|Ciudad de Hermosillo|
City of Hermosillo
Panoramic view of Hermosillo, Judicial Power of the State of Sonora, View of the city, Sculpture, Fountain three boulevard, Hermosillo Tower, Catedral de la Asuncion in Hermosillo, Government Palace of Sonora.
"La ciudad del sol"
|Founded||May 18, 1700|
|Municipal Status||February 9, 1825|
|Founded by||Juan Bautista de Escalante|
|Named for||José María González Hermosillo|
|• Municipal President||Célida López Cárdenas|
|• City||168.20 km2 (64.94 sq mi)|
|200 m (700 ft)|
|• Density||49.89/km2 (129.2/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−7 (MST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-7 (No DST observed)|
|Postal code (of seat)|
|Website||(in Spanish) /Official site|
Hermosillo (Spanish pronunciation: [eɾmoˈsiʝo] (
Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.
Hermosillo was ranked as one of the 5 best cities to live in in Mexico, as published in the study "The Most Livable Cities of Mexico 2013" by the Strategic Communications Cabinet of the Federal Government. Hermosillo also ranked as the seventh most competitive city in the country according to the Mexican Institute for Competitiveness (IMCO) based on factors such as its economic diversification, geographical location, access to education, government, innovation and international relations, according to the urban combativity analysis released by that institution in 2016. The major manufacturing sector is automobiles, which was begun in the 1980s.
Hermosillo features a subtropical hot desert climate (BWh). Temperatures can reach 48 °C or 118.4 °F in the summer months, making it one of the hottest cities in the country.
Evidence of the area's first inhabitants dates back 3,000 years, much of which are from a site called the San Dieguito Complex, located in the El Pinacate Zone. Evidence of agriculture dates back 2,500 years.In the pre-Hispanic era, this area was inhabited by the Seri, Tepoca, and Pima peoples.
The Seri are an indigenous group of the Mexican state of Sonora. The majority reside on the Seri communal property, in the towns of Punta Chueca and El Desemboque on the mainland coast of the Gulf of California. Tiburón Island (Tahejöc) and San Esteban Island were also part of their traditional territory. They were historically seminomadic hunter-gatherers who maintained an intimate relationship with both the sea and the land. They are one of the ethnic groups of Mexico that has most strongly maintained their language and culture throughout the years after contact with Spanish and Mexican cultures.
The Pima are a group of Native Americans living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona. The majority population of the surviving two bands of the Akimel Oʼodham are based in two reservations: the Keli Akimel Oʼotham on the Gila River Indian Community (GRIC) and the On'k Akimel Oʼodham on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC).
The first encounter between the Spanish and natives occurred in the middle of the 16th century, when explorers were sent here in search of nonexistent gold. The first missionaries arrived in the state of Sonora around 1614, and Eusebio Francisco Kino arrived in 1687, founding a mission in nearby Cucurpe. What is now the states of Sonora and Sinaloa was loosely organized as the provinces of Sonora, Ostimura and Sinaloa.
Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
Eusebio Francisco Kino was a Jesuit, missionary, geographer, explorer, cartographer and astronomer born in the Territory of the Bishopric of Trent, then part of the Holy Roman Empire. For the last 24 years of his life he worked in the region then known as the Pimería Alta, modern-day Sonora in Mexico and southern Arizona in the United States. He explored the region and worked with the indigenous Native American population, including primarily the Tohono O'Odham, Sobaipuri and other Upper Piman groups. He proved that the Baja California Peninsula is not an island by leading an overland expedition there. By the time of his death he had established 24 missions and visitas.
Cucurpe is the municipal seat of Cucurpe Municipality in the Mexican state of Sonora.
In 1700, three small Spanish villages were founded in what is now the outskirts of Hermosillo, Nuestra Señora del Pópulo, Nuestra Señora de Los Angeles and la Santísima Trinidad del Pitic. The native peoples here soon became hostile to the Spanish and managed to drive them out several times in the early 18th century. In 1716, the Spanish offered irrigated lands for farmers to natives who agreed to abide by Spanish law. Around 1726, a fort named the Presidio of Pitic was constructed to stop the domination of this area by the natives, especially the Seri. However, the situation did not settle soon so that the first church was not built until 1787 and the first formal parish was not established until 1822.
