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|• Mayor||Harry Kim|
|• Total||58.3 sq mi (151.0 km2)|
|• Land||53.4 sq mi (138.3 km2)|
|• Water||4.9 sq mi (12.7 km2)|
|Elevation||59 ft (18 m)|
|• Density||810/sq mi (312.9/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−10 (Hawaii-Aleutian)|
Hilo ( // ; Hawaiian pronunciation: [ˈhilo] ) is the largest town and census-designated place (CDP) in Hawaii County, Hawaii, United States, which encompasses the Island of Hawaiʻi. The population was 43,263 according to the 2010 census.
Hilo is the county seat of the County of Hawaiʻi and is in the District of South Hilo. The town overlooks Hilo Bay, at the base of two shield volcanoes, Mauna Loa, an active volcano, and Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano. Mauna Kea is the site of some of the world's most important ground-based astronomical observatories. Much of the city is at risk from lava flows from Mauna Loa, and the bayfront was twice destroyed by tsunamis. The majority of human settlement in Hilo stretches from Hilo Bay to Waiākea-Uka, on the flanks of the volcanoes.
Hilo is home to the University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo, ʻImiloa Astronomy Center of Hawaiʻi, as well as the Merrie Monarch Festival, a week-long celebration of ancient and modern hula that takes place annually after Easter. Hilo is also home to the Mauna Loa Macadamia Nut Corporation, one of the world's leading producers of macadamia nuts. The town is served by Hilo International Airport.
Around 1100 AD, the first Hilo inhabitants arrived, bringing with them Polynesian knowledge and traditions. Although archaeological evidence is scant, oral history has many references to people living in Hilo, along the Wailuku and Wailoa rivers during the time of ancient Hawaii.Oral history gives the meaning of Hilo as "to twist".
Originally, the name "Hilo" applied to a district encompassing much of the east coast of the island of Hawaiʻi, now divided into the District of South Hilo and the District of North Hilo. When William Ellis visited in 1823, the main settlement there was Waiākea on the south shore of Hilo Bay. Missionaries came to the district in the early-to-middle 19th century, founding Haili Church.
Hilo expanded as sugar plantations in the surrounding area created jobs and drew in many workers from Asia. For example, by 1887, 26,000 Chinese workers worked in Hawai'i's sugar cane plantations, one of which was the Hilo Sugar Mill. At that time, the Hilo Sugar Mill produced 3,500 tons of sugar annually.
A breakwater across Hilo Bay was begun in the first decade of the 20th century and completed in 1929. On April 1, 1946, a 7.8-magnitude earthquake near the Aleutian Islands created a 46-foot-high (14 m) tsunami that hit Hilo 4.9 hours later, killing 160 people. In response, an early warning system, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, was established in 1949 to track these killer waves and provide warning. This tsunami also caused the end of the Hawaii Consolidated Railway, and instead the Hawaii Belt Road was built north of Hilo using some of the old railbed.
On May 22, 1960, another tsunami, caused by a 9.5-magnitude earthquake off the coast of Chile that day, claimed 61 lives,allegedly due to the failure of people to heed warning sirens. Low-lying bayfront areas of the city on Waiākea peninsula and along Hilo Bay, previously populated, were rededicated as parks and memorials.
Hilo expanded inland beginning in the 1960s. The downtown found a new role in the 1980s as the city's cultural center with several galleries and museums opening; the Palace Theater reopened in 1998 as an arthouse cinema.
Closure of the sugar plantations (including those in Hāmākua) during the 1990s hurt the local economy, coinciding with a general statewide slump. [ citation needed ] Hilo in recent years has seen commercial and population growth. [ citation needed ]
Hilo is on the eastern and windward side of the island. 58.3 square miles (151.0 km2), 53.4 square miles (138.3 km2) of which is land and 4.9 square miles (12.7 km2) of which (8.4%) is water.It is classified by the U.S. Census Bureau as a census-designated place (CDP), and has a total area of
Hilo has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen Af), with substantial rainfall throughout the year. Its location on the windward coast (relative to the trade winds), makes it the fourth-wettest city in the United States, behind the southeast Alaskan cities of Whittier, Ketchikan and Yakutat, and one of the wettest in the world. An average of around 126.72 inches (3,220 mm) of rain fell at Hilo International Airport annually between 1981 and 2010, with 272 days of the year receiving some rain. Rainfall in Hilo varies with altitude, with more at higher elevations. At some weather stations in upper Hilo the annual rainfall is above 200 inches (5,100 mm).
