Hindu calendar

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A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72 Hindu calendar 1871-72.jpg
A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72

The Hindu calendar, Panchanga (Sanskrit : पञ्चाङ्ग) or Panjika is one of various lunisolar calendars that are traditionally used in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, with further regional variations for social and Hindu religious purposes. They adopt a similar underlying concept for timekeeping based on sidereal year for solar cycle and adjustment of lunar cycles in every three years, but differ in their relative emphasis to moon cycle or the sun cycle and the names of months and when they consider the New Year to start. [1] Of the various regional calendars, the most studied and known Hindu calendars are the Shalivahana Shaka (Based on the King Shalivahana, also the Indian national calendar) found in the Deccan region of Southern India and the Vikram Samvat (Bikrami) found in Nepal and the North and Central regions of India – both of which emphasize the lunar cycle. Their new year starts in spring. In regions such as Tamil Nadu and Kerala, the solar cycle is emphasized and this is called the Tamil calendar (Though Tamil Calendar uses month names like in Hindu Calendar) and Malayalam calendar and these have origins in the second half of the 1st millennium CE. [1] [2] A Hindu calendar is sometimes referred to as Panchangam (पञ्चाङ्ग), which is known also known as Panjika in Eastern India. [3]

Contents

The ancient Hindu calendar conceptual design is also found in the Hebrew calendar, the Chinese calendar, and the Babylonian calendar, but different from the Gregorian calendar. [4] Unlike the Gregorian calendar which adds additional days to the month to adjust for the mismatch between twelve lunar cycles (354 lunar days) [5] and nearly 365 solar days, the Hindu calendar maintains the integrity of the lunar month, but inserts an extra full month by complex rules, once every 32–33 months, to ensure that the festivals and crop-related rituals fall in the appropriate season. [4] [2]

The Hindu calendars have been in use in the Indian subcontinent since Vedic times, and remain in use by the Hindus all over the world, particularly to set Hindu festival dates. Early Buddhist communities of India adopted the ancient Vedic calendar, later Vikrami calendar and then local Buddhist calendars. Buddhist festivals continue to be scheduled according to a lunar system. [6] The Buddhist calendar and the traditional lunisolar calendars of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand are also based on an older version of the Hindu calendar. Similarly, the ancient Jain traditions have followed the same lunisolar system as the Hindu calendar for festivals, texts and inscriptions. However, the Buddhist and Jain timekeeping systems have attempted to use the Buddha and the Mahavira's lifetimes as their reference points. [7] [8] [9]

The Hindu calendar is also important to the practice of Hindu astrology and zodiac system as well as observing special appearance days of the Lord and fasting days such as Ekadashi.

Origins

Time keeping

[The current year] minus one,
multiplied by twelve,
multiplied by two,
added to the elapsed [half months of current year],
increased by two for every sixty [in the sun],
is the quantity of half-months (syzygies).

— Rigveda Jyotisha-vedanga 4
Translator: Kim Plofker [10]

The Vedic culture developed a sophisticated time keeping methodology and calendars for Vedic rituals, [11] and timekeeping as well as the nature of solar and moon movements are mentioned in Vedic texts. [12] For example, Kaushitaki Brahmana chapter 19.3 mentions the shift in the relative location of the sun towards north for 6 months, and south for 6 months. [13] [14]

Time keeping was important to Vedic rituals, and Jyotisha was the Vedic era field of tracking and predicting the movements of astronomical bodies in order to keep time, in order to fix the day and time of these rituals. [15] [16] [17] This study is one of the six ancient Vedangas, or ancillary science connected with the Vedas – the scriptures of Vedic Sanatan Sanskriti. [15] [16]

[18] Yukio Ohashi states that this Vedanga field developed from actual astronomical studies in ancient Vedic Period. [19] The texts of Vedic Jyotisha sciences were translated into the Chinese language in the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE, and the Rigvedic passages on astronomy are found in the works of Zhu Jiangyan and Zhi Qian. [20] According to Subhash Kak, the beginning of the Hindu calendar was much earlier. He cites Greek historians describing Maurya kings referring to a calendar which originated in 6676 BCE known as ''Saptarsi'' calendar. [21]

The Vikrami calendar is named after king Vikramaditya and starts in 57 BCE. [22]

Texts

Hindu scholars kept precise time by observing and calculating the cycles of Surya (the sun), moon and the planets. These calculations about the sun appear in various astronomical texts in Sanskrit, such as the 5th-century Aryabhatiya by Aryabhata, the 6th-century Romaka by Latadeva and Panca Siddhantika by Varahamihira, the 7th-century Khandakhadyaka by Brahmagupta and the 8th-century Sisyadhivrddida by Lalla. [23] These texts present Surya and various planets and estimate the characteristics of the respective planetary motion. [23] Other texts such as Surya Siddhanta dated to have been completed sometime between the 5th century and 10th century present their chapters on various deified planets with stories behind them. [23]

The manuscripts of these texts exist in slightly different versions. They present Surya, planet-based calculations and Surya's relative motion to earth. These vary in their data, suggesting that the text were open and revised over their lives. [24] [25] [26] For example, the 1st millennium CE Hindu scholars calculated the sidereal length of a year as follows, from their astronomical studies, with slightly different results: [27]

Length of year in various Sanskrit texts
Hindu textEstimated length of the sidereal year [27]
Surya Siddhanta 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, 36.56 seconds
Paulica Siddhanta365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, 36 seconds
Paracara Siddhanta365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, 31.50 seconds
Arya Siddhanta365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, 30.84 seconds
Laghu Arya Siddhanta365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, 30 seconds
Siddhanta Shiromani 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, 9 seconds

The Hindu texts used the lunar cycle for setting months and days, but the solar cycle to set the complete year. This system is similar to the Jewish and Babylonian ancient calendars, creating the same challenge of accounting for the mismatch between the nearly 354 lunar days in twelve months, versus over 365 solar days in a year. [4] [28] They tracked the solar year by observing the entrance and departure of Surya (sun, at sunrise and sunset) in the constellation formed by stars in the sky, which they divided into 12 intervals of 30 degrees each. [29] Like other ancient human cultures, Hindus innovated a number of systems of which intercalary months became most used, that is adding another month every 32.5 months on average. [28] As their calendar keeping and astronomical observations became more sophisticated, the Hindu calendar became more sophisticated with complex rules and greater accuracy. [28] [30] [29]

According to Scott Montgomery, the Siddhanta tradition at the foundation of Hindu calendars predate the Christian era, once had 18 texts of which only 5 have survived into the modern era. [28] These texts provide specific information and formulae on motions of sun, moon and planets, to predict their future relative positions, equinoxes, rise and set, with corrections for prograde, retrograde motions, as well as parallax. These ancient scholars attempted to calculate their time to the accuracy of a truti (29.63 microseconds). In their pursuit of accurate tracking of relative movements of celestial bodies for their calendar, they had computed the mean diameter of the earth, which was very close to the actual 12,742 km (7,918 mi). [28] [29]

