Herzegovina-Neretva Canton

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Herzegovina-Neretva Canton

Hercegovačko-neretvanska županija
Hercegovačko-neretvanski kanton
Flag of Herzegovina-Neretva.svg
Flag
Coat of arms of Herzegovina-Neretva.svg
Coat of arms
Herzegovina-Neretva in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg
Status Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Capital
and largest city
Mostar
Official languages Bosnian and Croatian
Ethnic groups
(2013 [1] )
53.29% Croats
41.44% Bosniaks
2.90% Serbs
2.37% others
Government Parliamentary system
Nevenko Herceg (HDZ BiH)
LegislatureAssembly of the Herzegovina-Neretva County
Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Establishment
12 June 1996
Area
 Total
4,401 km2 (1,699 sq mi)
Population
 2013 census
222,007
 Density
53.69/km2 (139.1/sq mi)
GDP  (PPP)2019 estimate
 Per capita
17.112 USD
GDP  (nominal)2019 estimate
 Total
USD 1 512,09
 Per capita
USD 6.982
Currency BAM
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving side right

The Herzegovina-Neretva Canton (Croatian : Hercegovačko-neretvanska županija; [2] Bosnian : Hercegovačko-neretvanski kanton [3] ) is one of 10 cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Contents

The canton mainly comprises the Neretva river valley area and parts of Herzegovina west of Mostar, its administrative center. It is one of the 4 cantons in the country with a Croatian majority (53.29%), although in the case of this territory it is more ethnically divided and is considered to have a mixed population.

History

Before the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the present-day municipalities of East Mostar and Berkovići were part of Mostar and Stolac, while Ivanica was part of the municipality of Trebinje.

The history of today's Herzegovina-Neretva Canton begins on March 18, 1994, with the signing of the Washington Agreement. The canton was officially constituted on December 23, 1996 as one of the ten cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. [4]

Geography

Stari Most, Mostar Stari Most September 2004 4.jpg
Stari Most, Mostar

The canton is the only canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina with access to the sea via the municipality of Neum. Neum is a town of 2,000 citizens (1991 census) and the area around the city is rich with historical and archeological remains of the Illyrians, a people who lived in the Balkans for many thousands of years.

The largest city in the canton and the fifth largest city in the country is Mostar. Mostar is located on the banks of the Neretva river and is divided between Croats and Bosniaks. Mostar is known for its old bridge, Stari Most, which was constructed by the area's Ottoman rulers, who also brought Islam to the region. Bosnian Croat forces bombed and destroyed the bridge on November 8, 1993. Upon its destruction it had stood for 427 years and had become a symbol of a shared cultural heritage and "peaceful" co-existence. The bridge was reconstructed in the summer of 2004. The opening ceremony was attended by several foreign delegates including Stjepan Mesić, the President of Croatia.

Other notable cities in this canton are Čapljina, Konjic, Jablanica and Međugorje, the most significant Marian shrine in the region. Jablanica and Konjic are notable for battles which took place there during World War II and there is a large museum in Jablanica dedicated to these battles.

The Neretva river runs through the cities of Konjic, Jablanica, Mostar and Čapljina before it flows through Croatia and into the Adriatic Sea. There are large lakes in the canton such as the Jablanica lake located around the city Jablanica. The southernmost municipality in the canton is the Neum municipality which borders the Adriatic sea and the easternmost municipality is the Ravno municipality along the border with Croatia.

Municipalities

The canton is split into the municipalities of

Ravno Municipality Popovo Polje.JPG
Ravno Municipality

Demographics

Of the ten cantons comprising the Federation of Bosnia Herzegovina, Herzegovina-Neretva Canton is one of two cantons, the other being the Central Bosnia Canton, nearly equally populated by Bosniaks and Croats. In such cantons there are special legislative procedures for the protection of the constituent ethnic groups.

Rama lake Rama3.jpg
Rama lake

Croats form a majority in the municipalities of Čapljina, Čitluk, Neum, Prozor-Rama and Ravno, and a relative majority in Stolac and Mostar according to the 2013 census. Bosniaks form an absolute majority in the municipalities of Jablanica and Konjic. [5]

2013 Census

MunicipalityNationality
Total
Bosniaks
%
Croats
%
Serbs
%
Čapljina 4,54117.3620,53878.517142.7226,157
Čitluk 290.1517,90098.67180.0918,140
Jablanica 9,04589.457267.18630.6210,111
Konjic 22,48689.411,5536.173551.4125,148
Mostar 46,75244.1951,21648.404,4214.17113,169
Neum 631.354,54397.63210.454,653
Prozor-Rama 3,52524.6910,70274.9430.0214,280
Ravno 200.622,63381.7955817.333,219
Stolac 5,54438.228,48658.512791.9214,502
Canton92,00541.44118,29753.286,4322.89222,007
Konjic Municipality Jezero, Bosnia and Herzegovina - panoramio (57).jpg
Konjic Municipality

