Hermine Braunsteiner

Last updated
Hermine Braunsteiner
Majdanek - Hermine Braunsteiner.jpg
Rapportführerin Hermine Braunsteiner
Nickname(s)Mare of Majdanek
(Stute von Majdanek)
Born(1919-07-16)July 16, 1919
Vienna, Republic of German-Austria
DiedApril 19, 1999(1999-04-19) (aged 79)
Bochum, Germany
AllegianceFlag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Nazi Germany
Service/branch Flag Schutzstaffel.svg Schutzstaffel women's auxiliary
Years of service1939-1945
RankSS Helferin
AwardsKriegsverdienstkreuz 2. Klasse, 1943
Spouse(s)Russel Ryan
Other workHotel and restaurant worker
Housewife

Hermine Braunsteiner Ryan (July 16, 1919 – April 19, 1999) was a female camp guard at Ravensbrück and Majdanek concentration camps, and the first Nazi war criminal to be extradited from the United States, [1] [2] to face trial in Germany. Braunsteiner was known to prisoners of Majdanek concentration camp as the "Stomping Mare" and was said to have whipped women to death, thrown children by their hair onto trucks that took them to their deaths in gas chambers, hanged young female prisoners and stomped an old woman to death with her jackboots. [3] [4] [5] She was sentenced to life imprisonment by the District Court of Düsseldorf on April 30, 1981 [6] but released on health grounds in 1996 before her death three years later.

Female guards in Nazi concentration camps

The Aufseherinnen were female guards in German concentration camps during the Holocaust. Of the 55,000 guards who served in German concentration camps, about 3,700 were women. In 1942, the first female guards arrived at Auschwitz and Majdanek from Ravensbrück. The year after, the Nazis began conscripting women because of a guard shortage. The German title for this position, Aufseherin means female overseer or attendant. Later female guards were dispersed to Bolzano (1944–45), Kaiserwald-Riga (1943–44), Mauthausen, Stutthof (1942–45), Vaivara (1943–44), Vught (1943–44), and at other Nazi concentration camps, subcamps, work camps, detention camps, etc.

Majdanek concentration camp Nazi concentration camp

Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II. Although initially purposed for forced labor rather than extermination, the camp was used to kill people on an industrial scale during Operation Reinhard, the German plan to murder all Jews within their own General Government territory of Poland. The camp, which operated from October 1, 1941, until July 22, 1944, was captured nearly intact, because the rapid advance of the Soviet Red Army during Operation Bagration prevented the SS from destroying most of its infrastructure, and the inept Deputy Camp Commandant Anton Thernes failed in his task of removing incriminating evidence of war crimes. Therefore, Majdanek became the first concentration camp discovered by Allied forces. Also known to the SS as Konzentrationslager (KL) Lublin, Majdanek remains the best-preserved Nazi concentration camp of the Holocaust.

National Socialism, more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

Contents

Life

Braunsteiner was born in Vienna, the youngest child in a strictly observant Roman Catholic working class family. Her father, Friedrich Braunsteiner, was a chauffeur for a brewery and/or a butcher. Hermine lacked the means to fulfill her aspiration to become a nurse, and worked as a maid. From 1937 to 1938 she worked in England for an American engineer's household. [2] [3] [4] [5]

Vienna Capital city and state in Austria

Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.

Working class those employed in lower tier jobs

The working class comprises those engaged in waged or salaried labour, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, and most pink-collar jobs. Members of the working class rely for their income exclusively upon their earnings from wage labour; thus, according to the more inclusive definitions, the category can include almost all of the working population of industrialized economies, as well as those employed in the urban areas of non-industrialized economies or in the rural workforce.

Chauffeur profession

A chauffeur is a person employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle, especially a luxury vehicle such as a large sedan or limousine. A woman employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle is a chauffeuse.

