Hindi

Last updated

Hindi
हिन्दी
Hindī
Hindi devnagari.png
The word "Hindi" in Devanagari script
PronunciationHindi pronunciation:  [ˈɦɪndiː]
Native to India
Region Northern, Eastern, Western and Central India (Hindi Belt)
Ethnicity Hindustani people (historically), Indian people
Native speakers
unknown; 322 million speakers of Hindustani and various related languages reported their language as 'Hindi' (2011 census) [1]
L2 speakers: 270 million (2016) [2]
Early forms
Vedic Sanskrit
Devanagari
Devanagari Braille
Signed Hindi
Official status
Official language in
Flag of India.svg  India
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated by Central Hindi Directorate [5]
Language codes
ISO 639-1 hi
ISO 639-2 hin
ISO 639-3 hin
hin-hin
Glottolog hind1269 [6]
Linguasphere 59-AAF-qf
Language region maps of India.svg

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register [7] of the Hindustani language. Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the official languages of India, along with the English language. [8] It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India. [9] However, it is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution. [10] [11]

Devanagari Writing script for many Indian and Nepalese languages

Devanagari, also called Nagari, is a left-to-right abugida (alphasyllabary), based on the ancient Brāhmī script, used in the Indian subcontinent. It was developed in ancient India from the 1st to the 4th century CE, and was in regular use by the 7th century CE. The Devanagari script, composed of 47 primary characters including 14 vowels and 33 consonants, is one of the most adopted writing systems in the world, being used for over 120 languages. The ancient Nagari script for Sanskrit had two additional consonantal characters.

The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. It is based on a scheme that emerged during the nineteenth century from suggestions by Charles Trevelyan, William Jones, Monier Monier-Williams and other scholars, and formalised by the Transliteration Committee of the Geneva Oriental Congress, in September 1894. IAST makes it possible for the reader to read the Indic text unambiguously, exactly as if it were in the original Indic script. It is this faithfulness to the original scripts that accounts for its continuing popularity amongst scholars.

A standard language is defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes, or as a variety that has undergone standardization. Typically, varieties that become standardized are the local dialects spoken in the centers of commerce and government, where a need arises for a variety that will serve more than local needs. Standardization typically involves a fixed orthography, codification in authoritative grammars and dictionaries and public acceptance of these standards.

Contents

Hindi is the lingua franca of the Hindi belt , and to a lesser extent other parts of India (usually in a simplified or pidginized variety such as Bazaar Hindustani or Haflong Hindi). [12] [13] Outside India, several other languages are recognized officially as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other dialects of Hindustani, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri. Such languages include Fiji Hindi , which is official in Fiji, [14] and Caribbean Hindustani, which is a recognized language in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname. [15] [16] [17] [18] Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Hindi is mutually intelligible with Urdu, another recognized register of Hindustani.

Lingua franca Common language between persons lacking a common native dialect

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.

Haflong Hindi is the lingua franca of Dima Hasao district of Assam state of India. It is a pidgin that stemmed from Hindi and included vocabulary from several other languages, such as Assamese, Bengali, Dimasa and the Zeme Naga dialect. It is named after Haflong, which is the headquarters of Dima Hasao district.

Fiji Hindi or Fijian Hindi, also known locally as "Hindustani", is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by most Fijian citizens of Indian descent, though a small number speak other languages at home. It is an Eastern Hindi language, generally considered to be an older dialect of the Awadhi language spoken in central and east Uttar Pradesh that has been subject to considerable influence by Bhojpuri, Magahi and other Bihari languages. It has also borrowed some words from the English and Fijian languages. A large number of words, unique to Fiji Hindi, have been created to cater for the new environment that Indo-Fijians now live in. First-generation Indians in Fiji, who used the language as a lingua franca in Fiji, referred to it as Fiji Baat, "Fiji talk". It is closely related to Caribbean Hindustani and the Hindustani spoken in Mauritius and South Africa.