Monthly mean temperatures range from 71.2 °F (21.8 °C) in February to 76.4 °F (24.7 °C) in August. The highest recorded temperature was 94 °F (34 °C) on May 20, 1996, and the lowest 53 °F (12 °C) on February 21, 1962. The wettest year was 1994 with 182.81 inches (4,643.4 mm), and the driest was 1983, with 68.09 inches (1,729.5 mm). The most rainfall in one month was 50.82 inches (1,290.8 mm) in December 1954. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 27.24 inches (691.9 mm) on November 2, 2000.
Hilo's location on the shore of the funnel-shaped Hilo Bay also makes it vulnerable to tsunamis.
|Climate data for Hilo International Airport, Hawaii (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1949–present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||92|
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||84.9|
|Average high °F (°C)||79.0|
|Daily mean °F (°C)||71.4|
|Average low °F (°C)||63.8|
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||59.0|
|Record low °F (°C)||54|
|Average rainfall inches (mm)||9.26|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in)||16.3||15.8||21.4||24.9||23.5||25.1||26.8||26.8||24.3||23.6||23.0||20.6||272.1|
|Average relative humidity (%)||76.6||76.0||78.1||80.2||78.9||77.4||79.5||79.5||79.2||80.0||80.3||78.7||78.7|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||161.0||152.0||152.7||135.9||155.0||176.9||167.2||174.9||161.5||136.3||115.0||129.0||1,817.4|
|Percent possible sunshine||47||47||41||36||38||44||41||44||44||38||34||38||41|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)|
As of the census of 2010, 43,263 people lived in 15,483 households in the census-designated place. The population density was 796.7 people per square mile (307.7/km²). The 16,905 housing units reflected an average density of 311.3 per square mile (120.2/km²).
The racial makeup was 17.6% White, 0.5% African American, 0.3% American Indian & Alaska Native, 34.3% Asian, 14.2% Native Hawaiian & Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, and 32.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.4% of the population.
24.3% of the households had children under the age of 18 living with them. The average household size was 2.79.
The age distribution was 21.3% under age 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 11.5% from 25 to 34, 16.9% from 35 to 49, 20.9% from 50 to 64, and 18.0% 65 or older. The ratio of females to males was 100:95.5.
The median household income at the 2000 census was $39,139, while the median family income was $48,150. Males had a median income in 2000 of $36,049 compared to $27,626 for females. The per capita income was $18,220. About 11.1% of families and 17.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.5% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over.
This article needs to be updated.July 2019)(
Hilo is served by Hilo International Airport, where Hawaiian Airlines, Southwest Airlines and United Airlines operate.
Hilo is served by the county Hele-On Bus.
Hilo is served by the Big Island's largest harbor, Hilo Harbor, on Hilo Bay.
Hilo is home to a number of educational institutions, including two post-secondary institutions, the University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo and Hawaiʻi Community College, and the Hilo and Waiakea primary and secondary school districts. Charter schools in the area serve primary and secondary students.
Although sometimes called a city, Hilo is not an incorporated city, and does not have a municipal government. The entire island, which is between the slightly larger state of Connecticut and smaller Rhode Island in size, is under the jurisdiction of the County of Hawaiʻi, of which Hilo is the county seat.
Hilo is home to county, state, and federal offices.
The oldest city in the Hawaiian archipelago, Hilo has a significant tourism sector.It is home to Hawaii's only tsunami museum, mostly dedicated to the 1946 Pacific tsunami, and is notable for the banyan trees planted by Babe Ruth, Amelia Earhart and other celebrities. It is home to the Pana'ewa Rainforest Zoo, shopping centers, cafés and other eateries, movie theaters, hotels, restaurants, and a developed downtown area with a Farmers Market.
The Mauna Loa Macadamia Nut Corporation makes its home there as well, south of the main town off Hawaii Route 11, north of Keaʻau.
