Hill committee

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The Hill committees are the common name for the political party committees that work to elect members of their own party to United States Congress ("Hill" refers to Capitol Hill, where the seat of Congress, the Capitol, is located). The four major committees are part of the Democratic and Republican parties and each work to help members of their party get elected to each chamber (the House of Representatives and the Senate).

In the United States, a political party committee is an organization, officially affiliated with a political party and registered with the Federal Elections Commission (FEC), which raises and spends money for political campaigning. Political party committees are distinct from political action committees, which are formally independent of political parties and subject to different rules.

Political parties in the United States

Political parties in the United States are mostly dominated by a two-party system consisting of the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. The United States Constitution has always been silent on the issue of political parties, since at the time it was signed in 1787 there were no parties in the nation.

United States Congress Legislature of the United States

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate.

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The committees

The four major committees are the:

Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee

The Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee is the Democratic Hill committee for the United States House of Representatives, working to elect Democrats to that body and discourage primary challengers. The DCCC recruits candidates, raises funds, and organizes races in districts that are expected to yield politically notable or close elections. The structure of the committee consists, essentially, of the Chairperson, their staff, and other Democratic members of Congress that serve in roles supporting the functions of the committee.

The National Republican Congressional Committee (NRCC) is the Republican Hill committee which works to elect Republicans to the United States House of Representatives.

The Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee (DSCC) is the Democratic Hill committee for the United States Senate. It is the only organization solely dedicated to electing Democrats to the United States Senate. The DSCC's current Chair is Senator Catherine Cortez Masto of Nevada, who succeeded Maryland‘s Chris Van Hollen after the 2018 Senate elections. DSCC's current Executive Director is Tom Lopach, who is assisted by Deputy Executive Director Preston Elliott.

Two third parties have Hill committees as well: The Libertarian Congressional Campaign Committee (LCCC) and Libertarian Senatorial Campaign Committee (LSCC) for the Libertarian Party and the Green Senatorial Campaign Committee (GSCC) for the Green Party of the United States.

Third party (United States)

Third party is a term used in the United States for American political parties other than the Republican and Democratic parties.

Libertarian Party (United States) national political party in United States

The Libertarian Party (LP) is a political party in the United States that promotes civil liberties, non-interventionism, laissez-faire capitalism and shrinking the size and scope of government. The party was conceived at meetings in the home of David F. Nolan in Westminster, Colorado in 1971 and was officially formed on December 11, 1971 in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The founding of the party was prompted in part due to concerns about the Nixon administration, the Vietnam War, conscription and the end of the gold standard.

The Green Senatorial Campaign Committee (GSCC) is the Green Party committee for the United States Senate, working to elect Greens to the United States Senate. The GSCC filed with the US Federal Election Commission for official recognition in September 2006, which was received in February 2007. This is the first time a party other than the Democrats or Republicans have had a Senatorial Campaign Committee recognized by the FEC.

Each committee works to recruit, assist, and support candidates of their own party, for their own chamber, in targeted races around the country. The committees contribute directly to candidates' campaigns, while also lending expertise, providing campaign-related services, and making independent expenditures. They raise funds at the national level from donors whose focus is on Congress as a whole, rather than individual campaigns.

An independent expenditure, in elections in the United States, is a political campaign communication that expressly advocates for the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate that is not made in cooperation, consultation or concert with or at the request or suggestion of a candidate, candidate's authorized committee or political party. If a candidate, his/her agent, his/her authorized committee, his/her party, or an "agent" for one of these groups becomes "materially involved", the expenditure is not independent.

Committee chairs

Hill committee chairs of the major parties are incumbents of each body chosen each election cycle by the leadership of their caucus (the House Democratic Caucus, House Republican Conference, Senate Democratic Caucus, and Senate Republican Conference). Typically they are proven fundraisers with national political ambitions who are not facing competitive re-election campaigns. The committees are run on a day-to-day basis by a professional staff with campaign experience.

The incumbent is the current holder of an office. This term is usually used in reference to elections, in which races can often be defined as being between an incumbent and non-incumbent(s). For example, in the 2017 Hungarian presidential election, János Áder was the incumbent, because he had been the president in the term before the term for which the election sought to determine the president. A race without an incumbent is referred to as an open seat.

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