As a linguistic variety, Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin, Spanish and English. [19] Alongside Urdu as Hindustani, it is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English. [20]

Mandarin Chinese major branch of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China

Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese. Because Mandarin originated in North China and most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects. Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible. Nevertheless, Mandarin is often placed first in lists of languages by number of native speakers.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Etymology

The term Hindī originally was used to refer to inhabitants of the region east of the Indus. It was borrowed from Classical Persian Hindī (Iranian Persian Hendi), meaning "Indian", from the proper noun Hind "India". [21]

The name Hindavī was used by Amir Khusrow in his poetry. [22]

Amir Khusrow Indian poet, writer, musician and scholar

Ab'ul Hasan Yamīn ud-Dīn Khusrau, better known as Amīr Khusrow Dehlavī, was a Sufi musician, poet and scholar from India. He was an iconic figure in the cultural history of South Asia. He was a mystic and a spiritual disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi, India. He wrote poetry primarily in Persian, but also in Hindavi. A vocabulary in verse, the Ḳhāliq Bārī, containing Arabic, Persian, and Hindavi terms is often attributed to him. Khusrow is sometimes referred to as the "voice of India" (Tuti-e-Hind), and has been called the "father of Urdu literature."

History

Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi is a direct descendant of an early form of Vedic Sanskrit, through Sauraseni Prakrit and Śauraseni Apabhraṃśa (from Sanskrit apabhraṃśa "corrupted"), which emerged in the 7th century A.D. [23]

Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group. It is the ancient language of the Vedas of Hinduism, texts compiled over the period of the mid-2nd to mid-1st millennium BCE. It was orally preserved, predating the advent of Brahmi script by several centuries. Vedic Sanskrit is an archaic language, whose consensus translation has been challenging.

Apabhramśa is a term used by vyākaraṇin (grammarians) since Patañjali to refer to languages spoken in north India before the rise of the modern languages. In Indology, it is used as an umbrella term for the dialects forming the transition between the late Middle and the early Modern Indo-Aryan languages, spanning the period between the 6th and 13th centuries CE. However, these dialects are conventionally included in the Middle Indo-Aryan period. Apabhraṃśa in Sanskrit literally means "corrupt" or "non-grammatical language", that which deviates from the norm of Sanskrit grammar.

Modern Standard Hindi is based on the Khariboli dialect, [23] the vernacular of Delhi and the surrounding region, which came to replace earlier prestige dialects such as Awadhi, Maithili (sometimes regarded as separate from the Hindi dialect continuum) and Braj. Urdu – another form of Hindustani – acquired linguistic prestige in the later Mughal period (1800s), and underwent significant Persian influence. Modern Hindi and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century. [24] However, modern Hindi's earlier literary stages before standardization can be traced to the 16th century. [25] In the late 19th century, a movement to further develop Hindi as a standardised form of Hindustani separate from Urdu took form. [26] In 1881, Bihar accepted Hindi as its sole official language, replacing Urdu, and thus became the first state of India to adopt Hindi. [27] Modern Standard Hindi is one of the youngest Indian languages in this regard.

After independence, the government of India instituted the following conventions:[ original research? ]

On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted Hindi written in the Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India replacing Urdu's previous usage in British India. [28] [29] [30] To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favor of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar, Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth Govind Das who even debated in Parliament on this issue. As such, on the 50th birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 September 1949, the efforts came to fruition following the adoption of Hindi as the official language. [31] Now, it is celebrated as Hindi Day. [32]

Use outside the Hindi Belt

In Northeast India a pidgin known as Haflong Hindi has developed as a lingua franca for various tribes in Assam that speak other languages natively. [33] In Arunachal Pradesh, Hindi emerged as a lingua franca among locals who speak over 50 dialects natively. [34]

Status

Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official language of the Indian Commonwealth. Under Article 343, the official languages of the Union has been prescribed, which includes Hindi in Devanagari script and English:

(1) The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals. [15]
(2) Notwithstanding anything in clause (1), for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used immediately before such commencement: Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorize the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union. [35]

Article 351 of the Indian constitution states

It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.