During the Mexican War of Independence, Sonora and the town of Pitic stayed loyal to the Spanish Crown. In fact, a general from this area, Alejo García Conde, defeated insurgent José María González Hermosillo, who had been sent here by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.In 1825, the village of Pitic was made the seat of the department of the same name. In 1828, the settlement changed its name to Hermosillo to honor José María González de Hermosillo. A battle between imperial and republican forces occurred here in 1866 during the French Intervention in Mexico. In 1879, the capital of the state of Sonora was moved from Arizpe to Hermosillo. In 1881 the railroad linking Hermosillo with Guaymas and Nogales was finished, allowing for economic expansion in the area by bringing in mining equipment and modern agricultural equipment. Since then, the city has been an economic center for northwest Mexico.
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain in 1808; it extended from the Cry of Dolores by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla on September 16, 1810, to the entrance of the Army of the Three Guarantees led by Agustín de Iturbide to Mexico City on September 27, 1821. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day.
Don Miguel Gregorio Antonio Francisco Ignacio Hidalgo-Costilla y Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor; 8 May 1753 – 30 July 1811), more commonly known as Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla or simply Miguel Hidalgo (Spanish pronunciation: [miˈɣel iˈðalɣo], was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.
Arizpe is a small town in Arizpe Municipality in the north of the Mexican state of Sonora. It is located at 30°20'"N 110°09'"W. The area of the municipality is 2,806.78 sq.km. The population in 2005 was 2,959 of which 1,743 lived in the municipal seat as of the 2000 census.
During the Mexican Revolution, forces loyal to Pancho Villa were repulsed by General Manuel M. Diéguez.After the assassination of Francisco I. Madero in 1913, Venustiano Carranza, then governor of Coahuila, sought refuge in Hermosillo. Here Carranza began the Constitutionalist Movement, and because of this, Hermosillo has the nickname of the "revolutionary capital of the country."
From the late 19th century and through the first two decades of the 20th, Chinese immigrants came into Sonora state. One of the places in which a significant number settled was the city of Hermosillo. Some of these immigrants had capital and used it to establish businesses, especially shoe manufacturing and clothing. Some of the most successful Chinese-owned businesses in Sonora were based in Hermosillo and sold their merchandise to other parts of the country.However, by the 1920s anti-Chinese sentiment had become strong in Sonora state, with many Chinese leaving for Mexico City or the United States.
In the 1980s, Ford built a plant here, which had a great impact on the city's and state's economy.
Hermosillo is the site of a tragic fire at the ABC child care center on June 5, 2009. According to the Procuraduría General de Justicia en el Estado (State Attorney General Office) of Sonora, 49 deaths were attributed to the fire at the ABC child care center.The fire apparently started at a car and tire depot, then spread to the child care center. Most of the children died of asphyxiation. There were about 100 children inside the building and firefighters had to knock holes in the walls to rescue the children, who ranged in age from six months to five years.
As the municipal seat, the city of Hermosillo is the local government of over 3,800 other localities, 14,880.2 square kilometres (5,745.3 sq mi).with a combined territory of
The two most important rivers are the Sonora and the San Miguel. Both of these are used for irrigation purposes with the Abelardo L. Rodriguez Dam located on the San Miguel River.The population increase of the municipality, currently at 2.5% annually, puts pressure on the infrastructure of the city, especially its water supply. Decades of overpumping of ground water has led to the aquifer levels being lower than sea levels, and sea water creeping in as an "artificial recharge."
Under the Köppen climate classification, Hermosillo features a hot desert climate (BWh). Temperatures can range from as low as freezing in January and February to 48 °C or 118.4 °F in July and August. Rain falls mostly between July and September, with annual precipitation between 75 and 300 millimetres (3.0 and 11.8 in). Most of the vegetation here consists of mesquite trees as well as trees such as the desert ironwood, palo verde and the huisache. Desert animals such as the desert tortoise, rattlesnakes, bighorn sheep and lynx are the most notable species. Populations of feral red-masked parakeets and monk parakeets are a local sightseeing attraction here.