Politics and government

According to the current law, the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton is one of the ten cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is one of the two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The Herzegovina-Neretva Canton has its own legislative, executive and judicial powers. Like each of the cantons of FBiH, it has its own constitution, assembly, government, symbols and has a number of exclusive competences (police, education, use of natural resources, spatial and housing policy, culture), while some competences are divided. between cantonal and federal authorities (health, social protection, transport).

The citizens of the canton of Herzegovina-Neretva vote for a total of 30 representatives in the Cantonal Assembly every four years in general elections. Based on the results of the 2014 general elections, the current HNK government is formed by a coalition between the Party of Democratic Action (SDA) and the Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ BiH). [6]

At the local level, citizens of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton vote every four years in municipal elections for local government in two cities and seven other municipalities.

Economy

The strongest industries by number of employees in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton (as of August 2017) are wholesale and retail trade, manufacturing, and hotels and restaurants. The economic headquarters of the canton is its capital, Mostar. [7]

Industry

After the tertiary sector, the manufacturing sector is the strongest sector of the economy of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton. The strongest branches of this sector are the processing industry and electricity production.

The manufacturing industry has a total of 6,798 employees (August 2017). The strongest industries are military (e.g. Igman in Konjic), metal processing industry (e.g. Aluminij in Mostar) and food industry (e.g. Hepok in Mostar).

Electricity generation is also an important industry, this is carried out in the mainly in hydroelectric power plants on the Neretva River and its tributaries, which are mostly owned by Elektroprivreda HZHB (most of the electricity produced comes from these hydroelectric power plants).

Tourism

Pocitelj, Municipality of Capljina BiH 2012 - Pocitelj (8144171214).jpg
Počitelj, Municipality of Čapljina

The canton of Herzegovina-Neretva, with its nature parks and numerous natural beauties, has great tourism potential. According to the Federal Statistical Office, in 2014 the canton was visited by 104,006 foreign tourists and 208,647 overnight stays were made. The biggest tourist attractions in the region are the old town of Mostar, Blagaj near Mostar, Medjugorje and Neum (Bosnia and Herzegovina's only outlet to the sea). [8]

Transportation

Roads

The following main roads and highways pass through the canton of Herzegovina-Neretva:

The total length of roads in the canton of Herzegovina-Neretva is 362.68 kilometers. [9]

Railroad

The Ploče-Sarajevo railroad passes through the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton, to which Konjic, Mostar, Jablanica and Čapljina are connected. The length of the railroad in the region is 126.2 kilometers, while the total number of railway stations and stops is 28, three of which are connected to the high-speed rail network.

Air traffic

Mostar International Airport (OMO) is the third busiest airport in Bosnia and Herzegovina after Sarajevo and Tuzla airports, with a total of 53,618 passengers (2016). [10]

Education

Faculty of Humanities, University of Mostar Faculty of Humanities, University of Mostar (4).jpg
Faculty of Humanities, University of Mostar

There are a total of 33 secondary schools (28 state and five private) and numerous elementary schools in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton. There are a total of three universities in this canton:

See also

Related Research Articles

Neretva River in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia

The Neretva which is known as the Narenta, is one of the largest rivers of the eastern part of the Adriatic basin. Four HE power-plants with large dams provide flood protection, power and water storage. It is recognized for its natural environment and diversity of its landscape.

Stolac Town and municipality in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Stolac is a town and municipality located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in the region of Herzegovina.

Čapljina City in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Municipalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Ratko Perić

Ratko Perić is a prelate of the Catholic Church who served as the bishop of Mostar-Duvno and apostolic administrator of Trebinje-Mrkan from 1993 until his retirement in 2020. After his retirement in July 2020, he briefly served as the apostolic administrator of the both dioceses until the installment of his successor Petar Palić in September 2020.

Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina, often referred to as Bosnian Croats or Herzegovinian Croats, are the third most populous ethnic group in the country after Bosniaks and Serbs, and are one of the constitutive nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina have made significant contributions to the culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Most Croats declare themselves Roman Catholics and speakers of Croatian.