It was envisioned that Hindi would become the sole working language of the Union Government by 1965 (per directives in Article 344 (2) and Article 351), [36] with state governments being free to function in the language of their own choice. However, widespread resistance to the imposition of Hindi on non-native speakers, especially in South India (such as the those in Tamil Nadu) led to the passage of the Official Languages Act of 1963, which provided for the continued use of English indefinitely for all official purposes, although the constitutional directive for the Union Government to encourage the spread of Hindi was retained and has strongly influenced its policies. [37]

Article 344 (2b) stipulates that official language commission shall be constituted every ten years to recommend steps for progressive use of Hindi language and imposing restrictions on the use of the English language by the union government. In practice, the official language commissions are constantly endeavouring to promote Hindi but not imposing restrictions on English in official use by the union government.

At the state level, Hindi is the official language of the following Indian states: Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal. [38] [39] Each may also designate a "co-official language"; in Uttar Pradesh, for instance, depending on the political formation in power, this language is generally Urdu. Similarly, Hindi is accorded the status of official language in the following Union Territories: Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, National Capital Territory.

National language status for Hindi is a long-debated theme. In 2010, the Gujarat High Court clarified that Hindi is not the national language of India because the constitution does not mention it as such. [10] [11] [40]

Outside India

Outside Asia, the Awadhi language (A Hindi dialect) with influence from Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Fijian and English is spoken in Fiji. [41] [42] It is an official language in Fiji as per the 1997 Constitution of Fiji, [43] where it referred to it as "Hindustani", however in the 2013 Constitution of Fiji, it is simply called "Fiji Hindi". [44] It is spoken by 380,000 people in Fiji. [41]

Hindi is also spoken by a large population of Madheshis (people having roots in north-India but have migrated to Nepal over hundreds of years) of Nepal. Hindi is quite easy to understand for some Pakistanis, who speak Urdu, which, like Hindi, is part of Hindustani. Apart from this, Hindi is spoken by the large Indian diaspora which hails from, or has its origin from the "Hindi Belt" of India. A substantially large North Indian diaspora lives in countries like the United States of America, the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, South Africa, Fiji and Mauritius, where it is natively spoken at home and among their own Hindustani-speaking communities. Outside India, Hindi speakers are 8 million in Nepal; 863,077 in United States of America; [45] [46] 450,170 in Mauritius; 380,000 in Fiji; [41] 250,292 in South Africa; 150,000 in Suriname; [47] 100,000 in Uganda; 45,800 in United Kingdom; [48] 20,000 in New Zealand; 20,000 in Germany; 16,000 in Trinidad and Tobago; [47] 3,000 in Singapore.

Comparison with Modern Standard Urdu

Linguistically, Hindi and Urdu are two registers of the same language and are mutually intelligible. [49] Hindi is written in the Devanagari script and uses more Sanskrit words, whereas Urdu is written in the Perso-Arabic script and uses more Arabic and Persian words. Hindi is the most commonly used official language in India. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan and is one of 22 official languages of India.

The splitting of Hindi and Urdu into separate languages is largely motivated by politics, namely the Indo-Pakistani rivalry. [50]

Script

Hindi is written in the Devanagari script, an abugida. Devanagari consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants and is written from left to right. Unlike for Sanskrit, Devanagari is not entirely phonetic for Hindi, especially failing to mark schwa dropping in spoken Standard Hindi. [51]

Romanization

The Government of India uses Hunterian transliteration as its official system of writing Hindi in the Latin script. Various other systems also exist, such as IAST, ITRANS and ISO 15919.

Vocabulary

Traditionally, Hindi words are divided into five principal categories according to their etymology:

Hindi also makes extensive use of loan translation (calqueing) and occasionally phono-semantic matching of English. [55]

Prakrit

Hindi has naturally inherited a large portion of its vocabulary from Śaurasenī Prākṛt, in the form of tadbhava words. This process usually involves compensatory lengthening of vowels preceding consonant clusters in Prakrit, e.g. Sanskrit tīkṣṇa > Prakrit tikkha > Hindi tīkhā.