Hindu calendars were refined during the Gupta era astronomy by Āryabhaṭa and Varāhamihira in the 5th to 6th century. These, in turn, were based in the astronomical tradition of Vedāṅga Jyotiṣa , which in the preceding centuries had been standardised in a number of (non-extant) works known as Sūrya Siddhānta . Regional diversification took place in the medieval period. The astronomical foundations were further developed in the medieval period, notably by Bhāskara II (12th century).[ citation needed ]

Astrology

Later, the term Jyotisha evolved to include Hindu astrology. The astrological application of the Hindu calendar was a field that likely developed in the centuries after the arrival of Greek astrology with Alexander the Great, [19] [31] [32] because their zodiac signs are nearly identical. [16] [33]

The ancient Hindu texts on Jyotisha only discuss timekeeping, and never mention astrology or prophecy. [34] These ancient texts predominantly cover astronomy, but at a rudimentary level. [17] Later medieval era texts such as the Yavana-jataka and the Siddhanta texts are more astrology-related. [35]

Balinese Hindu calendar

Hinduism and Buddhism were the prominent religions of southeast Asia in the 1st millennium CE, prior to the Islamic conquest that started in the 14th century. The Hindus prevailed in Bali, Indonesia, and they have two types of Hindu calendar. One is a 210-day based Pawukon calendar which likely is a pre-Hindu system, and another is similar to lunisolar calendar system found in South India and it is called the Balinese saka calendar which uses Hindu methodology. [36] The names of month and festivals of Balinese Hindus, for the most part, are different, though the significance and legends have some overlap. [36]

Astronomical basis

The Hindu calendar is based on a geocentric model of the solar system. A large part of this calendar is defined based on the movement of the sun and the moon around the earth (saura māna and cāndra māna respectively). Furthermore, it includes synodic, sidereal, and tropical elements. Many variants of the Hindu calendar have been created by including and excluding these elements (solar, lunar, lunisolar etc.) and are in use in different parts of India.

Elements of the Hindu calendar
synodic elementssidereal elementstropical elements
saura māna rāśi, sauramāsa, varṣa uttarāyaṇa, dakṣiṇāyana, devayāna, pitṛyāṇa, ṛtu
cāndra māna tithi, pakṣa, candramāsa, varṣa
nākṣatra māna dina, ghaṭikā (aka nāḍī), vighaṭikā (aka vināḍī), prāṇa (aka asu)
sāvana māna dina

Year: Samvat

Samvat refers to era of the several Hindu calendar systems in Nepal and India, in a similar manner to the Christian era. There are several samvat found in historic Buddhist, Hindu and Jaina texts and epigraphy, of which three are most significant: Vikrama era, Old Shaka era and Shaka era of 78 AD. [37]

The Hindu calendar saka samvat system is found in Indonesian inscriptions, such as the Kedukan Bukit inscription (pictured above) dated to 604 Saka, which is equivalent to 682 CE. KedukanBukit001.jpg
The Hindu calendar saka samvat system is found in Indonesian inscriptions, such as the Kedukan Bukit inscription (pictured above) dated to 604 Śaka, which is equivalent to 682 CE.

Months

Solar month and seasons

The Hindu calendar divides the zodiac into twelve division called rāśi. The time taken by the Sun to transit through a rāśi is a solar month whose name is identical to the name of the rāśi. In practice, solar months are mostly referred as rāśi (not months).

The solar months are named differently in different regional calendars. While the Malayalam calendar broadly retains the phonetic Sanskrit names, the Bengali and Tamil calendars repurpose the Sanskrit lunar month names (Chaitra, Vaishaka etc.) as follows:

The solar months (rāśi) along with their equivalent names in the Bangali, Malayalam and Tamil calendar are given below:

Solar month names in different Hindu calendars
#Vikrami
(solar)
AssameseBengaliMalayalamOdiaTamilTeluguTuluGregorian
1Minaচ’ত (Söt)চৈত্র (Choitrô)മീനം (Mīnaṃ)ଚୈତ୍ର (Caitra)பங்குனி (Paṅguṉi)చైత్రం (Caitraṃ)SuggiMarch–April
2Mēshaব’হাগ (Böhag)বৈশাখ (Boiśākh)മേടം (Mēḍaṃ)ବୈଶାଖ (Baiśākha)சித்திரை (Śittirai)వైశాఖం (Vaiśākhaṃ)PagguApril–May
3Vrishaজেঠ (Zeth)জ্যৈষ্ঠ (Jyoisthô)ഇടവം (Iḍavaṃ)ଜ୍ୟେଷ୍ଠ (Jyēṣṭha)வைகாசி (Vaigāsi)జ్యేష్ఠం (Jyēṣṭhaṃ)BeshyaMay–June
4Mithunaআহাৰ (Ahar)আষাঢ় (Āsādh)മിഥുനം (Mithunaṃ)ଆଷାଢ଼ (Āṣāḍha)ஆனி (Āṉi)ఆషాడం (Āṣāḍhaṃ)KaarthelJune–July
5Karkaশাওণ (Xaün)শ্রাবণ (Śrābôṇ)കർക്കടകം (Karkkaṭakam)ଶ୍ରାବଣ (Śrābaṇa)ஆடி (Āḍi)శ్రావణం (Śrāvaṇaṃ)AatiJuly–August
6Singaভাদ (Bhado)ভাদ্র (Bhādrô)ചിങ്ങം (Ciṅṅaṃ)ଭାଦ୍ରବ (Bhādraba)

or

ଭାଦ୍ର (Bhādra)

ஆவணி (Āvaṇi)భాద్రపదం (Bhādrapadaṃ)SōnaAugust–September
7Kanyaআহিন (Ahin)আশ্বিন (Āśhshin)കന്നി (Kanni)ଆଶ୍ୱିନ (Āśvina)புரட்டாசி (Puraṭṭāsi)ఆశ్వయుజం (Āśvayujam)NirnaalSeptember–October
8Tulaকাতি (Kati)কার্তিক (Kārtik)തുലാം (Tulāṃ)କାର୍ତ୍ତିକ (Kārttika)ஐப்பசி (Aippasi)కార్తీకం (Kārtīkaṃ)BonthelOctober–November
9Vrischikaআঘোণ (Aghün)অগ্রহায়ণ (Ôgrôhāyôn)വൃശ്ചികം (Vr̥ścikaṃ)ମାର୍ଗଶିର (Mārgaśira)கார்த்திகை (Kārttigai)మార్గశిరం (Mārgaśiraṃ)JaardeNovember–December
10Dhanusপোহ (Puh)পৌষ (Poush)ധനു (Dhanu)ପୌଷ (Pauṣa)மார்கழி (Mārgaḻi)పుష్యం (Puṣyaṃ)PerardeDecember–January
11Makaraমাঘ (Magh)মাঘ (Māgh)മകരം (Makaram)ମାଘ (Māgha)தை