Hermosillo's all-time weather record for high temperature is 49.5 °C or 121.1 °F, which was achieved in June 2014. In recent years, the lowest temperature was −4 °C (24.8 °F), in December.
|Climate data for Hermosillo, Sonora (1981–2010, extremes (1973-present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||24.2|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||17.2|
|Average low °C (°F)||10.2|
|Record low °C (°F)||−3.0|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||17.3|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2.6||2.2||1.2||0.8||0.3||1.0||9.6||8.6||5.5||1.6||1.7||2.7||37.8|
|Average relative humidity (%)||48||44||40||34||31||34||48||53||48||42||43||49||43|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||179.6||178.2||227.5||231.7||298.0||283.8||268.7||279.7||239.9||257.3||221.3||197.1||2,862.8|
|Source: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (temperature, 1981-2010) (humidity, 1981–2000)|
According to the results of INEGI,Hermosillo is Mexico's 16th largest city, with 812,229 people. Other important communities in the municipality include Miguel Alemán (30,869), Bahía Kino (6,050), San Pedro el Saucito (2,938), El Tazajal (2,062), La Victoria (1,966), Zamora (1,049), and Mesa Del Seri (908). The recent city population spur is due to its recent strong industrialization, especially in the automotive industry and its providers.
Most of the municipality's population lives in the city proper, with most jobs located in the manufacturing and commerce sectors here. About 250,000 hectares are under cultivation in the city's outskirts, most of which is near the coast. Crops include wheat, grapes, flowers, chickpeas, alfalfa and walnuts. Livestock has been traditionally important here, especially beef cattle. Pigs, sheep, goats, horses, domestic fowl and bees are also raised here as well. Fishing is practiced along the coast with shrimp being the most important catch.
Industry and manufacturing has been the most dynamic sector of the economy. Much of this began in the 1980s with the establishment of the automobile industry, specifically the Hermosillo Stamping & Assembly plant owned and operated by Ford Motor Company. Electronics and IT are the largest employers by both revenue and number of employees. Today, there are twenty-six major manufacturers, which generate about 68,300 jobs, employing about thirty percent of the population.
Other than cars, products manufactured here include televisions, computers, food processing, textiles, wood products, printing, cellular phones, chemicals, petroleum products and plastics. Lanix electronics has a major research and design facility and its main manufacturing plant in Hermosillo. The city and its municipality have twelve industrial parks, which house over one hundred smaller manufacturing enterprises.There has been slowing of this sector especially the automobile industry because of the global economic downturn that began in 2008.
Commerce employs more than half of the population; besides small local businesses, chains are well represented; these are locally, regionally (Northwest Mexico), nationally, and U.S.-based. Tourism is mostly limited to the coastal communities of Bahia de Kino, Kino Nuevo and Punta Chueca, where there are cave paintings and a recreational park named La Sauceda.In 2009, Standard & Poor's rated the municipality of Hermosillo as (mxA/Estable/-) based on its administrative practices, financial flexibility and limited financial risks. Financial management of the municipality has been prudent, with adequate documentation of practices. Debt levels have also been prudent at about 33% of gross income, which might decline in 2010. However, the municipality has limited liquid capital.
The city has a professional baseball team called Naranjeros de Hermosillo (Orange Growers) that plays in the Estadio Sonora. Baseball has always been popular in this city since the late 19th century. The club had its beginnings in the 1950s, when the Liga Invernal de Sonora (Sonora Winter League) was founded as a complement to the already existing Liga de la Costa del Pacífico (Pacific Coast League). The Naranjeros were officially organized in 1958. Since then, the team has won 16 championships in the Pacific Coast League and two championships in the Caribbean Series.
Hermosillo hosted the 2013 Caribbean Series in February.
Since 2013, the city has been home to the Cimarrones de Sonora football (soccer) club. Home matches are played at Estadio Héroe de Nacozari.
The city is also home to the Soles de Sonora of Major Arena Soccer League.
As the city is located on a plain in the Sonoran Desert, surrounded by flat areas with grass, behind which are greener hills that are then framed by serrated peaks in the background,the city is a common stopover for North Americans traveling by car toward the coast, and is the only city in Mexico that purifies all drinking water before it goes to homes. The city is the major economic center for the state, with about thirty percent of the state's population living in the city.
The center of the city is Plaza Zaragoza, built in 1865, in which there is a Moorish-style kiosk, which was brought from Florence, Italy in the early 20th century.The plaza also has a flower garden and statues of General Ignacio Pesqueira and General García Morales.