In 1938 Braunsteiner became a German citizen after the Anschluss. She returned to Vienna from England and the same year relocated to Germany proper for a job at the Heinkel aircraft works in Berlin. [2] [4]

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

<i>Anschluss</i> annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938

Anschluss refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938. The word's German spelling, until the German orthography reform of 1996, was Anschluß and it was also known as the Anschluss Österreichs.

Heinkel aircraft manufacturer

Heinkel Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturing company founded by and named after Ernst Heinkel. It is noted for producing bomber aircraft for the Luftwaffe in World War II and for important contributions to high-speed flight, with the pioneering examples of a successful liquid-fueled rocket and a turbojet-powered aircraft in aviation history, with both Heinkel designs' first flights occurring shortly before the outbreak of World War II in Europe.

Camp guard at Ravensbrück

At the urging of her landlord, a German policeman, Braunsteiner applied for a better paying job supervising prisoners, quadrupling her income in time. She began her training on August 15, 1939, as an Aufseherin under Maria Mandel at Ravensbrück concentration camp. She remained there after the start of World War II, and the influx of new prisoners from occupied countries. [1] [2] [7] After three years, a disagreement with Mandel led Braunsteiner to request a transfer in October 1942. [2]

Ravensbrück concentration camp Womens concentration camp in Germany during World War II

Ravensbrück was a German concentration camp exclusively for women from 1939 to 1945, located in northern Germany, 90 km (56 mi) north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück. The largest single national group consisted of 40,000 Polish women. Others included 26,000 Jewish women from various countries: 18,800 Russian, 8,000 French, and 1,000 Dutch. More than 80 percent were political prisoners. Many slave labor prisoners were employed by Siemens & Halske. From 1942 to 1945, medical experiments to test the effectiveness of sulfonamides were undertaken.

Majdanek and Alter Flughafen

Aerial photo of the Majdanek concentration camp from the collections of the Majdanek Museum Majdanek (June 24, 1944).jpg
Aerial photo of the Majdanek concentration camp from the collections of the Majdanek Museum

On October 16, 1942, Braunsteiner took up her duties in the forced-labor apparel factory near the Majdanek concentration camp, established near Lublin, Poland a year earlier. It was both a labour camp (Arbeitslager) and an extermination camp (Vernichtungslager) with gas chambers and crematoria. [1] She was promoted to assistant wardress in January 1943, [1] under Oberaufseherin Elsa Ehrich along with five other camp guards. [8] By then most of the Aufseherinnen had been moved into Majdanek from the Alter Flughafen labor camp.

Arbeitslager

Arbeitslager is a German language word which means labor camp. Under Nazism, the German government used forced labor extensively, starting in the 1930s but most especially during World War II. Another term was Zwangsarbeitslager.

Extermination camp Nazi death camps established during World War II to primarily kill Jews

Nazi Germany built extermination camps during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs Poles, Roma, Soviet POWs, political opponents and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans"). The victims of death camps were primarily killed by gassing, either in permanent installations constructed for this specific purpose, or by means of gas vans. Some Nazi camps, such as Auschwitz and Majdanek, served a dual purpose before the end of the war in 1945: extermination by poison gas, but also through extreme work under starvation conditions.

A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing humans or other animals with gas, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced. The most commonly used poisonous agent is hydrogen cyanide; carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide have also been used. Gas chambers were used as a method of execution for condemned prisoners in the United States beginning in the 1920s and continue to be a legal execution method in three states. During the Holocaust, large-scale gas chambers designed for mass killing were used by Nazi Germany as part of their genocide program. The use of gas chambers in North Korea has also been reported.