(Tai)

మాఘం (Māghaṃ)PuyinthelJanuary–February
12Kumbhaফাগুন (Phagun)ফাল্গুন (Phālgun)കുംഭം (Kumbham)ଫାଲ୍‌ଗୁନ (Phālguna)

or

ଫଗୁଣ (Phaguṇa)

மாசி

(Māsi)

ఫాల్గుణం (Phālguṇaṃ)MaayiFebruary–March

The solar months (rāśi) along with the approximate correspondence to Hindu seasons and Gregorian months are: [29]

Rāśi Sidereal signs Gregorian
months [30]
Ṛtu
(season)
Ṛtu in Devanagari scriptBengali name for Ṛtu Gujarati name for Ṛtu Kannada name for Ṛtu Kashmiri name for Ṛtu Malayalam name for Ṛtu Odia name for Ṛtu Tamil name for Ṛtu Telugu name for Ṛtu Tibetan name for Ṛtu Kalachakra tantra Tibetan-name for Ṛtu
Mīna

Mesh

Mid March–

Mid May

Vasanta

(Spring)

वसन्तবসন্ত (Bôsôntô)વસંત ઋતુ (Vasaṃta r̥tu)ವಸಂತ ಋತು (Vasaṃta Ṛtu)سونٛتھ

[sõ:tʰ]

വസന്തം‌ (Vasaṃtam)ବସନ୍ତ (Basanta)இளவேனில் (ilavenil)వసంత ఋతువు (Vasaṃta Ṛtuvu)དཔྱིད་ར་བ་དང་དཔྱིད་བར་མ (shid rawa, thang, shid warma)དཔྱིད་ཀ (shid ka)
Vṛṣabha

Mithuna

Mid May–

Mid July

Grīṣma

(Summer)

ग्रीष्मগ্রীষ্ম (Grishsho)ગ્રીષ્મ ઋતુ (Grīṣma r̥tu)ಗ್ರೀಷ್ಮ ಋತು (Grīṣma Ṛtu)گرٛێشِم

[greʃim]

ഗ്രീഷ്മം (Grīṣmam)ଗ୍ରୀଷ୍ମ (Grīṣma)முதுவேனில் (mudhuvenil)గ్రీష్మ ఋతువు (Grīṣma Ṛtuvu)དཔྱིད་ཐ་མ་དང་དབྱར་ར་བ། (shid dama, thang, yar rawa)སོ་ག(soga)
Karkaṭa

Siṃha

Mid July–

Mid Sep

Varṣā

(Monsoon)

वर्षाবর্ষা (Bôrsha)વર્ષા ઋતુ (Varṣa r̥tu)ವರ್ಷ ಋತು (Varṣa Ṛtu)ؤہراتھ

[wəhraːtʰ]

വര്‍ഷം‌ (Varṣām)ବର୍ଷା (Barṣā)கார் (kaar)వర్ష ఋతువు (Varṣa Ṛtuvu)དབྱར་བར་མ་དང་དབྱར་ཐ་མ (yarwarma, thang, yardama)དབྱར་ག (yarka)
Kanyā

Tulā

Mid Sep–

Mid Nov

Śarad

(Autumn)

शरद्শরৎ(Shôrôt)શરદ ઋતુ (Śarad r̥tu)ಶರದೃತು (Śaradṛtu)ہَرُد

[harud]

ശരത്‌ (Śarat)ଶରତ (Śarata)குளிர் (kulir)శరదృతువు (Śaradṛtuvu)སྟོན་ར་བ་དང་སྟོན་བར་མ (ston rawa, thang, ston warma)སྟོན་ཁ (stonka)
Vṛścika

Dhanu

Mid Nov–

Mid Jan

Hemanta

(Pre-Winter)

हेमन्तহেমন্ত (Hemôntô)હેમંત ઋતુ (Hēmaṃta r̥tu)ಹೇಮಂತ ಋತು (Hēmaṃta Ṛtu)وَنٛدٕ

[wandɨ]

ഹേമന്തം‌ (Hemantam)ହେମନ୍ତ (Hemanta)முன்பனி (munpani)హేమంత ఋతువు (Hēmaṃta Ṛtuvu)སྟོན་ཐ་མ་དང་དགུན་ར་བ (ston da ma, thang, dgun rawa)དགུན་སྟོད (dgun stod)
Makara

Kumbha

Mid Jan–

Mid March

Śiśira

(Winter)

शिशिरশীত (Śeet)શિશિર ઋતુ (Śiśira r̥tu)ಶಿಶಿರ ಋತು (Śiśira Ṛtu)شِشُر

[ʃiʃur]

ശിശിരം‌ (Śiśiram)ଶୀତ/ଶିଶିର (Śīta/Śiśira)பின்பனி (pinpani)శిశిర ఋతువు (Śiśira Ṛtuvu)དགུན་བར་མ་དང་དགུན་ཐ་མ (dgun warma, thang, dgun dama)དགུན་སྨད (dgun smad)

The names of the solar months are also used in the Darian calendar for the planet Mars.

Lunar months

Lunar months are defined based on lunar cycles, i.e. the regular occurrence of new moon and full moon and the intervening waxing and waning phases of the moon.

Paksha

A lunar month contains two fortnights called pakṣa (पक्ष, literally "side"). [2] One fortnight is the bright, waxing half where the moon size grows and it ends in the full moon. This is called "Gaura Paksha" or Shukla Paksha. [45] The other half is the darkening, waning fortnight which ends in the new moon. This is called "Vadhya Paksha" or Krishna Paksha. [2] The Hindu festivals typically are either on or the day after the full moon night or the darkest night (amavasya, अमावास्या), except for some associated with Krishna, Durga or Rama. The lunar months of the hot summer and the busy major cropping-related part of the monsoon season typically do not schedule major festivals. [46]

Amanta and Purnimanta systems

Map of regions in India using Hindu solar (orange),Lunar Amanta (blue), and Lunar Purnimanta(red) Calendars India Calendars.png
Map of regions in India using Hindu solar (orange),Lunar Amanta (blue), and Lunar Purnimanta(red) Calendars

Two traditions have been followed in the Indian subcontinent with respect to lunar months: the amanta tradition, which ends the lunar month on new moon day (similar to the Islamic calendar) and the purnimanta tradition, which ends it on full moon day. [47] As a consequence, in the amanta tradition, Shukla paksha precedes Krishna paksha in every lunar month, whereas in the purnimanta tradition, Krishna paksha precedes Shukla paksha in every lunar month. As a result, a Shukla paksha will always belong to the same month in both traditions, whereas a Krishna paksha will always be associated with different (but succeeding) months in each tradition.