The plaza is framed by the State Government Palace and the Cathedral.The Palacio de Gobierno, Spanish for "Government Palace," was constructed in 1881, using stone from the nearby Cerro de la Campana mountain, has a white Neoclassical façade, with a central body that extends slightly more in front than the rest. This central body is flanked by Ionic columns and is topped by a semicircular pediment and a clock tower. The side wings have an aligned series of windows on the first level and balconies on the second, with the corners having thick pilasters. The interior has one patio with a main staircase, decorated with murals done between 1982 and 1984 by Teresa Moran, Enrique Estrada and Héctor Martínez Arteche, depicting scenes from Sonora's history. The building was officially inaugurated in 1906 and reflects elements of French style, which was popular at the time.
The cathedral, named the Catedral de la Asunción, is located next to Plaza Zaragoza. It was begun in the 18th century but was not finished until the beginning of the 20th.However, the first chapels associated with the cathedral were begun in the 18th century. Construction of the cathedral began in 1861 and is a mix of predominantly Neoclassical architecture with Neogothic decorative elements. The main entrance is flanked by paired columns on pedestals and the smaller side doors are topped with semicircular pediments. Above the main doors are two ogival or pointed windows, over which is a crest with a balustrade. The church's towers have three levels with a dome-like top and are decorated with crosses from Caravaca de la Cruz. The interior of the church is of very austere Neoclassical design.
The Regional Museum was opened in 1960 with only one small hall, which exhibited archeological finds from the region. Today, there are two large halls, one dedicated to anthropology and the other to history. The anthropology hall displays archeological finds such as tools, utensils, textiles, stone objects and more from both the pre-Hispanic and colonial periods. The second focuses on the colonial period and contains items such as documents, maps, tools, coins and more.
The Museo de Sonora (Museum of Sonora) is housed in a building that originally functioned as a prison. It was completed in 1907 and built by the mostly indigenous prisoners themselves. The prison closed in 1979. In the 1980s, the building was reconditioned, reopening as the current museum in 1985. This museum has eighteen rooms covering various aspects of the state including its paleontology, history, archeology and ethnography. It has also conserved some of the cells of the original prison. Some of its more important items in the collection include a serpent's head from the Teotihuacan period, a collection of coins from the 16th century and various antique weapons.
The Museo de Culturas Populares e Indígenas de Sonora (Museum of Popular and Indigenous Cultures of Sonora) was the former residence of Dr. Alberto Hoeffer. It was constructed in 1904 and restored in 1997, conserving its original French-inspired style. Today, it houses a museum mostly dedicated to the indigenous cultures of the state, including crafts, clothing, customs and ways of life.
The Plaza Hidalgo area of the city was a very fashionable area during the first half of the 20th century when a number of the wealthy and influential of the city built homes here. Today, many of these constructions now house institutions such as the Instituto Sonorense de Cultura, the Colegio de Sonora, Radio Sonora, the Colegio Library and the Colegio de Notarios. Each weekend, the plaza becomes a cultural center, hosting various activities and events such as concerts, exhibitions, theatrical works and more.
The Cerro de la Campana mountain is one of the symbols of Hermosillo. Its summit is 350 metres (1,150 ft) above the valley floor and contains a lookout called El Caracol, which was inaugurated in 1909. There are two theories as to the origin of the mountain's name. One states that it is from a peculiar metallic sound that is made when the mountain's rocks fall against each other. The other is based on the bell-like shape of the elevation.
Just outside the city proper on the highway to Guaymas is the Centro Ecológico de Sonora (Ecological Center of Sonora). The Center has more than 300 species of plants and 200 species of animals from both Sonora and other parts of the world. All of the animals live in recreated natural habitats.The Sonoran collection is part of one of CES's main functions, which is to preserve the flora and fauna of the state. The collection contains representations of animals and plants from the four main habitats of the state: mountains, grassland, desert and sea. Some of the species are in danger of extinction such as the bighorn sheep, the white-tailed deer as well as a number of bird and reptile species.
The Dr. Alfonso Ortiz Tirado Festival has been an annual event since 1985 and is the most important cultural event in northwest Mexico. It takes place in Hermosillo and a number of other municipalities in the state. Representatives from various Mexican states and countries such as Spain, the United States, Brazil, Germany and others send artists to perform and exhibit their work. The event is organized by the Sonoran state government and the Instituto Sonorense de Cultura.