Tasovčići Place in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Tasovčići is a town in the municipality of Čapljina, in the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Jablaničko lake

Jablaničko lake is a large artificially formed lake on the Neretva river, right below Konjic where the Neretva expands into a wide valley. The river provided lot of fertile, agricultural land there, before the lake flooded most of it. The lake was created in 1953 after construction of Jablanica Dam near Jablanica in central Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Operation Neretva 93

Operation Neretva '93 was an Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH) operation against the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) in September 1993 on a 200 km long front from Gornji Vakuf to south of Mostar, one of its largest of the year, during the Croat–Bosniak War. The ARBiH made limited gains in the area of northern Herzegovina and around Mostar, but did not achieve a breakthrough to the southern Neretva, where the HVO retained control. The operation was halted in October. During the operation, dozens of Croat civilians were killed in the Grabovica and Uzdol massacres.

Red Army Mostar Supporters of FK Velež Mostar

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Konjic Town and municipality in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Konjic is a city and municipality located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in northern Herzegovina, around 60 kilometres (37 mi) southwest of Sarajevo. It is a mountainous, heavily wooded area, and is 268 m (879 ft) above sea level. The municipality extends on both sides of the Neretva River. As of 2013, it has a population of 26,381 inhabitants.

Herzegovina Historical region in the Balkans

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Siege of Mostar

The siege of Mostar was fought during the Bosnian War first in 1992 and then again later in 1993 to 1994. Initially lasting between April 1992 and June 1992, it involved the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) and the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH) fighting against the Serb-dominated Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) after Bosnia and Herzegovina declared its independence from Yugoslavia. That phase ended in June 1992 after the success of Operation Jackal, launched by the Croatian Army (HV) and HVO. As a result of the first siege around 90,000 residents of Mostar fled and numerous religious buildings, cultural institutions, and bridges were damaged or destroyed.

Operation Jackal

Operation Jackal, also known as Operation June Dawns, was an offensive of the Bosnian War fought between a combined Croatian Army (HV) and Croatian Defence Council (HVO) army against the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) from 7–26 June 1992. The offensive was a Croatian pre-emptive strike against the VRS, a Bosnian Serb military formed in May 1992 from Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) units that were stationed in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The HV concluded that the JNA offensive operations of April and May 1992, resulting in the capture of Kupres and much of the Neretva River valley south of Mostar, were aimed at capturing or threatening the Croatian Port of Ploče and possibly Split. To counter this threat, the Croatian leadership deployed the HV, under the command of General Janko Bobetko, to the "Southern Front" including the area in which Operation Jackal was to be conducted.

Sarajevo–Ploče railway

The Sarajevo–Ploče railway is a 194-kilometre (121-mile) long railway in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. The line connects Sarajevo with Konjic, Mostar and Ploče. The route operates through the regions of Sarajevo Canton, Herzegovina-Neretva Canton and Dubrovnik-Neretva County. The route largely follows the route of the Neretva river. Passenger services along the full length of line have now been discontinued, running only between Sarajevo and the town of Čapljina on the Bosnian-Croatian border as of January 2015.

Radio Herceg-Bosne is a public radio station, broadcasting from city of Mostar.

Lazar Lazarević

Lazar Lazarević was a Herzegovinian Croat Catholic priest who served as the bishop's deputy (provicar) for the Diocese of Trebinje-Mrkan from 1867 and spiritual administrator of the Diocese of Mostar-Duvno and Trebinje-Mrkan from 1910 until 1912. He was a strong supporter of the independence of the Diocese of Trebinje-Mrkan from the administration of the neighboring dioceses.

References

  1. Sarajevo, juni 2016. CENZUS OF POPULATION, HOUSEHOLDS AND DWELLINGS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA, 2013 FINAL RESULTS (PDF). BHAS. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  2. "The Constitution of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton (Croatian)". Archived from the original on 2011-09-24. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
  3. "The Constitution of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton (Bosnian)". Archived from the original on 2011-09-24. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
  4. "Skuhan, Jasmin (16. 4. 2012). "Ustav HNŽ". VLADA HNŽ-K".
  5. http://www.statistika.ba/
  6. "BHRT - Radiotelevizija Bosne i Hercegovine". BHRT (in Bosnian). 2021-05-28. Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  7. "Statistički bilten za Novembar 2017 (November 2017 Statistical Bulletin)" (PDF).
  8. "Hercegovačko-neretvanski kanton u brojkama (Canton of Herzegovina-Neretva in figures)" (PDF).
  9. "Mreža Magistralnih Cesta u FBiH". BIHAMK.BA (in Bosnian). Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  10. "Tuzla bilježi 30 puta više putnika od Banjaluke u martu, banjalučki aerodrom imao najmanje putnika u 2016.godini!". www.6yka.com. Retrieved 2021-05-28.

Coordinates: 43°27′N17°49′E / 43.450°N 17.817°E / 43.450; 17.817