Her abuses took many forms in the camp. She involved herself in "selections" of women and children to be sent to the gas chambers and whipped several women to death. Working alongside other female guards such as Elsa Ehrich, Hildegard Lächert, Marta Ulrich, Alice Orlowski, Charlotte Karla Mayer-Woellert, Erna Wallisch and Elisabeth Knoblich, Braunsteiner was infamous for her wild rages and tantrums. According to one witness at her later trial in Düsseldorf, she "seized children by their hair and threw them on trucks heading to the gas chambers". [9] Other survivors testified how she killed women by stomping on them with her steel-studded jackboots, earning her the nickname "The Stomping Mare". (In Polish "Kobyła", in German "Stute von Majdanek".) [1] [2] [10] She received the War Merit Cross, 2nd class, in 1943, for her work. [1]

Elsa Ehrich Female Nazi war criminal

Else Lieschen Frida "Elsa" Ehrich was an SS guard at the Nazi concentration camps, including at Kraków-Płaszów and the Majdanek concentration camp during World War II. She was tried in Lublin, Poland at the Majdanek Trials and sentenced to death for war crimes. Ehrich was hanged on 26 October 1948.

Hildegard Lächert Nazi concentration camp guard

Hildegard Martha Lächert was a female guard, or Aufseherin, at several German World War II concentration camps. She became publicly known for her service at Ravensbrück, Majdanek and Auschwitz-Birkenau. After the war she was sentenced to a total of 27 years in prison for her brutal treatment of inmates during her camp service of which she only served close to ten. She later did work for the CIA and for the West German spy agency the BND.

Alice Orlowski Female Nazi; concentration camp guard

Alice Orlowski was a German concentration camp guard at several of the Nazi German camps in occupied Poland during World War II.

Ravensbrück again and the Genthin Subcamp

In January 1944, Hermine was ordered back to Ravensbrück as Majdanek began evacuations due to the approaching front line. She was promoted to supervising wardress at the Genthin subcamp of Ravensbrück, located outside Berlin. [1] Witnesses say that she abused many of the prisoners with a horsewhip she carried, killing at least two women with it. [11] A French physician, who was interned at Genthin recalled the sadism of Hermine while she ruled the camp: "I watched her administer twenty-five lashes with a riding crop to a young Russian girl suspected of having tried sabotage. Her back was full of lashes, but I was not allowed to treat her immediately." [12]

Post war Austria

On May 7, 1945, Hermine Braunsteiner fled the camp ahead of the Soviet Red Army. She then returned to Vienna, [1] but soon left, complaining that there was not enough food there.[ citation needed ]

The Austrian police arrested her and turned her over to the British military occupation authorities ; she remained incarcerated from May 6, 1946, until April 18, 1947. A court in Graz, Austria, convicted her of torture, maltreatment of prisoners and crimes against humanity and against human dignity at Ravensbrück (not Majdanek), then sentenced her to serve three years, beginning April 7, 1948; she was released early in April 1950. An Austrian civil court subsequently granted her amnesty from further prosecution there. [1] [3] [5] [13] She worked at low-level jobs in hotels and restaurants until emigrating. [2]

Emigration and marriage

Russell Ryan, an American, met her on his vacation in Austria. They married in October 1958, after they had emigrated to Nova Scotia, Canada. She entered the United States in April 1959, becoming a United States citizen on January 19, 1963. They lived in Maspeth, Queens, where she was known as a fastidious housewife with a friendly manner, married to a construction worker. [3] [4]

Discovery

Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal picked up on her trail by chance on a visit to Tel Aviv. He was at a restaurant there when he received a call from his friend that he could not make it to their luncheon. The maitre d' announced the "phone call for Mr. Wiesenthal" and this led to his recognition by the other patrons, who stood up to applaud him. When he returned to his table, there were several Majdanek survivors waiting who told him about Braunsteiner and what she had done. Based on this information he followed her trail from Vienna to Halifax, Nova Scotia, and then, via Toronto, to Queens. [3] [14] In 1964 Wiesenthal alerted the New York Times that Braunsteiner might have married a man named Ryan and might live in the Maspeth area of the Borough of Queens in New York. They assigned Joseph Lelyveld, then a young reporter, to find "Mrs. Ryan." They first lived at 54-44 82nd Street in western Elmhurst and moved to 52-11 72nd Street in Maspeth. [13] He found her at the second doorbell he rang and later wrote that she greeted him at her front doorstep and said: "My God, I knew this would happen. You've come." [15]