Variations in the naming of lunar months
Krishna PakshaShukla PakshaKrishna Paksha
AmantaPhalgunaChaitra
PurnimantaChaitraVaishaka

The amanta (also known as Amavasyanta or Mukhyamana) tradition is followed by most Indian states that have a peninsular coastline (except Assam, West Bengal, Odisha, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, which use their own solar calendars). These states are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Nepal and most Indian states north of the Vindhya mountains follow the purnimanta (or Gaunamana) tradition.

The purnimanta tradition was being followed in the Vedic era. It was replaced with the amanta tradition as the Hindu calendar system prior to the 1st century BCE, but the Purnimanta tradition was restored in 57 BCE by Vikramaditya, who wanted to return to the Vedic roots. [47] The presence of this system is one of the factors considered in dating ancient Indian manuscripts and epigraphical evidence that have survived into the modern era. [47] [48]

The two traditions of Amanta and Purnimanta systems have led to alternate ways of dating any festival or event that occurs in a Krishna paksha in the historic Hindu, Buddhist or Jain literature, and contemporary regional literature or festival calendars. For example, the Hindu festival of Maha Shivaratri falls on the fourteenth lunar day of Magha's Krishna paksha in the Amanta system, while the same exact day is expressed as the fourteenth lunar day of Phalguna's Krishna paksha in the Purnimanta system. [49] Both lunisolar calendar systems are equivalent ways of referring to the same date, and they continue to be in use in different regions, though the Purnimanta system is now typically assumed as implied in modern Indology literature if not otherwise specified. [30] [29]

List of Lunar Months

The names of the Hindu months vary by region. Those Hindu calendars which are based on lunar cycle are generally phonetic variants of each other, while the solar cycle are generally variants of each other too, suggesting that the timekeeping knowledge travelled widely across the Indian subcontinent in ancient times. [1] [29]

During each lunar month, the Sun transits into a sign of the zodicac (sankranti). The lunar month in which the Sun transits into Mesha is named Chaitra and designated as the first month of the lunar year.

A few major calendars are summarized below:

Lunar calendar month names in different Hindu calendars [1]
#Vikrami
(lunar) [30]
SankrantiHindi/
Marathi
KannadaKashmiriMaithiliMeitei (Manipuri)NepaliPunjabiSindhiTeluguTuluTibetanGregorian
1 Chaitra Mēshaचैत्रಚೈತ್ರ (Chaitra)ژِتھٕر[t͡sitʰɨr]

or

ژٕتھٕر[t͡sɨtʰɨr]

𑒔𑒻𑒞𑒱 (Chait)ꯂꯝꯇꯥ (Lamta)चैत

(Chait)

ਚੇਤ

(Chēt)

چيٽُ‎ (Chēṭu)చైత్రము

(Chaitramu)

Suggiནག་པ་ཟླ་བMarch–April
2 Vaisākha Vrishaवैशाखವೈಶಾಖ (Vaisākha)وَہؠکھ[wahʲakʰ]

or

بیساکھ[beːsaːkʰ]

𑒥𑒻𑒮𑒰𑒐 (Baishakh)ꯁꯖꯤꯕꯨ (Sajibu)वैशाख

(Baishākh)

ਵਸਾਖ

(Vasākh)

ويساکُ‎ (Vēsāku)

or

وِهاءُ‎ (Vihāu)

వైశాఖము

(Vaiśākhamu)

Pagguས་ག་ཟླ་བApril–May
3 Jyeshta Mithunaज्येष्ठಜ್ಯೇಷ್ಠ (Jyeshta)زیٹھ

[zeːʈʰ]

𑒖𑒹𑒚 (Jeth)ꯀꯥꯂꯦꯟ (Kalen)जेठ

(Jēṭh)

ਜੇਠ

(Jēṭh)

ڄيٺُ (Jēṭhu)జ్యేష్ఠము

(Jyēsṭhamu)

Bēshaསྣྲོན་ཟླ་བMay–June
4 Āshāda Karkaआषाढ़ / आषाढಆಷಾಢ (Āshāda)ہار

[haːr]

𑒁𑒮𑒰𑒜𑓃 (Asadh)ꯏꯉꯥ (Eenga)असार

(Asār)

ਹਾੜ੍ਹ

(Hāṛh)

آکاڙُ‎ (Ākhāṛu)

or

آهاڙُ‎ (Āhāṛu)

ఆషాఢము

(Āṣāḍhamu)

Kārtelཆུ་སྟོད་ཟླ་བJune–July
5 Shraavana Singaश्रावणಶ್ರಾವಣ (Shrāvana)شرٛاوُن

[ʃraːwun]

𑒮𑒰𑒍𑒢 (Saon)ꯏꯉꯦꯟ (Eengen)साउन

(Sāun)

ਸਾਓਣ

(Sāoṇ)

سانوَڻُ (Sānvaṇu)శ్రావణము

(Śrāvaṇamu)

Aaṭiགྲོ་བཞིན་ཟླ་བJuly–August
6 Bhādra Kanyaभाद्र / भाद्रपदಭಾದ್ರಪದ (Bhādrapada)بٲدٕرپؠتھ[bəːdɨrpʲatʰ]

or

بٲدرؠتھ[bəːdrʲatʰ]

or

بٲدٕر[bəːdɨr]

𑒦𑒰𑒠𑒼 (Bhado)ꯊꯧꯋꯥꯟ (Thouwan)भदौ

(Bhadau)

ਭਾਦੋਂ (Bhādōn)

or

ਭਾਦਰੋਂ (Bhādrōn)

بَڊو‎ (Baḍo)

or

بَڊرو (Baḍro)

భద్రపదము (Bhadrapadamu)Sonaཁྲིམས་སྟོད་ཟླ་བAugust–September
7 Ashwina Tulaआश्विनಆಶ್ವಯುಜ (Āswayuja)ٲشِد

[əːʃid]

𑒂𑒮𑒱𑒢 (Aasin)ꯂꯥꯡꯕꯟ (Langban)असोज

(Asoj)

ਅੱਸੂ

(Assū)

اَسُو (Asū)ఆశ్వయుజము (Āśvayujamu)Kanya/Nirnālཐ་སྐར་ཟླ་བSeptember–October
8 Kartika Vrischikaकार्तिकಕಾರ್ತೀಕ (Kārtika)کارتِکھ

[kaːrtikʰ]

𑒏𑒰𑒞𑒱𑒏 (Katik)ꯃꯦꯔꯥ (Mera)कात्तिक

(Kāttik)

ਕੱਤਕ

(Kattak)

ڪَتِي (Katī)కార్తికము (Kārtikamu)Bontelསྨིན་དྲུག་ཟླ་བOctober–November
9Mārgasirsa
(Agrahayana)
Dhanusमार्गशीर्षಮಾರ್ಗಶಿರ (Mārgasira)مَنٛجہۆر[mand͡ʒhor]

or

مۄنٛجہِ ہور[mɔnd͡ʒihoːr]

or

مَگَر[magar]

