978-88.

1980 United States Senate election in Georgia

The 1980 United States Senate election in Georgia was held on November 4, 1980. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator and former Governor of Georgia Herman Talmadge ran for reelection to a fifth term, but lost narrowly to Mack Mattingly, Chairman of the Georgia Republican Party. Mattingly became the first ever Republican popularly elected to the Senate in Georgia. This race was part of a landslide national election for Republicans that would come to be known as the Reagan Revolution.

1948 United States presidential election in Georgia Election in Georgia

The 1948 United States presidential election in Georgia took place on November 2, 1948, as part of the wider United States Presidential election. Voters chose 12 representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

1956 United States Senate election in Georgia

The 1956 United States Senate election in Georgia took place on November 6, 1956. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Walter F. George did not run for re-election.

1972 United States Senate election in Georgia

The 1972 United States Senate election in Georgia took place on November 7, 1972, as one of that year's United States Senate elections. It was held concurrently with the 1972 presidential election. This seat had opened up following the death of Richard B. Russell in 1971. Shortly thereafter, Governor of Georgia Jimmy Carter appointed David H. Gambrell to fill Russell's vacant seat. The Democratic Party nominee was Sam Nunn, a conservative Democrat and member of the Georgia House of Representatives, and the Republican Party nominated Fletcher Thompson, the Representative from the Atlanta-area 5th congressional district of Georgia. In the primary, Nunn emerged victorious from a crowded field of Democratic candidates, including Gambrell and former Georgia Governor Ernest Vandiver. Despite President Richard Nixon defeating George McGovern in Georgia in the presidential election on the same day, Nunn defeated Thompson in the general election 54% to 46%.

Strom Thurmond filibuster of the Civil Rights Act of 1957 Longest U.S. Senate filibuster

On August 28, 1957, United States Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina began a filibuster, or extended speech, intended to stop the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957. It began at 8:54 p.m. and lasted until 9:12 p.m. the following day, for a total length of 24 hours and 18 minutes. This made the filibuster the longest single-person filibuster in U.S. Senate history, a record that still stands today. The content of the filibuster focused primarily on asserting that the bill was both unnecessary and unconstitutional, with Thurmond reading from a number of laws and other legal documents. While the filibuster was supported by many South Carolinians, Thurmond's decision to filibuster the bill went against a previous agreement among Southern Senators. As a result, Thurmond received mixed praise and criticism for his speech. Thurmond's filibuster is widely seen as racist today, as the civil rights bill it opposed protected voting rights for African-Americans. Despite the filibuster, the bill passed within two hours of Thurmond's speech.


