Hippostratos

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Hippostratos

Hippostratos portrait.jpg

Hippostratos portrait.
Indo-Greek king
Reign 65–55 BCE
Tetradrachm of Hippostratos.
Obv: Bust of Hippostratos with Greek legend BASILEOS MEGALOU SOTEROS / HIPPOSTRATOU "Of Great Saviour King Hippostratos".
Rev: King on horseback, galloping. Kharoshthi legend: MAHARAJASA TRATASA MAHATASA JAYAMTASA HIPUSTRATASA "King Hippostratos, the Great Saviour and Conqueror. Hippostratos.jpg
Tetradrachm of Hippostratos.
Obv: Bust of Hippostratos with Greek legend BASILEOS MEGALOU SOTEROS / HIPPOSTRATOU "Of Great Saviour King Hippostratos".
Rev: King on horseback, galloping. Kharoshthi legend: MAHARAJASA TRATASA MAHATASA JAYAMTASA HIPUSTRATASA "King Hippostratos, the Great Saviour and Conqueror.
Tetradrachm of Hippostratos.
Obv: Bust of Hippostratos with Greek legend BASILEOS MEGALOU SOTEROS / IPPOSTPATOU "Great Saviour King/ Hippostratos".
Rev: King on horseback, walking, making a gesture of benediction. Kharoshthi legend: MAHARAJASA TRATASA MAHATASA JAYAMTASA HIPUSTRATASA "King Hippostratos, the Great Saviour and Conqueror. Hippostratos bareheaded with walking horse.jpg
Tetradrachm of Hippostratos.
Obv: Bust of Hippostratos with Greek legend BASILEOS MEGALOU SOTEROS / IPPOSTPATOU "Great Saviour King/ Hippostratos".
Rev: King on horseback, walking, making a gesture of benediction. Kharoshthi legend: MAHARAJASA TRATASA MAHATASA JAYAMTASA HIPUSTRATASA "King Hippostratos, the Great Saviour and Conqueror.
Hippostratus with Triton holding dolphin and rudder and Tyche. Hippostratus with Triton holding dolphin and rudder and Tyche.jpg
Hippostratus with Triton holding dolphin and rudder and Tyche.

Hippostratos (Greek: Ἱππόστρατος) was an Indo-Greek king who ruled central and north-western Punjab and Pushkalavati. Bopearachchi dates Hippostratos to 65 to 55 BCE whereas R. C. Senior suggests 60 to 50 BCE.

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Pushkalavati single entity of population

Pushkalavati was the capital of the Gandhara kingdom. Its ruins are located on the outskirts of the modern city of Charsadda, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Its ruins are located on the banks of Swat River, near its junction with Kabul River. Pushkalavati was the capital of the ancient Gandhara kingdom before the 6th century BCE, when it became an Achaemenid regional capital, and it remained an important city until the 2nd century CE.

Contents

Rule

In Bopearachchi's reconstruction Hippostratos came to power as the successor to Apollodotus II, in the western part of his kingdom, while the weak Dionysios ascended to the throne in the eastern part. Senior assumes that the reigns of Apollodotus II and Hippostratos overlapped somewhat; in that case Hippostratos first ruled a kingdom situated to the west of Apollodotus' dominions.

Apollodotus II

Apollodotus II was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in the western and eastern parts of Punjab. Bopearachchi dates him to c. 80–65 BCE, and R. C. Senior to c. 85–65 BCE. Apollodotos II was an important ruler who seems to have re-established the Indo-Greek kingdom to some extent of its former glory. Taxila in western Punjab was reconquered from nomad Scythian rule.

King Hippostratus on a coin of Hermaios. King Hippostratos circa 100 BCE.jpg
King Hippostratus on a coin of Hermaios.

Just like Apollodotus II, Hippostratos calls himself Soter, "Saviour", on all his coins, and on some coins he also assumes the title Basileos Megas, "Great King", which he inherited from Apollodotus II. This may support Senior's scenario that Hippostratos extended his kingdom after Apollodotus' death. The relationship between these two kings remains uncertain due to lack of sources. Hippostratos did not, however, use the symbol of standing Athena Alkidemos, which was common to all other kings thought to be related to Apollodotus II. The two kings share only one monogram.

The quantity and quality of the coinage of Hippostratos indicate a quite powerful king. Hippostratos seems to have fought rather successfully against the Indo-Scythian invaders, led by the Scythian king Azes I, but was ultimately defeated and became the last western Indo-Greek king.