In the Coloso neighborhood of Hermosillo, and other locations in Sonora, the Yaqui people are known for their celebrations of Holy Week, which mix Catholic and indigenous religious practices.In Hermosillo, the main brotherhood that sponsors this event is called the Fariseos. Rites performed during this week are intended to combat evil and sickness, calling upon both saints and "temastians" or medicine men to use magic to expel evil spirits. During this time participants dress in traditional Yaqui clothing and perform native dances such as El Coyote (The Coyote), Matachines, Los Pascolas and especially the Danza del Venado (Deer Dance), animal sacred to the Yaqui as a symbol of good.
Two other major festivals there include the Fiesta de la Vendimia (Grape Harvest Festival) in July and the Feria Exposición Ganadera e Industrial (Livestock and Industry Exposition and Fair) in May.
Hermosillo has several public and private higher education institutions, among them:
Private primary and secondary schools include:
The main highway serving Hermosillo is Mexican Federal Highway 15. Another important route is Sonora State Highway 100. General Ignacio Pesqueira García International Airport provides domestic and international service to the United States.
Bahía de Kino , also known as Bahía Kino, and in English as Kino Bay, is on the coast of the municipality and named after Father Eusebio Kino. The waters of the bay have little wave action or undertow and are warm year-round. Activities practiced here include swimming, scuba diving, snorkeling, fishing a variety of species, boating and sailing. In summer it is possible to catch marlin, sailfish, dorado (mahi-mahi) and tuna. In front of the shoreline is Isla Tiburón, which is a declared ecological zone and is inhabited by wild sheep and deer. Kino Bay is the home of the Seri Museum, which was founded to preserve the Seri language and culture.State and federal officials are looking to develop Kino Bay into a major tourist resort, called a Zona turística prioritaria (Priority Tourism Zone). This would include government investment and the attraction of private investment through tax breaks.
La Pintada is an archaeological zone located 60 kilometres (37 miles) south of the city and was a refuge area for the Seri and Pima Indians. The site is important because of its caves, which were used as dwellings, burial spaces and religious centers. The caves shelter paintings that contain numerous animals such as deer, birds and lizards as well as human figures. The human figures are stylized and some appear to be adorned with skins and/or horns, other are throwing spears and some appear to be dancing, wearing body paint. In addition there are geometric figures such as squares, triangles, circles, straight and wavy lines, all of which combine in one way or another to form complicated designs. In some areas of the caves there is evidence of paintings on top of paintings, testifying to the length of time the area was inhabited. The paintings have been attributed to the Comca'ac or Seri culture.
San Carlos is a beachfront subdivision within the port city of Guaymas, in the northern state of Sonora in Mexico. It is noted for the exceptional clarity and warmth of the ocean water in its shallow bays. It lies on the body of water known as the Gulf of California. Given the size of the city, with nearly 7,000 inhabitants, there is a remarkable number of RV parks, resorts and stores. There is also a very large and active diving community. There are also other outdoors activities like climbing, sailing, horseback riding, aquatic sports, and others.
The State of Mexico is one of the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is the most populous, as well as the most densely populated state. It is divided into 125 municipalities and its capital city is Toluca de Lerdo.
Puerto Peñasco is a resort town located in Puerto Peñasco Municipality in the northwest of the Mexican state of Sonora, 100 kilometres (62 mi) from the border with the U.S. state of Arizona. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 62,177 inhabitants. It is located on the northern shores of the Sea of Cortez on the small strip of land that joins the Baja California Peninsula with the rest of Mexico. The area is part of the Altar Desert, one of the driest and hottest areas of the larger Sonoran Desert.
Navojoa is the fifth-largest city in the northern Mexican state of Sonora and is situated in the southern part of the state. The city is the administrative seat of Navojoa Municipality, located in the Mayo River Valley.
Guaymas is a city in Guaymas Municipality, in the southwest part of the state of Sonora, in northwestern Mexico. The city is 117 km south of the state capital of Hermosillo, and 242 miles from the U.S. border. The municipality is located on the Gulf of California and the western edge of the Sonoran Desert and has a hot, dry climate and 117 km of beaches. The municipality’s formal name is Guaymas de Zaragoza and the city’s formal name is the Heróica Ciudad de Guaymas.
Tiburón Island is the largest island in the Gulf of California and the largest island in Mexico, with an area of 1,201 square kilometres (464 sq mi). It was made a nature reserve in 1963 by President Adolfo López Mateos.
Huixquilucan Municipality is one of the municipalities in State of Mexico, Mexico. It lies adjacent to the west side of the Federal District and is part of Greater Mexico City but independent of. The name "Huixquilucan" comes from Nahuatl meaning, "place full of edible thistles."
