Hideo Shima

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Hideo Shima
Born(1901-05-20)20 May 1901
Osaka, Japan
Died18 March 1998(1998-03-18) (aged 96)
Tokyo, Japan
Occupation Engineer, Chief Engineer of Shinkansen Project

Hideo Shima (島 秀雄, Shima Hideo, 20 May 1901 18 March 1998) was a Japanese engineer and the driving force behind the building of the first bullet train (Shinkansen). [1] [2]

Contents

Shima was born in Osaka in 1901, and educated at the Tokyo Imperial University, where he studied Mechanical Engineering. His father was part of a group of officials that had built up Japan's emerging railroad industry. [1]

Career in Japan National Railways

Hachiko Line derailment, 1947 Hachiko Line Rail Accident in 1947.JPG
Hachikō Line derailment, 1947

Hideo Shima joined the Ministry of Railways (Japanese Government Railways) in 1925, where, as a rolling-stock engineer, he designed steam locomotives. Using new techniques to balance the driving wheels and new valve gear designs, he helped design Japan's first 3-cylinder locomotive - the Class C53, which was based on the Class C52 imported from the United States. [3]

Shima also participated in the design and fabrication of a standard heavy duty truck which was mass-produced by Isuzu when World War II broke out. This experience helped in the rapid growth of the Japanese automobile industry after the war. [3]

The Hachikō Line derailment in 1947 was a turning point in his career. JGR used the opportunity to obtain permission from SCAP to modify all wooden passenger cars (approximately 3,000 were in use then) to a steel construction within a few years.

Shima was also involved in the design and development of the Class C62 and Class D62 steam locomotives for express passenger trains and heavy-duty freight trains, respectively. [3] It was during these years that he came up with an innovation that would later be employed in the bullet trains—the use of trains driven by electric motors in the individual rail cars, rather than by an engine at the front ("distributed-power multiple-unit control systems"). [1]

As Shima's career progressed, he became the head of the national railway's rolling stock department in 1948. But, after the establishment of Japanese National Railways in 1949, a train fire at a station in Yokohama that killed more than 100 people in 1951 led him to resign in the Japanese tradition of taking responsibility. [1] He worked briefly for Sumitomo Metal Industries, but was asked by Shinji Sogō, the president of JNR, to come back and oversee the building of the first Shinkansen line, in 1955. [3] [4]

One of the original 0 Series Shinkansen trains Shinkansen Series0 R67 JNRcolor.jpg
One of the original 0 Series Shinkansen trains

In addition to its innovative propulsion system, the Shinkansen also introduced features like air suspension and air-conditioning. Shima's team designed the sleek cone-shaped front from which the bullet train got its name. [1] The cost of the first Shinkansen line also cost Shima his job. [5] The building of the first line, which needed 3,000 bridges and 67 tunnels to allow a clear and largely straight path, led to such huge cost overruns that he resigned in 1963, along with the president, Shinji Sogō, who had backed Shima's ideas, even though the line proved to be popular and well-used. [1]

Post JNR career

In 1969, Shima began a second career, becoming the head of the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), where he pushed the development of hydrogen engines to power rockets. He retired in 1977. [1]

Awards

Hideo Shima was honored by the Government of Japan when the Emperor presented him with the Order of Cultural Merit. [1] As one of the most prominent engineers in post-war Japan, he has also been awarded numerous international prizes and honors, including the Elmer A. Sperry Award by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the James Watt International Medal (Gold) by the British Institution of Mechanical Engineers. [3]

Hideo Shima is survived by three sons and a daughter. [1]

Locomotive designs

See also

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JNR Class C62 Class of 49 Japanese 4-6-4 locomotives

The Class C62 (C62形) is a type of 4-6-4 steam locomotive built by Japanese National Railways (JNR) in Japan and designed by Hideo Shima. The C classification indicates three sets of driving wheels. The C62 was built with a 4-6-4 frame, upon which was mounted the boiler of the JNR Class D52 2-8-2 locomotives.

The Class D62 (D62形) is a type of 2-8-4 wheel arrangement steam locomotive built by the Japanese National Railways (JNR) in 1950 and 1951. They were designed by Hideo Shima and rebuilt at Hamamatsu Works between 1950 and 1951.

JNR Class C60 Japanese steam locomotive class

The Class C60 (C60形) is a 4-6-4 wheel arrangement steam locomotive type born from the rebuilding of 47 out of 173 surplus Class C59 class 4-6-2 Pacific locomotives. Hideo Shima re designed 47 C59’s between 1953 and 1961 at the JNR Hamamatsu and Kōriyama factories. 39 locos were rebuilt from pre-war C59s, while 8 were rebuilt from post-war variants and renumbered to C60 101 to 108. With the spread of electrification, lower axle loads and greater versatility had become more important requirements than sheer pulling power, and so an additional trailing axle was included to reduce the heavy axle load of the C59 and allow more widespread use.

JNR Class D60 Class of 78 Japanese 2-8-4 locomotives rebuilt from D50 class 2-8-2s

The Class D60 (D60形) is a Japanese 2-8-4 Berkshire wheel arrangement steam locomotive type created by rebuilding an earlier class to suit post-war requirements. 78 of the successful pre-war 380-strong Class D50 2-8-2 Mikado locomotives were rebuilt and redesigned as D60s between 1951 and 1956 by Hideo Shima at the JNR Hamamatsu (Nagoya) Region, Nagano, (Nagoya) Region, and Tsuchizaki, (Sendai) Region workshops. As with the rebuilding of Class D51 to Class D61 and Class D52 to Class D62 locomotives, an additional trailing axle was included to reduce the heavy axle load of the D50 and allow more widespread use. The cylinder diameter was reduced from 570 mm on the D50s to 550 mm to minimize wheel spin. They were built to replace the older JNR Class 9600 2-8-0 in 1951. They have a top speed of 50 Mph.