𑒁𑒑𑒯𑒢 (Agahan)ꯍꯤꯌꯥꯡꯀꯩ (Heeyangkei)मंसिर

(Mangsir)

ਮੱਘਰ (Magghar)ناهرِي (Nāhrī)

or

مَنگهِرُ‎ (Manghiru)

మార్గశిరము(Mārgaśiramu)Jārdeམགོ་ཟླ་བNovember–December
10 Pausha Makaraपौषಪುಷ್ಯ (Pushya)پوہ[poːh]

or

پۄہ[pɔh]

𑒣𑒴𑒮 (Poos)ꯄꯣꯢꯅꯨ (Poinu)पुष

(Puṣ)

ਪੋਹ

(Poh)

پوهُه (Pohu)పుష్యము(Puṣyamu)Perardeརྒྱལ་ཟླ་བDecember–January
11 Māgha Kumbhaमाघಮಾಘ (Magha)ماگ

[maːg]

𑒧𑒰𑒒 (Magh)ꯋꯥꯛꯆꯤꯡ (Wakching)माघ

(Magh)

ਮਾਘ

(Māgh)

مانگھُه (Mānghu)మాఘము(Māghamu)Puyintelམཆུ་ཟླ་བJanuary–February
12 Phālguna Minaफाल्गुण / फाल्गुनಫಾಲ್ಗುಣ (Phalguna)پھاگُن

[pʰaːgun]

𑒤𑒰𑒑𑒳𑒢 (Fagun)ꯐꯥꯢꯔꯦꯜ (Fairel)फागुन

(Phagun)

ਫੱਗਣ

(Phaggaṇ)

ڦَڳُڻُ (Phaguṇu)ఫాల్గుణము (Phālguṇamu)Māyiདབོ་ཟླ་བFebruary–March

Corrections between lunar and solar months

The astronomical basis of the Hindu lunar months. Also illustrates Adhika Masa (Year 2-Bhadrapada) repeats; the first time the Sun moves entirely within Simha Rashi thus rendering it an Adhika Masa

Twelve Hindu mas (māsa, lunar month) are equal to approximately 354 days, while the length of a sidereal (solar) year is about 365 days. This creates a difference of about eleven days, which is offset every (29.53/10.63) = 2.71 years, or approximately every 32.5 months. [28] Purushottam Maas or Adhik Maas is an extra month that is inserted to keep the lunar and solar calendars aligned. The twelve months are subdivided into six lunar seasons timed with the agriculture cycles, blooming of natural flowers, fall of leaves, and weather. To account for the mismatch between lunar and solar calendar, the Hindu scholars adopted intercalary months, where a particular month just repeated. The choice of this month was not random, but timed to sync back the two calendars to the cycle of agriculture and nature. [28] [29]

The repetition of a month created the problem of scheduling festivals, weddings and other social events without repetition and confusion. This was resolved by declaring one month as Shudha (pure, clean, regular, proper, also called Deva month) and the other Mala or Adhika (extra, unclean and inauspicious, also called Asura masa). [50]

The Hindu mathematicians who calculated the best way to adjust the two years, over long periods of a yuga (era, tables calculating 1000 of years), they determined that the best means to intercalate the months is to time the intercalary months on a 19-year cycle. This intercalation is generally adopted in the 3rd, 5th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 16th and 19th year of this cycle. Further, the complex rules rule out the repetition of Mārgasirsa (also called Agrahayana), Pausha and Maagha lunar months. The historic Hindu texts are not consistent on these rules, with competing ideas flourishing in the Hindu culture. [51]

Rare corrections

The Hindu calendar makes further rare adjustments, over a cycle of centuries, where a certain month is considered kshaya month (dropped). This occurs because of the complexity of the relative lunar, solar and earth movements. Underhill (1991) describes this part of Hindu calendar theory: "when the sun is in perigee, and a lunar month being at its longest, if the new moon immediately precedes a samkranti, then the first of the two lunar months is deleted (called nija or kshaya)." This, for example, happened in the year 1 BCE, when there was no new moon between Makara samkranti and Kumbha samkranti, and the month of Pausha was dropped. [52]

Day

Just like months, the Hindu calendar has two measures of a day, one based on the lunar movement and the other on solar. The solar ( saura ) day or civil day, called divasa (दिवस), has been what most Hindus traditionally use, is easy and empirical to observe, with or without a clock, and it is defined as the period from one sunrise to another. The lunar day is called tithi (तिथि), and this is based on complicated measures of lunar movement. A lunar day or tithi may, for example, begin in the middle of an afternoon and end next afternoon. [53] Both these days do not directly correspond to a mathematical measure for a day such as equal 24 hours of a solar year, a fact that the Hindu calendar scholars knew, but the system of divasa was convenient for the general population. The tithi have been the basis for timing rituals and festivals, while divasa for everyday use. The Hindu calendars adjust the mismatch in divasa and tithi, using a methodology similar to the solar and lunar months. [54]

A tithi is technically defined in Vedic texts, states John E. Cort, as "the time required by the combined motions of the sun and moon to increase (in a bright fortnight) or decrease (in a dark fortnight) their relative distance by twelve degrees of the zodiac. [55] These motions are measured using a fixed map of celestial zodiac as reference, and given the elliptical orbits, a duration of a tithi varies between 21.5 and 26 hours, states Cort. [55] However, in the Indian tradition, the general population's practice has been to treat a tithi as a solar day between one sunrise to next. [55]

A lunar month has 30 tithi. The technical standard makes each tithi contain different number of hours, but helps the overall integrity of the calendar. Given the variation in the length of a solar day with seasons, and moon's relative movements, the start and end time for tithi varies over the seasons and over the years, and the tithi adjusted to sync with divasa periodically with intercalation. [56]

Weekday/Vāsara

Vāsara refers to the weekdays in Sanskrit. [57] Also referred to as Vara and used as a suffix. [44] The correspondence between the names of the week in Hindu and other Indo-European calendars are exact. This alignment of names probably took place sometime during the 3rd century CE. [58] [59] The weekday of a Hindu calendar has been symmetrically divided into 60 ghatika, each ghatika (24 minutes) is divided into 60 pala, each pala (24 seconds) is subdivided into 60 vipala, and so on. [58]