Sanskrit

Much of Modern Standard Hindi's vocabulary is borrowed from Sanskrit as tatsam borrowings, especially in technical and academic fields. The formal Hindi standard, from which much of the Persian, Arabic and English vocabulary has been replaced by neologisms compounding tatsam words, is called Śuddh Hindi (pure Hindi), and is viewed as a more prestigious dialect over other more colloquial forms of Hindi.

Excessive use of tatsam words sometimes creates problems for native speakers. They may have Sanskrit consonant clusters which do not exist in native Hindi, causing difficulties in pronunciation. [56]

As a part of the process of Sanskritization, new words are coined using Sanskrit components to be used as replacements for supposedly foreign vocabulary. Usually these neologisms are calques of English words already adopted into spoken Hindi. Some terms such as dūrbhāṣ "telephone", literally "far-speech" and dūrdarśan "television", literally "far-sight" have even gained some currency in formal Hindi in the place of the English borrowings (ṭeli)fon and ṭīvī. [57]

Persian

Hindi also features significant Persian influence, standardised from spoken Hindustani. [58] [ page needed ] Early borrowings, beginning in the mid-12th century, were specific to Islam (e.g. Muhammad, islām) and so Persian was simply an intermediary for Arabic. Later, under the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire, Persian became the primary administrative language in the Hindi heartland. Persian borrowings reached a heyday in the 17th century, pervading all aspects of life. Even grammatical constructs, namely the izafat, were assimilated into Hindi. [59]

Post-Partition the Indian government advocated for a policy of Sanskritization leading to a marginalization of the Persian element in Hindi. However, many Persian words (e.g. muśkil "difficult", bas "enough", havā "air", x(a)yāl "thought") have remained entrenched in Modern Standard Hindi, and a larger amount are still used in Urdu poetry written in the Devanagari script.

Arabic

Arabic also shows influence in Hindi, often via Persian but sometimes directly. [60]

Media

Literature

Hindi literature is broadly divided into four prominent forms or styles, being Bhakti (devotional – Kabir, Raskhan); Śṛṇgār (beauty – Keshav, Bihari); Vīgāthā (epic); and Ādhunik (modern).

Medieval Hindi literature is marked by the influence of Bhakti movement and the composition of long, epic poems. It was primarily written in other varieties of Hindi, particularly Avadhi and Braj Bhasha, but to a degree also in Khariboli, the basis for Modern Standard Hindi. During the British Raj, Hindustani became the prestige dialect.

Chandrakanta, written by Devaki Nandan Khatri in 1888, is considered the first authentic work of prose in modern Hindi. [61] The person who brought realism in the Hindi prose literature was Munshi Premchand, who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi fiction and progressive movement. Literary, or Sāhityik, Hindi was popularised by the writings of Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Bhartendu Harishchandra and others. The rising numbers of newspapers and magazines made Hindustani popular with the educated people.[ citation needed ]

The Dvivedī Yug ("Age of Dwivedi") in Hindi literature lasted from 1900 to 1918. It is named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, who played a major role in establishing Modern Standard Hindi in poetry and broadening the acceptable subjects of Hindi poetry from the traditional ones of religion and romantic love.

In the 20th century, Hindi literature saw a romantic upsurge. This is known as Chāyāvād (shadow-ism) and the literary figures belonging to this school are known as Chāyāvādī. Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', Mahadevi Varma and Sumitranandan Pant, are the four major Chāyāvādī poets.

Uttar Ādhunik is the post-modernist period of Hindi literature, marked by a questioning of early trends that copied the West as well as the excessive ornamentation of the Chāyāvādī movement, and by a return to simple language and natural themes.

Internet

The Hindi Wikipedia was the first Indic-language wiki to reach 100,000 articles. Hindi literature, music, and film have all been disseminated via the internet. In 2015, Google reported a 94% increase in Hindi-content consumption year-on-year, adding that 21% of users in India prefer content in Hindi. [62]

Many Hindi newspapers also offer digital editions.