  1. Henderson, Harold Paulk (August 25, 2004). "Eugene Talmadge (1884-1946)". New Georgia Encyclopedia . Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  2. 1 2 3 Buchanan, Scott E. (August 1, 2019) [2002]. "Herman Talmadge (1913-2002)". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  3. Clymer, Adam. "Herman Talmadge, Georgia Senator and Governor, Dies at 88". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  4. Frug, Stephen (2008-07-07). "Accepting Equality: Rhetorical Reactions to the Changing Politics of De Jure Segregation".Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. "Obituary: Herman Talmadge". the Guardian. 2002-03-25. Retrieved 2021-06-05.
  6. "Herman Talmadge (1913-2002)". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2021-09-28.
  7. 1 2 Write, C.C. Wilson III, Rome News-Tribune Staff. "As governor, senator, Talmadge leaves powerful legac | Local New". Northwest Georgia News. Retrieved 2018-09-24.
  8. Mayhew, Paul (July 23, 1956). "The Talmadge Story". The New Republic. Retrieved 2020-06-09.
  9. "Herman Talmadge, 88; Georgia Senator". March 22, 2002 via LA Times.
  10. https://docsouth.unc.edu/sohp/html_use/A-0331-1.html
  11. Browning, Joan C.; Burlage, Dorothy Dawson (March 2002). Deep in Our Hearts: Nine White Women in the Freedom Movement. ISBN   9780820324197.
  12. "Famous Alumni". druidhillshs.dekalb.k12.ga.us. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  13. Hackbart-Dean, Pamela (1993). "Herman E. Talmadge: From Civil Rights to Watergate". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. 77 (1): 145–157. ISSN   0016-8297.
  14. Hackbart-Dean, Pamela (1993). "Herman E. Talmadge: From Civil Rights to Watergate". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. 77 (1): 145–157. ISSN   0016-8297.
  15. Reynolds, Clifford P. (1961). Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1961: The Continental Congress, September 5, 1774, to October 21, 1788 and the Congress of the United States, from the First to the Eighty-sixth Congress, March 4, 1789, to January 3, 1961, Inclusive. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 1688.
  16. Hackbart-Dean, Pamela (1993). "Herman E. Talmadge: From Civil Rights to Watergate". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. 77 (1): 146. ISSN   0016-8297 via JSTOR.
  17. Kornacki, Steve (2011-02-03) "The 'Southern Strategy', fulfilled" Archived 2011-04-13 at the Wayback Machine , Salon.com
  18. Gay, James Thomas (1996). "Richard B. Russell and the National School Lunch Program". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. Vol 80, no. 4: 871–872 via JSTOR.|volume= has extra text (help)
  19. Hearings, Reports and Prints of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1969. p. 3644.
  20. Talmadge: A Political Legacy, A Politician's Life. Herman Talmadge with Mark Royden Winchell
  21. "A Brief History of the Senate Committee on Agriculture". United States Capitol Historical Society. Retrieved 2021-09-28.
  22. Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections, p. 1441
  23. Clymer, Adam (March 22, 2002). "Herman Talmadge, Georgia Senator and Governor, Dies at 88". New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
  24. "Curtis Lee Atkinson, 83: Assistant secretary of state for Max Cleland". ajc. Retrieved 2021-09-28.
  25. Hackbart-Dean, Pamela (Summer 1999). "" 'The Greatest Civics Lesson in Our History': Herman Talmadge and Watergate from a Twenty-five-Year Perspective"". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. 83 (2): 321. JSTOR   40584148 via JSTOR.
  26. "Expulsion and Censure". United States Senate. Retrieved May 31, 2006.
  27. "Trial Of a Lion: Talmadge fights for survival". Time. Vol. 113 no. 20. May 14, 1979. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
  28. B. Drummond Ayres Jr. (October 12, 1979). "SENATE DENOUNCES TALMADGE, 81 TO 15, OVER HIS FINANCES". nytimes.com.
  29. 1 2 Harris, Art (August 23, 1980). "Drawlin' and Brawlin'". The Washington Post.
  30. Senate Historical Office. "The Censure Case of Herman E. Talmadge of Georgia (1979)". senate.gov.
  31. "Herman Talmadge (1913-2002)". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  32. 1 2 "Settlement Ends Talmadge Suit At Last Minute". Washington Post. 1978-12-12. ISSN   0190-8286 . Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  33. "Account Login | Whitepages Premium". premium.whitepages.com. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  34. Jr., B. Drummond Ayres. "Mrs. Talmadge Tells of a Coat Stuffed With $100 Bills" . Retrieved 2018-09-14.
  35. "Honorary Degrees Awarded by Oglethorpe University". Oglethorpe University. Archived from the original on 2015-03-19. Retrieved 2015-03-13.
  36. "Former Ga. Gov. Talmadge Dies". AP NEWS. Retrieved 2021-06-06.
Party political offices
Preceded by
Eugene Talmadge
Democratic nominee for Governor of Georgia
1948, 1950
Succeeded by
Marvin Griffin
Preceded by
Walter F. George
Democratic Party nominee for United States Senator from Georgia (Class 3)
1956, 1962, 1968, 1974, 1980
Succeeded by
Wyche Fowler
Political offices
Preceded by
Ellis Arnall
Governor of Georgia
Succeeded by
Melvin E. Thompson
Preceded by
Melvin E. Thompson
Governor of Georgia
Succeeded by
Marvin Griffin
Preceded by
Allen J. Ellender
Chairman of Senate Agriculture Committee
Succeeded by
Jesse Helms
North Carolina
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Walter F. George
U.S. senator (Class 3) from Georgia
Served alongside: Richard B. Russell, Jr., David H. Gambrell, Sam Nunn
Succeeded by
Mack Mattingly