Names of the weekdays in different languages
No. Sanskrit [58] [59] Latin weekdayCelestial object Assamese Bengali Bhojpuri Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Malayalam Maithili Marathi Meitei
(Manipuri)
Nepali Odia Punjabi
(Hindus and Sikhs) [note 1]
Sindhi Sylheti Tamil Telugu Urdu Balinese Cham
1 Ravi vāsara
रविवासर or
Aditya vāsara
आदित्य वासर
Sunday/dies Solis Ravi, Aditya = Sun Dêûbār/Rôbibār
দেওবাৰ/ৰবিবাৰ
Rôbibār
রবিবার
Aitwār
अतवार
Ravivār
રવિવાર
Ravivār
रविवार
Bhānuvāra
ಭಾನುವಾರ
[aːtʰwaːr] آتھوار Āytār
आयतार
Njaayar
ഞായർ
Ravidin
𑒩𑒫𑒱𑒠𑒱𑒢
Ravivāra
रविवार
Nongmaijing
ꯅꯣꯡꯃꯥꯏꯖꯤꯡ
Aaitabar
आइतवार
Rabibāra
ରବିବାର
Aitvār
ਐਤਵਾਰ
Ācharu

آچَرُ

or

Ārtv ār u

آرتوارُ‎

Rôibbār

ꠞꠂꠛ꠆ꠛꠣꠞ

Nyayiru
ஞாயிறு
Ādivāraṁ
ఆదివారం
Itvār
اتوار
Redite
ᬋᬤᬶᬢᭂ
Adit
2 Soma vāsara
सोमवासर or
Indu vāsara
इन्दु वासर
Monday/dies Lunae Soma (deity), Chandra = Moon Xûmbār
সোমবাৰ
Śombār
সোমবার
Somār
सोमार
Sōmavār
સોમવાર
Somavār
सोमवार
Sōmavāra
ಸೋಮವಾರ
[t͡səndrɨwaːr]
ژٔنٛدرٕوار
Somaar
सोमार
Thinkal
തിങ്കൾ
Somdin
𑒮𑒼𑒧𑒠𑒱𑒢
Somavāra
सोमवार
Ningthoukaba
ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧꯀꯥꯕ
Sombar
सोमवार
Somabāra
ସୋମବାର
Somavār
ਸੋਮਵਾਰ
Sūmaru

سُومَرُ

Śombār
ꠡꠝ꠆ꠛꠣꠞ
Thingal
திங்கள்
Sōmavāraṁ
సోమవారం
Somvār
سوموار

or

Pīr
پیر

Soma
ᬲᭀᬫ
Thom
3 Maṅgala vāsara
मङ्गलवासर or
Bhaumavāsara
भौम वासर
Tuesday/dies Martis Maṅgala = Mars Môṅôlbār/Môṅgôlbār
মঙলবাৰ/মঙ্গলবাৰ
Môṅgôlbār
মঙ্গলবার
Mangar
मंगर
Maṅgaḷavār
મંગળવાર
Maṅgalavār
मंगलवार
Maṁgaḷavāra
ಮಂಗಳವಾರ
[boːmwaːr]

بوموار

or

[bɔ̃waːr]

بۄنٛوار

Mangaḷār
मंगळार
Chovva
ചൊവ്വ
Maṅgaldin
𑒧𑓀𑒑𑒪𑒠𑒱𑒢
Maṅgaḷavāra
मंगळवार
Leipakpokpa
ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛꯄꯣꯛꯄ
Mangalbar
मङ्गलवार
Maṅgaḷabāra
ମଙ୍ଗଳବାର
Maṅgalavār
ਮੰਗਲਵਾਰ
Mangalu

مَنگلُ

or

Angāro

اَنڱارو

Môṅgôlbār
ꠝꠋꠉꠟ꠆ꠛꠣꠞ
Chevvai
செவ்வாய்
Maṁgaḷavāraṁ
మంగళవారం
Mangal
منگل
Anggara
ᬳᬂᬕᬭ
Angar
4 Budha vāsara
बुधवासर or
Saumya vāsara
सौम्य वासर
Wednesday/dies Mercurii Budha = Mercury Budhbār
বুধবাৰ
Budhbār
বুধবার
Buddh
बुध
Budhavār
બુધવાર
Budhavāra
बुधवार
Budhavāra
ಬುಧವಾರ
[bɔdwaːr]

بۄدوار

Budhavār
बुधवार
Budhan
ബുധൻ
Budhdin
𑒥𑒳𑒡𑒠𑒱𑒢
Budhavāra
बुधवार
Yumsakeisa
ꯌꯨꯝꯁꯀꯩꯁ
Budhabar
बुधवार
Budhabāra
ବୁଧବାର
Buddhavār
ਬੁੱਧਵਾਰ
Budharu

ٻُڌَرُ

or

Arbā

اَربع

Budbār
ꠛꠥꠗ꠆ꠛꠣꠞ
Budhan
புதன்
Budhavāraṁ
బుధవారం
Budh
بدھ
Buda
ᬩᬸᬤ
But
5 Guru vāsara
गुरुवासर
or
Brhaspati vāsara
बृहस्पतिवासर
Thursday/dies Iovis/Jupiter Deva-Guru Bṛhaspati = Jupiter Brihôspôtibār
বৃহস্পতিবাৰ
Brihôśpôtibār
বৃহস্পতিবার
Bi'phey
बियफे
Guruvār
ગુરુવાર
Guruvār
गुरुवार

or
Brihaspativāra
बृहस्पतिवार

Guruvāra
ಗುರುವಾರ
[braswaːr]

برَٛسوار

or

[brʲaswaːr] برٛؠسوار

Birestār
बिरेस्तार
Vyaazham
വ്യാഴം
Brihaspatidin
𑒥𑒵𑒯𑒮𑓂𑒣𑒞𑒲𑒠𑒱𑒢
Guruvāra
गुरुवार
Sagolsen
ꯁꯒꯣꯜꯁꯦꯟ
Bihibar
बिहीवार
Gurubāra
ଗୁରୁବାର
Vīravār
ਵੀਰਵਾਰ
Vispati

وِسپَتِ‎

or

Khamīsa

خَميِسَ‎

Birôiśôtbār
ꠛꠤꠡꠥꠗꠛꠣꠞ
Vyazhan
வியாழன்
Guruvāraṁ, Br̥haspativāraṁ
గురువారం, బృహస్పతివారం, లక్ష్మీవారం
Gurūvār
گرووار

or

Jume'rāt
جمعرات

Wrespati
ᬯ᭄ᬭᭂᬲ᭄ᬧᬢᬶ
Jip
6 Śukra vāsara
शुक्रवासर
Friday/dies Veneris Śukra = Venus Xukurbār/Xukrôbār
শুকুৰবাৰ/শুক্রবাৰ
Śukrôbār
শুক্রবার
Sukkar
सुक्कर
Śukravār
શુક્રવાર
Śukravār
शुक्रवार
Śukravāra
ಶುಕ್ರವಾರ
[ʃokurwaːr]

شۆکُروار

or

[jumaːh]