Sample text

The following is a sample text in High Hindi, of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations):

Hindi
अनुच्छेद 1 (एक) सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के विषय में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता और समानता प्राप्त हैं। उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिए।
Transliteration (IAST)
Anucched 1 (ek) – Sabhī manuṣyõ ko gaurav aur adhikārõ ke viṣay mẽ janmajāt svatantratā aur samāntā prāpt hai. Unhẽ buddhi aur antarātmā kī den prāpt hai aur paraspar unhẽ bhāīcāre ke bhāv se bartāv karnā cāhie.
Transcription (IPA)
[ənʊtʃʰːeːd eːk | səbʱiː mənʊʃjõː koː ɡɔːɾəʋ ɔːr ədʱɪkaːɾõ keː maːmleː mẽː dʒənmədʒaːt sʋətəntɾətaː ɔːr səmaːntaː pɾaːpt hɛː ‖ ʊnʱẽ bʊdʱːɪ ɔːɾ əntəɾaːtmaː kiː deːn pɾaːpt hɛː ɔːɾ pəɾəspəɾ ʊnʱẽː bʱaːiːtʃaːɾeː keː bʱaːʋ seː bəɾtaːʋ kəɾnə tʃaːhɪeː ‖]
Gloss (word-to-word)
Article 1 (one) All human-beings to dignity and rights' matter in from-birth freedom and equality acquired is. Them to reason and conscience's endowment acquired is and always them to brotherhood's spirit with behaviour to do should.
Translation (grammatical)
Article 1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See also

Related Research Articles

Marathi language Indo-Aryan language

Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by around 83 million Marathi people of Maharashtra, India. It is the official language and co-official language in the Maharashtra and Goa states of Western India, respectively, and is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. At 83 million speakers in 2011, Marathi ranks 19th in the list of most spoken languages in the world. Marathi has the third largest number of native speakers in India, after Hindi & Bengali. The language has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indian languages, dating back to around 900 AD. The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect. Koli and Malvani Konkani have been heavily influenced by Marathi varieties.

Punjabi language native language of Punjabi people

Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language with more than 100 million native speakers around the world and especially in the Indian subcontinent. It is the native language of the Punjabi people, an ethnic group of the cultural region called the Punjab, which encompasses northwest India and eastern Pakistan.

Urdu National language and lingua franca of Pakistan; standardized register of Hindustani

Urdu —or, more precisely, Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi. It is a registered regional language of Nepal.

Hindustani language Indo-Aryan language

Hindustani, also known as Hindi-Urdu and historically also known as Hindavi, Dehlavi and Rekhta, was a historical lingua franca of Northern India and Pakistan. It is an Indo-Aryan language, deriving its base primarily from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi. The language incorporates a large amount of vocabulary from Prakrit, Sanskrit, as well as Persian and Arabic. It is now a pluricentric language, with two official forms, Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu, which are its standardised registers. According to Ethnologue's 2019 estimates, if Hindi and Urdu are taken together as Hindustani, the language would be the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with approximately 409.8 million native speakers and 785.6 million total speakers.

Gujarati language one of the official languages of India, primarily spoken in Gujarat state

Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat and spoken predominantly by the Gujarati people. Gujarati is part of the greater Indo-European language family. Gujarati is descended from Old Gujarati. In India, it is the official language in the state of Gujarat, as well as an official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. As of 2011, Gujarati is the 6th most widely spoken language in India by number of native speakers, spoken by 55.5 million speakers which amounts to about 4.5% of the total Indian population. It is the 26th most widely spoken language in the world by number of native speakers as of 2007.

Languages of India languages of a geographic region

Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 78.05% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 19.64% of Indians. Languages spoken by the remaining 2.31% of the population belong to the Austroasiatic, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai and a few other minor language families and isolates. India (780) has the world's second highest number of languages, after Papua New Guinea (839).

There are several methods of transliteration from Devanāgarī to the Roman script which share similarities, although no single system of transliteration has emerged as the standard. This process has been termed Romanagari, a portmanteau of the words Roman and Devanagari.. The term may also be used for other languages that use Devanagari as the standard writing script, such as Marathi, Nepali or Sanskrit.