JNR Class D50 Class of 380 Japanese 2-8-2 locomotives

The Class D50 is a type of 2-8-2 steam locomotive built by the Japanese Government Railways (JGR), the Japanese National Railways (JNR) and various manufacturers from 1923 to 1931. The class name indicates that the locomotive has four sets of driving wheels (D) and belongs to one of the classes of tender locomotive allocated a number in the series 50 to 99 in the Japan Railways locomotive numbering and classification scheme of 1928. Hideo Shima designed the rest of the Class until 1931.

JNR Class E10 Class of 5 Japanese 2–10–4T locomotives

The Class E10 (E10形) is a type of 2-10-4 steam locomotive built by the Japanese Government Railways (JGR). They were numbered E10 1-E10 5. They were built in 1948 and designed by Hideo Shima.

JNR Class C61 Class of Japanese 4-6-4 locomotives

The Class C61 (C61形) is a former class of steam locomotives operated in Japan. The class was the first type in Japan to use the 4-6-4 "Hudson" wheel arrangement. A total of 33 locomotives were built between 1947 and 1949 and designed by Hideo Shima,. The locomotives were not built entirely from new, however, but used the boilers from former D51 2-8-2 "Mikado" freight locomotives.

JNR Class C57 Class of 201 Japanese 4-6-2 locomotives

The Class C57 (C57形) is a type of 4-6-2 steam locomotive built in Japan from 1937 to 1947. A total of 201 Class C57 locomotives were built and designed by Hideo Shima. Another 14 Class C57 locomotives were built for export to Taiwan in 1942 and 1953.

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Hachikō Line derailment 1947 railway accident in Japan

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JNR Class C58 Class of 427 Japanese 2-6-2 locomotives

The Class C58 is a 2-6-2 wheel arrangement steam locomotive type built by the Japanese Government Railways (JGR) and Japanese National Railways (JNR) from 1938 to 1947. A total of 427 Class C58 locomotives were built and designed by Hideo Shima. Two members of the class are preserved in working order.

JNR Class C10 Class of 23 Japanese 2-6-4T locomotives

The Class C10 is a type of 2-6-4T steam locomotive built by the Japanese Government Railways from 1930. A total of 23 Class C10 locomotives were built and designed by Hideo Shima. They were numbered C10 01-C10 23. They operated until 1962. Only one member of the Class is preserved which is C10 8 it is preserved on the Oigawa Railway. They would later form the basis of the JNR Class C11 in 1932.

JNR Class C59 Class of 173 Japanese 4-6-2 locomotives

The Class C59 is a type of 4-6-2 steam locomotive built by Japanese National Railways. The C classification indicates three sets of driving wheels. The C59 could haul 17 passenger cars. World War II limited their use as express trains, a function for which they were designed. C59s were transferred to Kyushu after electrification of the trunk lines after the war. They were rebuilt into 47 Class C60 Hudson Rebuilds between 1953 and 1961 at the railway's Hamamatsu works and Koriyama works. In 1970, the locomotives were retired. Only three are preserved. C59 1 is preserved at the Kyushu Railway History Museum on display. C59 164 is preserved at the Kyoto Railway Museum. C59 161 is preserved at the Hiroshima Children’s Museum. They were designed by Hideo Shima.

JNR Class C11 Class of Japanese 2-6-4T locomotives

The Class C11 (C11形) is a type of 2-6-4T steam locomotive built by the Japanese Government Railways and the Japanese National Railways from 1932 to 1947. A total of 381 Class C11 locomotives were built and designed by Hideo Shima.

JNR Class C55 Class of 62 Japanese 4-6-2 steam locomotives

The Class C55 (C55形) is a type of 4-6-2 steam locomotive built in Japan from 1935 to 1937. A total of 62 Class C55 locomotives were built and designed by Hideo Shima.

JNR Class C53 Class of 97 Japanese 4-6-2 steam locomotives

The Class C53 (C53形) is a type of 4-6-2 steam locomotive built in Japan from 1928 to 1929 designed by Hideo Shima and built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Rolling Stock Company Kisha Seizo and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Hitachi. A total of 97 Class C53 locomotives were built they operated until all 97 were retired in 1950. Only C53 45 is preserved and is the only C53 preserved.

The JNR Class C63 was a 2-6-2 steam locomotive proposed by Japanese National Railways (JNR). Designed in 1956 by Hideo Shima it was based on the Class C58. But none of these locomotives were ever actually built.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Salpukas, Aigis (20 March 1998). "Hideo Shima, a Designer of Japan's Bullet Train, Is Dead at 96". The New York Times.
  2. Hood, Christopher P. (2007). Shinkansen – From Bullet Train to Symbol of Modern Japan . Routledge, London. pp.  34–53. ISBN   978-0-415-32052-8.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Shima, Hideo. "Birth of The Shinkansen - A Memoir" (PDF). Japan Railway & Transport Review. EJRCF. 11: 45–48.
  4. Wakuda, Yasuo. "Japanese Railway History 10- Railway Modernization and Shinkansen". Japan Railway & Transport Review. Japan Railways (JR). 11: 60–63. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2010.
  5. Smith, Roderick A. (2003). "The Japanese Shinkansen". The Journal of Transport History. London: Imperial College. 24/2 (2): 222–236. doi:10.7227/TJTH.24.2.6. S2CID   109409322.

Further reading