Braunsteiner stated that she had been at Majdanek only a year, eight months of that time in the camp infirmary. "My wife, sir, wouldn't hurt a fly" said Ryan. "There's no more decent person on this earth. She told me this was a duty she had to perform. It was a conscriptive service." [13] On August 22, 1968, United States authorities sought to revoke her citizenship, because she had failed to disclose her convictions for war crimes; she was denaturalized in 1971 after entering into a consent judgment to avoid deportation. [2] [3]

Extradition

A prosecutor in Düsseldorf began investigating her wartime behavior, and in 1973 the German government requested her extradition, accusing her of joint responsibility in the death of 200,000 people. [1] [2] [16]

The United States court denied procedural claims that her denaturalization had been invalid (U.S. citizens could not be extradited to Germany), and that the charges alleged political offenses committed by a non-German outside West Germany. Later it rejected claims of lack of probable cause and double jeopardy. [2] During the next year she sat with her husband in United States district court in Queens, hearing survivors' testimony against the former SS guard. They described whippings and fatal beatings. Rachel Berger, alone among the witnesses, testified she would celebrate retribution against the former vice-commandant of the women's camp at Majdanek. [17]

The judge certified her extradition to the Secretary of State on May 1, 1973, and on August 7, 1973, Hermine Braunsteiner Ryan became the first Nazi war criminal extradited from the United States to Germany. [2]

Trial in Germany

She was remanded in Düsseldorf in 1973, until her husband posted bail. The German court rejected Mrs. Ryan's arguments that it lacked jurisdiction, because she was not a German national but Austrian, and that the offenses alleged had occurred outside Germany. It ruled she had been a German citizen at the time and more importantly had been a German government official acting in the name of the German Reich. [1] [2]

She stood trial in West Germany with 15 other former SS men and women from Majdanek. One of the witnesses against Hermine testified that she "seized children by their hair and threw them on trucks heading to the gas chambers." Others spoke of vicious beatings. One witness told of Hermine and the steel-studded jackboots with which she dealt blows to inmates. [4] [18]

The third Majdanek trial (Majdanek-Prozess in German) was held in Düsseldorf. Beginning on November 26, 1975, and lasting 474 sessions, it was West Germany's longest and most expensive trial ever. The defendants included Ryan, former SS guard Hermann Hackmann and camp doctor Heinrich Schmidt. The court found insufficient evidence on six counts of the indictment and convicted her on three: the murder of 80 people, abetting the murder of 102 children, and collaborating in the murder of 1,000 people. On June 30, 1981, the court imposed a life sentence, a more severe punishment than those meted out to her co-defendants. [1] [19] [20]

Complications of diabetes, including a leg amputation, led to her release from Mülheimer women's prison in 1996. Hermine Braunsteiner Ryan died on April 19, 1999, aged 79, in Bochum, Germany. [1] [4] [18] [21]

After the publicity surrounding Ryan's extradition, the United States government established (1979) a U.S. DOJ Office of Special Investigations to seek out war criminals to denaturalize or deport. It took jurisdiction previously held by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. [ citation needed ]

Related Research Articles

Margot Elisabeth Dreschel, also spelled Drechsler, or Drexler, was a prison guard at Nazi concentration camps during World War II.

The Office of Special Investigations is a unit within the Criminal Division of the United States Department of Justice. Its purpose is to detect and investigate individuals who took part in state sponsored acts committed in violation of public international law, such as crimes against humanity.

Herta Ehlert Nazi guard

Herta Ehlert was a female guard at many Nazi concentration camps during World War II.

Johanna Langefeld was a German female guard and supervisor at three Nazi concentration camps: Lichtenburg, Ravensbrück, and Auschwitz.