Bhojpuri language predominant language spoken by Indian and Nepali people

Bhojpuri is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the North-Eastern part of India and the Terai region of Nepal. It is chiefly spoken in western Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh. Bhojpuri is sociolinguistically considered one of the Hindi dialects although it officially belongs to the geographic Bihari branch of Eastern Indo-Aryan languages. Fiji Hindi, an official language of Fiji, is a variety of Bhojpuri. Bhojpuri is one of the recognized official languages of Nepal and Fiji. It is also a minority language in Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Suriname, South Africa, and Mauritius.

Khariboli dialect

Khariboli, also known as Kauravi or Delhavi, was a language variety that developed as the prestige dialect of Hindustani, of which Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu are standard registers and literary styles, which are the principal official languages of India and Pakistan respectively. The term "Khariboli" has, however, been used for any literary dialect, including Braj Bhasa, and Awadhi. As a base for the medieval Hindustani language, Khariboli is a part of the Western group of the Central Zone of Indo-Aryan languages. It is spoken mainly in India in the rural area surrounding Delhi, Western Uttar Pradesh, and southern Uttarakhand.

Hindustani is one of the predominant languages of South Asia, with federal status in India and Pakistan in its standardized forms of Hindi and Urdu. It is widely spoken and understood as a second language in Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Persian Gulf and as such is considered a lingua franca in the Indian subcontinent. It is also one of the most widely spoken languages in the world by total number of speakers. It developed in North India, principally during the Mughal Empire, when the Persian language exerted a strong influence on the Western Hindi languages of central India. This led to the creation of Rekhta, or "mixed" speech, which came to be known as Hindustani, Hindi, Hindavi, and Urdu This form was elevated to the status of a literary language, and after the partition of British India and independence this collection of dialects became the basis for modern standard Hindi and Urdu. Although these official languages are distinct registers with regards to their formal aspects, such as modern technical vocabulary, they continue to be all but indistinguishable in their vernacular forms.

The Persian language historically influenced many of the modern languages and dialects of the Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, and South Asia including the standard register Urdu, the national language of Pakistan and an official language in seven states/territories of India. The relationship extends back to around the 3rd millennium BCE, as they both descend from the Proto-Indo-Iranian language.

Hindustānī, also known as Hindi-Urdu, comprises several closely related dialects in the northern, central and northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. It encompasses two standardized registers in the forms of the official languages Hindi and Urdu, as well as several nonstandard dialects. Hindustani is not an immediate descendant of Sanskrit, but uses a large lexicon of loanwords.

Nuqtā, also spelled Nuktā, is a term for a diacritic mark that was introduced in Devanāgari and some other Indian scripts to represent sounds not present in the original scripts. It takes the form of a dot placed below a character. Also, in another sense deriving from the Arabic script itself, there "are some letters in Urdu that share the same basic shape but differ in the placement of dots(s) or nuqta(s)" in the Urdu script: the letter ع ain, with the addition of a nuqta, becomes the letter غ g͟hain.

Hindi–Urdu controversy

The Hindi–Urdu controversy is an ongoing dispute—dating back to the 19th century—regarding the status of Hindi and Urdu as a single language, Hindustani, or as two dialects of a single language, and the establishment of a single standard language in certain areas of North India. Although this debate was officially settled in India by a government order in 1950, declaring Hindi as the official language, some resistance remains. The present notion among some Muslims about this dispute is that Hindus abandoned the Urdu language, whereas some Hindus claim that Urdu was artificially created during Muslim rule.

Caribbean Hindustani or Caribbean Hindi-Urdu, is an Indo-Aryan language historically spoken as a lingua franca by Indo-Caribbeans and the Indo-Caribbean diaspora. It is based on Bhojpuri with influences from Awadhi. These were spoken by indentured laborers who came as immigrants to the Caribbean from the Indian subcontinent. It is closely related to Fijian Hindi, the Bhojpuri spoken in Mauritius and the Hindustani spoken in South Africa.