Hermosillo is a municipality in Sonora in north-western Mexico. The municipal seat is the city of Hermosillo.
Guillermo Padrés Elías is a Mexican politician and a member of the Partido Acción Nacional. He served as Governor of Sonora from 2009 to 2015.
Northeast Hermosillo, also called El Noreste, Morelos and Gringorelos, is an unincorporated area in the Sonoran capital of Hermosillo. Its borders can be defined where the roads Reforma and Kino join, and so included some recognized neighborhoods such as Misión del Sol, Balderrama, Modelo, Pitic and La Joya. But also including several residential developments, which had a boom in residential developments in Hermosillo. Commercial centers are mostly found along major important roads like Blvd. Progreso, Blvd. Morelos and Blvd. Kino. Their development is such that many American franchises have invested in these centers, and often people call this zone the "Gringorelos", a portmanteau of Gringo and Blvd. Morelos.
Abrigael Bohórquez was a poet and playwright born in Caborca, Sonora, Mexico in 1936, many of which are social criticisms. He was also one of the first writers to deal with the theme of homosexuality in Mexican poetry. His first book was Ensayos Poéticos in 1955, when he was just nineteen years old with no formal training. He studied the dramatic arts at the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes (INBA) and the Instituto Cinematográfico de la Asociación Nacional de Actores. Shortly after, his work began to gain recognitions such as the Primer Concurso Latinoamericano XEW for his poetry and various from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. He became a professor at the Academia de Arte Dramático of the Universidad de Sonora and director for two theatre groups. Bohórquez died in Hermosillo in 1995 after writing eighteen works of poetry and plays. Some of these include Poesía i teatro, La hoguera en el pañuelo, Canción de amor y muerte por Rubén Jaramillo, and Las amarras terrestres.
Sylvia Aguilar Zéleny is a novelist and short story writer born in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, in 1973. She studied Hispanic literature at the Universidad de Sonora and began her career as a teacher,at the Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey She has an MFAin creative writing from the University of Texas at El Paso. She learned to write through workshops given by other authors such as Abrigael Bohórquez, Héctor Manjarrez, David Martín del Cammpo and Cristina Rivera-Garza. Her works have appeared in Altanoche, La Tempestad, Las Hojas de la Mancuspia, Milenio, Néctar y Picnic and a large number of magazines. Her work has won Concurso de Libro Sonorense in 2003, the Concurso de Cuento Cristina Rivera-Garza in 2005, and an honorable mention in the Concurso de Libro Sonorense in 2000.
Mario Moreno Zazueta is a painter, etcher and art professor born in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico in 1942. He received his artistic training at the Academia Artes Plásticas of the Universidad de Sonora and at the Escuela Nacional de Pintura y Escultura La Esmeralda in Mexico City. After this, he also went to San Francisco, California to study as well. Moreno notes that his main artistic influence has been Héctor Martínez Arteche. Moreno’s work has been displayed in numerous shows and galleries in various parts of the world, where is work is known for its abstract experimentation with color, light and shadow. His best-known works include Premonición del atardecer, Llovió en alguna parte, El agua del norte nunca llega, Premonición del invierno and Las horas quietas. Today, he is a professor at the Universidad de Sonora.
Mexican ironwood carving is a Mexican tradition of carving the wood of the Olneya tesota tree, a Sonora Desert tree commonly called ironwood.
Ernesto "El Pato" de Lucas Hopkins is a Mexican politician. He is a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party. He was Federal Deputy during the LXI Legislature of the Mexican Congress under the principle of relative majority for the III Federal Electoral District of Sonora, which comprises the northern part of Hermosillo, the state capital. On 10 December 2012 he was appointed CEO of ProMéxico, the Federal Government body that coordinates strategies to strengthen Mexico’s participation in the international economy; supports the export process of companies established in Mexico and coordinates actions aimed at attracting foreign investment. On 20 April 2013 he was fired from this post, less than five months from taking over at this office, probably making him the first senior officer to be fired by President Enrique Peña Nieto.
Same-sex marriage is currently not legal in the Mexican state of Sonora. On 11 May 2016, the Director of the Civil Registry of Sonora announced that same-sex couples could begin marrying in the state without the need for an amparo. However, on 18 May 2016, the Governor ordered all civil registries in the state to stop marrying same-sex couples.
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