Hamburg Ravensbrück trials

The Hamburg Ravensbrück trials were a series of seven trials for war crimes against camp officials from the Ravensbrück concentration camp that the British authorities held in their occupation zone in Germany in Hamburg after the end of World War II. These trials were heard before a military tribunal; the three to five judges at these trials were British officers, assisted by a lawyer. The defendants included concentration camp personnel of all levels: SS officers, camp doctors, male guards, female guards (Aufseherinnen), and a few former prisoner-functionaries who had tortured or mistreated other inmates. In total, 38 defendants were tried in these seven trials; 21 of the defendants were women. Executions relating to these trials were carried out on the gallows at Hamelin prison by British hangman Albert Pierrepoint.

Luise Danz Nazi concentration camp guard

Luise Danz was a Nazi German concentration camp guard in World War II. She was born in Walldorf (Werra) in Thuringia. Danz was captured in 1945 and put on trial for crimes against humanity at the Auschwitz trial in Kraków, Poland. She was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1947, but released due to general amnesty on August 20, 1957.

Simon Wiesenthal Jewish Austrian Holocaust survivor and Nazi hunter

Simon Wiesenthal was a Jewish Austrian Holocaust survivor, Nazi hunter, and writer. He studied architecture and was living in Lwów at the outbreak of World War II. He survived the Janowska concentration camp, the Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp, the Gross-Rosen concentration camp, a death march to Chemnitz, Buchenwald, and the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp.

Malchow concentration camp

Malchow was one of the numerous sub-camps of Nazi concentration camp: Ravensbrück, located in Germany, which is believed to be first opened in the winter of 1943. It was located at Malchow in Mecklenburg.

Elfriede Lina Rinkel was a Nazi guard at the Ravensbrück concentration camp from June 1944 until April 1945 handling an SS-trained guard dog.

Erna Wallisch allegedly was a female guard in two Nazi concentration camps, but despite several trials was never convicted. In 2007, she was seventh on the Simon Wiesenthal Center's list of most wanted war criminals that had never been convicted.

Anna Friederike Mathilde Klein was a German concentration camp guard who was chief warden at the Ravensbrück concentration camp.

Gertrud Heise German Nazi war criminal

Gertrud Heise was a female guard and later, SS overseer at several concentration camps during the Second World War. Heise was born in Berlin, Germany. She was tried for war crimes in 1946.

Majdanek trials

The Majdanek trials were a series of consecutive war-crime trials held in Poland and in Germany during and after World War II, constituting the overall longest Nazi war crimes trial in history spanning over 30 years. The first judicial trial of Majdanek extermination camp officials took place from November 27, 1944, to December 2, 1944, in Lublin, Poland. The last one, held at the District Court of Düsseldorf began on November 26, 1975, and concluded on June 30, 1981. It was Germany's longest and most expensive trial, lasting 474 sessions.