جُمعہ

Shukrār
शुक्रार
Velli
വെള്ളി
Śukradin
𑒬𑒳𑒏𑓂𑒩𑒠𑒱𑒢
Śukravāra
शुक्रवार
Eerai
ꯏꯔꯥꯢ
Sukrabar
शुक्रवार
Sukrabāra
ଶୁକ୍ରବାର
Śukkaravār
ਸ਼ੁੱਕਰਵਾਰ
Śukru

شُڪرُ

or

Jum'o

جُمعو

Śukkurbār
ꠡꠥꠇ꠆ꠇꠥꠞ꠆ꠛꠣꠞ/ꠎꠥꠝ꠆ꠝꠣꠛꠣꠞ
Velli
வெள்ளி
Śukravāraṁ
శుక్రవారం
Śukarvār
شکروار

or Juma'a
جمع

Sukra
ᬲᬸᬓ᭄ᬭ
Suk
7 Śani vāsara
शनिवासर

Or Śaniścaravāsara शनिश्चरवासर

Saturday/dies Saturnis Śani = Saturn Xônibār
শনিবাৰ
Śônibār
শনিবার
Sanichchar
सनिच्चर
Śanivār
શનિવાર
Śanivār
शनिवार
Śanivāra
ಶನಿವಾರ
[baʈɨwaːr]

بَٹہٕ وار

Shenvār
शेनवार
Shani
ശനി
Śanidin
𑒬𑒢𑒲𑒠𑒱𑒢
Śanivāra
शनिवार
Thangja
ꯊꯥꯡꯖ
Sanibar
शनिवार
Sanibāra
ଶନିବାର
Śanīvār
ਸ਼ਨੀਵਾਰ

or
Śaniccharvār
ਸ਼ਨਿੱਚਰਵਾਰ

or
Saniccharvār
ਸਨਿੱਚਰਵਾਰ

or
Sanīvār
ਸਨੀਵਾਰ

Chancharu

ڇَنڇَرُ‎

or

Śanscharu

شَنسچَرُ

Śônibār
ꠡꠘꠤꠛꠣꠞ
Shani
சனி
Śanivāraṁ
శనివారం
Sanīchar
سنیچر

or Haftah
ہفتہ

Saniscara
ᬲᬦᬶᬲ᭄ᬘᬭ
Thanchar
  1. Punjabi Muslims use Urdu/Arabic words for Friday / Saturday etc. [60]

The term -vāsara is often realised as vāra or vaar in Sanskrit-derived and influenced languages. There are many variations of the names in the regional languages, mostly using alternate names of the celestial bodies involved.

Five limbs of time

The complete Vedic calendars contain five angas or parts of information: lunar day (tithi), solar day (diwas), asterism (naksatra), planetary joining (yoga) and astronomical period (karanam). This structure gives the calendar the name Panchangam. [44] The first two are discussed above.

Yoga

The Sanskrit word Yoga means "union, joining, attachment", but in astronomical context, this word means latitudinal and longitudinal information. The longitude of the sun and the longitude of the moon are added, and normalised to a value ranging between 0° to 360° (if greater than 360, one subtracts 360). This sum is divided into 27 parts. Each part will now equal 800' (where ' is the symbol of the arcminute which means 1/60 of a degree). These parts are called the yogas. They are labelled:

  1. Viṣkambha
  2. Prīti
  3. Āyuśmān
  4. Saubhāgya
  5. Śobhana
  6. Atigaṇḍa
  7. Sukarma
  8. Dhrti
  9. Śūla
  10. Gaṇḍa
  11. Vṛddhi
  12. Dhruva
  13. Vyāghatā
  14. Harṣaṇa
  15. Vajra
  16. Siddhi
  17. Vyatipāta
  18. Variyas
  19. Parigha
  20. Śiva
  21. Siddha
  22. Sādhya
  23. Śubha
  24. Śukla
  25. Brahma
  26. Māhendra
  27. Vaidhṛti

Again, minor variations may exist. The yoga that is active during sunrise of a day is the prevailing yoga for the day.

Karaṇa

A karaṇa is half of a tithi . To be precise, a karaṇa is the time required for the angular distance between the sun and the moon to increase in steps of 6° starting from 0°. (Compare with the definition of a tithi.)

Since the tithis are 30 in number, and since 1 tithi = 2 karaṇas, therefore one would logically expect there to be 60 karaṇas. But there are only 11 such karaṇas which fill up those slots to accommodate for those 30 tithis. There are actually 4 "fixed" (sthira) karaṇas and 7 "repeating" (cara) karaṇas.

The 4

  1. Śakuni (शकुनि)
  2. Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद)
  3. Nāga (नाग)
  4. Kiṃstughna (किंस्तुघ्न)

The 7 "repeating" karaṇas are: [61]

  1. Vava or Bava (बव)
  2. Valava or Bālava (बालव)
  3. Kaulava (कौलव)
  4. Taitila or Taitula (तैतिल)
  5. Gara or Garaja (गरज)
  6. Vaṇija (वणिज)
  7. Viṣṭi (Bhadra) (भद्रा)
  • Now the first half of the 1st tithi (of Śukla Pakṣa) is always Kiṃtughna karaṇa. Hence this karaṇa is "fixed".
  • Next, the 7-repeating karaṇas repeat eight times to cover the next 56 half-tithis. Thus these are the "repeating" (cara) karaṇas.
  • The 3 remaining half-tithis take the remaining "fixed" karaṇas in order. Thus these are also "fixed" (sthira).
  • Thus one gets 60 karaṇas from those 11 preset karaṇas.

The Vedic day begins at sunrise. The karaṇa at sunrise of a particular day shall be the prevailing karaṇa for the whole day. (citation needed )

Nakshatra

Nakshatras are divisions of ecliptic, each 13° 20', starting from 0° Aries.

Festival calendar: Solar and Lunar dates

Many holidays in the Hindu, Buddhist and Jaina traditions are based on the lunar cycles in the lunisolar timekeeping with foundations in the Hindu calendar system. A few holidays, however, are based on the solar cycle, such as the Vaisakhi, Pongal and those associated with Sankranti. [62] The dates of the lunar cycle based festivals vary significantly on the Gregorian calendar and at times by several weeks.The solar cycle based ancient Hindu festivals almost always fall on the same Gregorian date every year and if they vary in an exceptional year, it is by one day. [63]

Regional variants

The Hindu Calendar Reform Committee, appointed in 1952, identified more than thirty well-developed calendars, in use across different parts of India.

Variants include the lunar emphasizing Vikrama, the Shalivahana calendars, as well as the solar emphasizing Tamil calendar and Malayalam calendar. The two calendars most widely used today are the Vikrama calendar, which is in followed in western and northern India and Nepal, the Shalivahana Shaka calendar which is followed in the Deccan region of India (Comprising present day Indian states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Goa). [64]

Lunar

Calendars based on lunar cycle (lunar months in solar year, lunar phase for religious dates and new year):

Solar

Calendars based on solar cycle (solar months in solar year, lunar phase for religious dates but new year which falls on solar date – South and Southeast Asian solar New Year):

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chandra</span> Deity of the Moon (vedic astrology)

Chandra, also known as Soma, is the Hindu god of the Moon, and is associated with the night, plants and vegetation. He is one of the Navagraha and Dikpala.