Central Zone languages

The Central Zone languages are a group of related language varieties spoken across northern and central India. These language varieties form the central part of the Indo-Aryan language family, itself a part of the Indo-European language family. They historically form a dialect continuum that descends from the Madhya Prakrits. Located in the Hindi Belt, the Hindi language varieties also includes the Khariboli dialect, the primary dialect spoken in Delhi and the basis of modern Hindi and Urdu. This dialect developed over centuries into the medieval Hindustani language, of which Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu are today derived from. Both Hindi and Urdu are standardizations of the Hindustani language that was historically spoken in Delhi and used as a lingua franca across Northern India. In regards to the Indo-Aryan language family, the coherence of this language group depends on the classification being used; here only Eastern and Western Hindi will be considered.

Schwa deletion, or schwa syncope, is a phenomenon that sometimes occurs in Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Kashmiri, Punjabi, Gujarati, and several other Indo-Aryan languages with schwas that are implicit in their written scripts. Languages like Marathi and Maithili with increased influence from other languages through coming into contact with them — also shows a similar phenomenon. Some schwas are obligatorily deleted in pronunciation even if the script suggests otherwise.

<i>Samrup Rachna</i>

Samrup Rachna is a form of calligraphic art created by Dr Syed Mohammed Anwer to promote peace and collaboration in the South Asia region where Hindustani is spoken

Hindustani vocabulary, also known as Hindi-Urdu vocabulary, like all Indo-Aryan languages, has a core base of Sanskrit, which it gained through Prakrit. As such the standardized registers of the Hindustani language (Hindi-Urdu) share a common vocabulary, especially on the colloquial level. However, in formal speech, Hindi tends to draw on Sanskrit, while Urdu turns to Persian and sometimes Arabic. This difference lies in the history of Hindustani, in which the Khariboli dialect started to gain more Persian words in urban areas, under the Delhi Sultanate; this dialect came to be termed Urdu.

Lallu Lal (1763–1835) was an academic, author and translator from British India. He was an instructor in Hindustani language at Fort William College. He is notable for Prem Sagar, the first work in modern literary Hindi.