Hermine Böttcher was a female SS auxiliary guard at several concentration camps between 1942 and 1945.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 "Biographie: Hermine Braunsteiner-Ryan, 1919-1999" (in German). Deutsches Historisches Museum . Retrieved 2008-10-15.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Friedlander, Henry; Earlean M. McCarrick. "The Extradition of Nazi Criminals: Ryan, Artukovic, and Demjanjuk". Annual 4 Chapter 2 Part 1. Museum of Tolerance (Simon Wiesenthal Center Multimedia Learning Center). Retrieved 2008-10-14.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wistrich, Robert S. (2001). Who's Who in Nazi Germany. Routledge. p. 215. ISBN   978-0-415-26038-1 . Retrieved 2008-10-14.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 MARTIN, DOUGLAS (2005-12-02). "A Nazi Past, a Queens Home Life, an Overlooked Death". New York Times . Retrieved 2008-10-14.
  5. 1 2 3 Lelyveld, Joseph (2005-03-06). "Breaking Away". New York Times Magazine . Retrieved 2008-10-14.
  6. "Procesy zbrodniarzy (Trials of the war criminals) 1946–1948". Wykaz sądzonych członków załogi KL Lublin/Majdanek (The listing of defendants). KL Lublin. Retrieved 2013-04-14.
  7. Frühwald, Wolfgang (2004). Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der Deutschen Literatur. M. Niemeyer. p. 92. Retrieved 2008-10-16. ...Hermine Braunsteiner-Ryan's pay at... Majdanek ... four times what she earned in a munitions factory. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized March 18, 2008.
  8. "KZ Aufseherinnen". Majdanek Liste. Axis History ‹ Women in the Reich. 3 Apr 2005. Retrieved April 1, 2013. Source: Frauen in der SS at the Wayback Machine (archived June 6, 2007) See: index or articles ("Personenregister"). Oldenburger OnlineZeitschriftenBibliothek.
  9. Wistrich, Robert Solomon, Who's who in Nazi Germany, Psychology Press, 2002, p.116
  10. Dorothy Rabinowitz (Dec 1, 2000). "New Lives (see: Braunsteiner)". New Lives: Survivors of the Holocaust Living in America. iUniverse. p. 6. ISBN   0-595-14128-5 . Retrieved 2013-06-22.
  11. Alan Levy, The Wiesenthal File (Lanchester, UK: Constable and Company Ltd, 1993) pp. 331-332
  12. 1 2 3 Lelyveld, Joseph (1964-07-14). "Former Nazi camp guard now a housewife in Queens" (PDF). New York Times . p. 10.
  13. Bernstein, Adam (2005-09-21). "Simon Wiesenthal, 1908-2005: Victim Became Nazis' Prime Pursuer". Washington Post . p. A01. Retrieved 2008-10-14.
  14. Lelyveld 2005, ibidem, p. 5 of 10.
  15. American Jewish Committee. "Central Europe - West Germany - Nazi Trials" (PDF). American Jewish Year Book, 1974-75. New York: AJC Information Center and Digital Archives. p. 479. Retrieved 2008-10-16. The prosecutor's office began an investigation into the case of the former concentration camp supervisor Hermine Braunsteiner-Ryan who had been extradited by the United States to Germany where she was wanted for participating in the murder of 2,000 Jews.
  16. Rabinowicz, Dorothy (1990). "The Holocaust as Living Memory". In Eliot Lefkowitz. Dimensions of the Holocaust: Lectures at Northwestern University. Elie Wiesel, Elliot Lefkovitz, Robert McAfee Brown, Lucy Dawidowicz. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press. pp. 34–45. ISBN   978-0-8101-0908-7 . Retrieved 2008-10-15. In the winter of 1973 in New York City, deportation hearings were held for Hermine Braunsteiner Ryan, wife of an American citizen, a resident of Queens, New York. Former SS guard at Ravensbrueck and Majdanek, Mrs. Ryan stood accused of beating inmates to death during the years 1939-1944 while performing her duties as vice-commandant of the women's camp at Majadanek; of being responsible, also, for the death selection of hundreds of others. (Conflates extradition and deportation.)
  17. 1 2 "Hermine Braunsteiner". Some Significant Cases. Simon Wiesenthal Archive. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
  18. Himmelfarb, Milton; Singer, David, eds. (1985). American Jewish Yearbook (PDF). American Jewish Year Book. 85. New York; Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN   0-8276-0247-2. LCCN   99004040 . Retrieved 2008-10-15.
  19. Wendel, Marcus. "Third Majdanek Trial". Axis History Factbook. Retrieved 2008-10-15. (Also cited in Jewish Virtual Library.)
  20. "BEHIND BARS, FINALLY". New York Times . 1981-07-05. Retrieved 2008-10-15. She ran as far as the United States, to a marriage with an American and a home in Maspeth, Queens. But Hermine Braunsteiner Ryan couldn't hide indefinitely and, finally found out, she was stripped of American citizenship in 1971 and deported in 1973. And last week, after a five-year trial, she was convicted of murder as a guard in the Maidanek concentration camp near Lublin, Poland, during World War II.

Further reading