Hilo is known for the Mokupāpapa Discovery Center in the Koehnen Building downtown. The museum features interactive and educational exhibits and is dedicated to creating public awareness of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument and marine conservation issues.
Hilo is home to most of the astronomical observatories on Mauna Kea as well as the Imiloa Planetarium and Museum. Astronomy has an economic impact of $100 million annually on the island.Astronomy on Mauna Kea was developed at the invitation of the Hawaii Chamber of Commerce following the collapse of the sugar cane industry.
Hilo is served by KWXX (94.7FM Hilo/101.5FM Kona), KWXX, B93/B97 (93.1FM Kona/97.1FM Hilo), Hawaii's Classic Hits, B93/B97, and KPUA (970AM Hilo), Hilo's Sports Talk Radio KPUA 670AM radio stations.
The Hawaii Tribune-Herald , of Oahu Publications Inc., a subsidiary of Black Press,is Hilo's primary newspaper distribution company along with other newspapers like the Honolulu Star-Advertiser .
Asteroid (342431) Hilo is named after Hilo.
Hilo also referred to the District of Hilo when the Big Island was divided into six districts by the traditional moku land division. Hilo is now divided in two: North and South Hilo Districts.
The District of North Hilo, along Hawaii State Highway 19 from north to south, encompasses the following unincorporated towns and localities:
and others. Inland, along State Highway 200, are Mauna Kea mountain road and Puu Huluhulu and others.
In the District of South Hilo, along State Highway 19, are the following unincorporated towns and localities:
Along State Highway 11, are:
and others. Along State Highway 200 and its extension, are:
Hawaiʻi anglicized Hawaii is the largest island located in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It is the largest and the southeasternmost of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of volcanic islands in the North Pacific Ocean. With an area of 4,028 square miles (10,430 km2), it has 63% of the Hawaiian archipelago's combined landmass, and is the largest island in the United States. However, it has only 13% of Hawaiʻi's people. The island of Hawaiʻi is the third largest island in Polynesia, behind the two main islands of New Zealand.
Keaʻau is a census-designated place (CDP) in Hawaiʻi County, Hawaii, United States located in the District of Puna. The population was 2,010 at the 2000 census. The population increased by 12.1% to 2,253 at the 2010 census.
Mauna Loa is one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi in the Pacific Ocean. The largest subaerial volcano in both mass and volume, Mauna Loa has historically been considered the largest volcano on Earth, dwarfed only by Tamu Massif. It is an active shield volcano with relatively gentle slopes, with a volume estimated at approximately 18,000 cubic miles (75,000 km3), although its peak is about 125 feet (38 m) lower than that of its neighbor, Mauna Kea. Lava eruptions from Mauna Loa are silica-poor and very fluid, and they tend to be non-explosive.
Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano on the island of Hawaii. Its peak is 4,207.3 m (13,803 ft) above sea level, making it the highest point in the state of Hawaii. Most of the volcano is underwater, and when measured from its underwater base, Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain in the world, measuring 10,200 m (33,500 ft) in height. Mauna Kea is about a million years old, and has thus passed the most active shield stage of life hundreds of thousands of years ago. In its current post-shield state, its lava is more viscous, resulting in a steeper profile. Late volcanism has also given it a much rougher appearance than its neighboring volcanoes due to construction of cinder cones, decentralization of its rift zones, glaciation on its peak, and weathering by the prevailing trade winds. Mauna Kea last erupted 6,000 to 4,000 years ago and is now considered dormant. The peak is about 38 m (125 ft) higher than Mauna Loa, its more massive neighbor.
The Mauna Kea Observatories (MKO) are a number of independent astronomical research facilities and large telescope observatories that are located at the summit of Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaiʻi, United States. The facilities are located in a 525-acre (212 ha) special land use zone known as the "Astronomy Precinct", which is located within the 11,228-acre (4,544 ha) Mauna Kea Science Reserve. The Astronomy Precinct was established in 1967 and is located on land protected by the Historical Preservation Act for its significance to Hawaiian culture. The presence and continued construction of telescopes is highly controversial due to Mauna Kea's centraility in native Hawaiian religion and culture, as well as for a variety of environmental reasons.