References

Notes

  1. "Scheduled Languages in descending order of speaker's strength - 2011" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 29 June 2018.
  2. Hindi at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  3. 1 2 Hindustani (2005). Keith Brown, ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN   0-08-044299-4.
  4. "The World Fact Book". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 16 July 2017.
  5. "Central Hindi Directorate: Introduction". Archived from the original on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  6. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hindi". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  7. "Constitution of India". Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
  8. "Constitutional Provisions: Official Language Related Part-17 of The Constitution Of India". Department of Official Language, Government of India. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  9. "PART A Languages specified in the Eighth Schedule (Scheduled Languages)". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.
  10. 1 2 Khan, Saeed (25 January 2010). "There's no national language in India: Gujarat High Court". The Times of India . Ahmedabad: The Times Group. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  11. 1 2 "Hindi, not a national language: Court". The Hindu . Ahmedabad: Press Trust of India. 25 January 2010. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  12. "How languages intersect in India". Hindustan Times. 22 November 2018.
  13. "How many Indians can you talk to?".
  14. "Hindi Diwas 2018: Hindi travelled to these five countries from India". 14 September 2018.
  15. 1 2 "Sequence of events with reference to official language of the Union". Archived from the original on 2 August 2011.
  16. रिपब्लिक ऑफ फीजी का संविधान (Constitution of the Republic of Fiji, the Hindi version) Archived 1 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  17. "Caribbean Languages and Caribbean Linguistics" (PDF). University of the West Indies Press. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  18. Richard K. Barz (8 May 2007). "The cultural significance of Hindi in Mauritius". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. 3: 1–13. doi:10.1080/00856408008722995.
  19. Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin . Asterisks mark the 2010 estimates Archived 11 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine for the top dozen languages.
  20. "Hindustani". Columbia University Press. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017 via encyclopedia.com.
  21. Steingass, Francis Joseph (1892). A comprehensive Persian-English dictionary. London: Routledge & K. Paul. p. 1514. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  22. Khan, Rajak. "Indo-Persian Literature and Amir Khusro". University of Delhi . Retrieved 17 February 2018.[ permanent dead link ]
  23. 1 2 "Brief History of Hindi". Central Hindi Directorate. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
  24. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 August 2006. Retrieved 9 October 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  25. "Rekhta: Poetry in Mixed Language, The Emergence of Khari Boli Literature in North India" (PDF). Columbia University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  26. Paul R. Brass (2005). Language, Religion and Politics in North India. iUniverse, Incorporated. ISBN   9780595343942.
  27. Parthasarathy, Kumar, p.120
  28. Clyne, Michael (24 May 2012). Pluricentric Languages: Differing Norms in Different Nations. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN   9783110888140.
  29. Choudhry, Sujit; Khosla, Madhav; Mehta, Pratap Bhanu (12 May 2016). The Oxford Handbook of the Indian Constitution. Oxford University Press. ISBN   9780191058615.
  30. Grewal, J. S. (8 October 1998). The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   9780521637640.
  31. "हिन्दी दिवस विशेष: इनके प्रयास से मिला था हिन्दी को राजभाषा का दर्जा". Archived from the original on 11 September 2017.
  32. "Hindi Diwas celebration: How it all began". The Indian Express . 14 September 2016. Archived from the original on 8 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  33. Kothari, Ria, ed. (2011). Chutnefying English: The Phenomenon of Hinglish. Penguin Books India. p. 128. ISBN   9780143416395.
  34. How Hindi became the language of choice in Arunachal Pradesh Archived 11 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  35. "The Constitution of India" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 September 2014.
  36. "Rajbhasha" (PDF) (in Hindi and English). india.gov.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 January 2012.
  37. "THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ACT, 1963 (AS AMENDED, 1967) (Act No. 19 of 1963)". Department of Official Language. Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  38. "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  39. Roy, Anirban (28 February 2018). "Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi make it to list of official languages in". India Today. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  40. "Gujarat High Court order". The Hindu. 25 January 2010. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014.
  41. 1 2 3 "Hindi, Fiji". Ethnologue . Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  42. "Fiji Hindi alphabet, pronunciation and language". www.omniglot.com. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  43. "Section 4 of Fiji Constitution". servat.unibe.ch. Archived from the original on 9 June 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
  44. "Constitution of Fiji". Official site of the Fijian Government. Archived from the original on 11 October 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  45. "Hindi most spoken Indian language in US, Telugu speakers up 86% in 8 years".
  46. "United States- Languages". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  47. 1 2 Frawley, p. 481
  48. "United Kingdom- Languages". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  49. "Hindi and Urdu are classified as literary registers of the same language". Archived from the original on 2 June 2016.
  50. Sin, Sarah J. (2017). Bilingualism in Schools and Society: Language, Identity, and Policy, Second Edition. Routledge. ISBN   9781315535555 . Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  51. Bhatia, Tej K. (1987). A History of the Hindi Grammatical Tradition: Hindi-Hindustani Grammar, Grammarians, History and Problems. Brill. ISBN   9789004079243.
  52. 1 2 Masica, p. 65
  53. Masica, p. 66
  54. Masica, p. 67
  55. Arnold, David; Robb, Peter (2013). Institutions and Ideologies: A SOAS South Asia Reader. Routledge. p. 79. ISBN   9781136102349.
  56. Ohala, Manjari (1983). Aspects of Hindi Phonology. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 38. ISBN   9780895816702.
  57. Arnold, David; Robb, Peter (2013). Institutions and Ideologies: A SOAS South Asia Reader. Routledge. p. 82. ISBN   9781136102349.
  58. Kachru, Yamuna (2006). Hindi. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN   9789027238122.
  59. Bhatia, Tej K.; Ritchie, William C. (2006). The Handbook of Bilingualism. John Wiley and Sons. p. 789. ISBN   9780631227359.
  60. D., S. (10 February 2011). "Arabic and Hindi". The Economist. The Economist. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  61. "Stop outraging over Marathi – Hindi and English chauvinism is much worse in India". Archived from the original on 19 September 2015.
  62. "Hindi content consumption on internet growing at 94%: Google". The Economic Times. 18 August 2015. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2018.

Bibliography

Dictionaries
Further reading
  • Bhatia, Tej K A History of the Hindi Grammatical Tradition. Leiden, Netherlands & New York, NY: E.J. Brill, 1987. ISBN   90-04-07924-6