<i>Tithi</i> Lunar day in the Hindu calendar

In Vedic timekeeping, a tithi is a [duration of two faces of moon that is observed from earth], known as milа̄lyа̄ in Nepal Bhasa, or the time it takes for the longitudinal angle between the Moon and the Sun to increase by 12°. In other words, a tithi is a time-duration between the consecutive epochs that correspond to when the longitudinal-angle between sun and moon is an integer multiple of 12°. Tithis begin at varying times of day and vary in duration from approximately 19 to approximately 26 hours. Every day of lunar month is called tithi.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Panchangam</span> Traditional Hindu calendar

A panchāngam is a Hindu calendar and almanac, which follows traditional units of Hindu timekeeping, and presents important dates and their calculations in a tabulated form. It is sometimes spelled Panchāngamu, Pancanga, Panchanga, Panchaanga, or Panchānga, and is often pronounced Panchāng. Panchangas are used in Jyotisha.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bhadra (Hindu calendar)</span> 6th month of the Hindu calendar

Bhadra or Bhadrapada or Bhādo or Bhadraba (Bengali: ভাদ্র bhādro; ) (Hindi: भादों bhādo; )(Sanskrit: भाद्रपद bhādrapada;) is the sixth month of the Hindu calendar, which falls in August and September of the Gregorian calendar. In India's national civil calendar, Bhadra is the sixth month of the year, beginning on 23 August and ending on 22 September. In Vedic Jyotish, Bhadra begins with the Sun's entry into Leo and is usually the fifth month of the year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Indian national calendar</span> A solar calendar used in India

The Indian national calendar, sometimes called the Saka calendar, is a solar calendar that is used alongside the Gregorian calendar by The Gazette of India, in news broadcasts by All India Radio, and in calendars and official communications issued by the Government of India. Shaka Samvat is generally 78 years behind of Gregorian Calendar, except during January to March, when it is behind by 79 years.

Vikram Samvat or Bikram Sambat B.S. and also known as the Vikrami calendar, is a national calendar of Nepal historically used in the Indian subcontinent. Vikram Samvat is generally 57 years ahead of Gregorian Calendar, except during January to April, when it is ahead by 56 years. Alongside Nepal Sambat, it is one of the two official calendars used in Nepal. In India, it is used in several states. The traditional Vikram Samvat calendar, as used in India, uses lunar months and solar sidereal years. The Nepali Bikram Sambat introduced in 1901 CE, also uses a solar sidereal year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tamil calendar</span> Sidereal Hindu calendar used by the Tamil people

The Tamil calendar is a sidereal solar calendar used by the Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It is also used in Puducherry, and by the Tamil population in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, and Mauritius.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Amavasya</span> Last day of the dark lunar fortnight

Amāvásyā is the lunar phase of the new moon in Sanskrit. Indian calendars use 30 lunar phases, called tithi in India. The dark moon tithi is when the Moon is within 12 degrees of the angular distance between the Sun and Moon before conjunction (syzygy). The New Moon tithi is the 12 angular degrees after syzygy. Amāvásyā is often translated as new moon since there is no standard term for the Moon before conjunction in English.

The Vira Nirvana Samvat (era) is a calendar era beginning on 7 October 527 BCE. It commemorates the Nirvana of Lord Mahaviraswami, the 24th Jain Tirthankara. This is the oldest system of chronological reckoning which is still used in India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ekadashi</span> Eleventh day of the lunar fortnight

Ekadashi is the eleventh lunar day (tithi) of each of the two lunar phases which occur in an Vedic calendar month - the Shukla Pakṣa and the Kṛṣṇa Pakṣa It is according to the Vedic medical texts of Ayurveda and is mentioned in detail in many original treatises such as Charaka Samhita and Susruta Samhita.

Samvatsara (संवत्सर) is a Sanskrit term for a "year" in Vedic literature such as the Rigveda and other ancient texts. In the medieval era literature, a samvatsara refers to the "Jovian year", that is a year based on the relative position of the planet Jupiter, while the solar year is called varsha. A jovian year is not equal to a solar year based on the relative position of Earth and Sun.

There are numerous days throughout the year celebrated as New Year's Day in the different regions of India. The observance is determined by whether the lunar calendar is being followed or the solar calendar. Those regions which follow the Solar calendar, the new year falls on Baisakhi in Bangladesh, Rongali Bihu in Assam, Puthandu in Tamil Nadu, Vishu in Kerala, Pana Sankranti or Odia Nababarsa in Odisha and Poila Boishakh in Bengal in the month of the calendar, i.e., Vaishakha. Generally, this day falls during 14th or 15th of the month of April. Those following Lunar calendar consider the month of Chaitra as the first month of the year, so the new year is celebrated on the first day of this month like Ugadi in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka and Gudhi Padwa in Maharashtra. Similarly, few regions in India consider the period between consecutive Sankarantis as one month and few others take the period between consecutive Purnimas as a month. In Gujarat the new year is celebrated as the day after Diwali. As per the Hindu Calendar, it falls on Shukla Paksha Pratipada in the Hindu month of Kartik. As per the Indian Calendar based on Lunar Cycle, Kartik is the first month of the year and the New Year in Gujarat falls on the first bright day of Kartik (Ekam). In other parts of India, New Year Celebrations begin in the spring.

Paksha refers to a fortnight or a lunar phase in a month of the Hindu lunar calendar.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Budha</span> Deity of Planet Mercury

Budha is a Sanskrit word that connotes the planet Mercury. Budha, in Hindu legends, is also a deity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bengali calendars</span>

The Bengali Calendar or Bangla Calendar, colloquially, is a solar calendar used in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. A revised version of the calendar is the national and official calendar in Bangladesh and an earlier version of the calendar is followed in the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam. The New Year in the Bengali calendar is known as Pohela Boishakh.

Siṃha is one of the twelve months in the Indian solar calendar.

Kanyā is one of the twelve months in the Indian solar calendar.

Mīna, or Meena, is a month in the Indian solar calendar. It corresponds to the zodiacal sign of Pisces, and overlaps with about the later half of March and about the early half of April in the Gregorian calendar. First day of the Meena month, called as Meena Sankranti generally falls on March 14th.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mesha Sankranti</span> Solar New Year in the Hindu calendar

Mesha Sankranti refers to the first day of the solar cycle year, that is the solar New Year in the Hindu luni-solar calendar. The Hindu calendar also has a lunar new year, which is religiously more significant. The solar cycle year is significant in Assamese, Odia, Punjabi, Malayalam, Tamil, and Bengali calendars.

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Bibliography

Further reading