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U.S. state of Hawaii:
The Wailuku River is a 28.0-mile-long (45.1 km) water course on the Island of Hawaiʻi in the Hawaiian Islands. It is the longest river in Hawai'i as well as the largest in the state by mean discharge. Its course lies mostly along the divide between the lava flows of Mauna Kea and those of Mauna Loa to the south. It arises at about the 10,800 feet (3,300 m) elevation along the eastern slope of Mauna Kea. It flows generally eastward, descending steeply from the mountain and entering the Pacific Ocean at Hilo.
Route 200, known locally as Saddle Road, traverses the width of the Island of Hawaiʻi, from downtown Hilo to its junction with Hawaii Route 190 near Waimea. The road was once considered one of the most dangerous paved roads in the state, with many one-lane bridges and areas of marginally maintained pavement. Most of the road has now been repaved, and major parts have new re-alignments to modern standards. The highway is mostly one-lane in each direction, but there are two lanes on the uphill portions. The highway reaches a maximum elevation of 6,632 feet (2,021 m) and is subject to fog and low visibility. Many rental car companies used to prohibit use of their cars on Saddle Road, but now allow use of the road. The highway experiences heavy use as it provides the shortest driving route from Hilo to Kailua-Kona and access to the slopes of Mauna Loa and the Mauna Kea Observatories.
Waiākea is an ancient subdivision (ahupuaʻa) in the Hilo District of the Big Island of Hawaiʻi and an early settlement on Hilo Bay.
Hāmākua is a district on the northeast coast of Hawaiʻi's Big Island, administered by the County of Hawaiʻi in the state of Hawaiʻi. It is also the name given for the coastline in the region, the "Hāmākua Coast".
‘Imiloa Astronomy Center of Hawaii is an astronomy and culture education center located in Hilo, Hawaii. It features exhibits and shows dealing with Hawaiian culture and history, astronomy, and the overlap between the two.
Mauna Loa Macadamia Nut Corporation is the world's largest processor of macadamia seeds. The American company was a subsidiary of The Hershey Company from 2004 to 2015, when it was acquired by Hawaiian Host, Inc. The company takes its name from the volcano Mauna Loa. Their headquarters and main processing plant are near the mountain, south of Hilo in the Puna District of the island of Hawaiʻi, known as the Big Island.
The Waiākea Mission Station was the first Christian mission on the eastern side of the Island of Hawaiʻi. Also known as the Hilo Station, the latest structure is now called Haili Church.
Hilo is a moku or district on the Big Island of Hawaiʻi in the State of Hawaii, U.S.A. In the current system of administration of Hawaiʻi County, the moku of Hilo is divided into North Hilo District and South Hilo District.
Hilo Bay is a large bay located on the eastern coast of the island of Hawaiʻi.
The Onizuka Center for International Astronomy, also known as Hale Pōhaku, is a complex of support facilities for the telescopes and other instruments that comprise the Mauna Kea Observatory atop Mauna Kea, on Hawaiʻi island.
The Wailoa River State Recreation Area is a park in Hilo, on Hawaiʻi Island in the US state of Hawaii.
Hawaii's first aeronautical event was on 2 March 1889, when Emil L. Melville hung from a trapeze in a balloon. Hawaii's first aircraft flight was on 31 December 1910 by a Curtiss Biplane.
Waiākea-Uka (IPA:/'waj.ə.kei.ə.'u.kə/) is an ancient subdivision (ahupuaʻa) in the Hilo District of the Big Island of Hawaiʻi, located mauka (mountain-side) of the Waiākea ahupua'a; its location is on the lower flanks of the volcano Mauna Loa. Because of this, one meaning of the name 'Waiākea-Uka' can be translated from 'Olelo Hawai'i as '(the) mountain-side (of) Waiākea'. Many ahupua'a have this -uka appellation, as the directions 'mountain-side' and 'sea-side' (makai) are the two best ways of orientating something in space on any of the islands.
The Grand Naniloa Hotel is a hotel in Hilo, Hawaii, on the eastern side of the Big Island. It is the largest hotel in the state of Hawaii's second largest city, and has the longest history as a hotel on Hawaii Island.
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