Azes I

Azes I was an Indo-Scythian ruler who completed the domination of the Scythians in Gandhara.

Coins of Hippostratos

Hippostratos issued silver coins with a diademed portrait on the obverse, and three reverses. The first is the image of a king on prancing horse, a common type which was most frequently used by the earlier kings Antimachus II and Philoxenus. The second reverse also portrays a king on horseback, but the horse is walking and the king making a benediction gesture - this type resembles a rare type of Apollodotus II. The third is a standing goddess, perhaps Tyche.

Antimachus II

Antimachus II Nikephoros was an Indo-Greek king. He ruled a vast territory from the Hindu-Kush to the Punjab around 170 BCE. He was almost certainly the eponymous son of Antimachus I, who is known from a unique preserved tax receipt. Bopearachchi dated Antimachus II to 160–155 BCE on numismatical grounds, but changed this to 174–165 BCE after the tax receipt was revealed to synchronise his reign with that of Antimachus I. R. C. Senior has not dated Antimachus II but thinks that his coins were possibly Indian issues of Antimachus I, despite their different epithets and coin types.

Fortuna Ancient Roman goddess of fortune and luck

Fortuna was the goddess of fortune and the personification of luck in Roman religion. Fortuna is often depicted with a gubernaculum, a ball or Rota Fortunae and a cornucopia. She might bring good or bad luck: she could be represented as veiled and blind, as in modern depictions of Lady Justice, except that Fortuna does not hold a balance. Fortuna came to represent life's capriciousness. She was also a goddess of fate: as Atrox Fortuna, she claimed the young lives of the princeps Augustus' grandsons Gaius and Lucius, prospective heirs to the Empire.

Hippostratos struck several bronzes of types used by several kings: Serpent-legged deity (as used by Telephus) / standing goddess. Apollo/tripod (Apollodotus II, several earlier kings) Sitting Zeus-Mithras / horse, reminiscent of coins of Hermaeus.

Hermaeus

Hermaeus Soter or Hermaios Soter was a Western Indo-Greek king of the Eucratid Dynasty, who ruled the territory of Paropamisade in the Hindu-Kush region, with his capital in Alexandria of the Caucasus. Bopearachchi dates Hermaeus to c. 90–70 BCE and R. C. Senior to c. 95–80 BCE.

Tyche Oceanid of Greek mythology

Tyche was the presiding tutelary deity who governed the fortune and prosperity of a city, its destiny. In Classical Greek mythology, she is the daughter of Aphrodite and Zeus or Hermes.

Zeus Ruler of the gods in Greek mythology

Zeus is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus. His name is cognate with the first element of his Roman equivalent Jupiter. His mythologies and powers are similar, though not identical, to those of Indo-European deities such as Jupiter, Perkūnas, Perun, Indra and Thor.

Mitra Indo-Iranian divinity

Mitra is the name of an Indo-Iranian divinity from which the names and some characteristics of Rigvedic Mitrá and Avestan Mithra derive.

Overstrikes

Azes I overstruck several of Hippostratos' coins.

Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kings, territories and chronology
Based on Bopearachchi (1991) [1]
Greco-Bactrian kings Indo-Greek kings
Territories/
dates
West Bactria East Bactria Paropamisade
Arachosia Gandhara Western Punjab Eastern Punjab Mathura [2]
326-325 BCE Campaigns of Alexander the Great in India Nanda Empire
312 BCECreation of the Seleucid Empire Creation of the Maurya Empire
305 BCE Seleucid Empire after Mauryan war Maurya Empire
280 BCEFoundation of Ai-Khanoum
255–239 BCEIndependence of the
Greco-Bactrian kingdom
Diodotus I
Emperor Ashoka (268-232)
239–223 BCE Diodotus II
230–200 BCE Euthydemus I
200–190 BCE Demetrius I Sunga Empire
190-185 BCE Euthydemus II
190–180 BCE Agathocles Pantaleon
185–170 BCE Antimachus I
180–160 BCE Apollodotus I
175–170 BCE Demetrius II
160–155 BCE Antimachus II
170–145 BCE Eucratides I
155–130 BCE Yuezhi occupation,
loss of Ai-Khanoum
Eucratides II
Plato
Heliocles I
Menander I
130–120 BCE Yuezhi occupation Zoilos I Agathokleia Yavanarajya
inscription
120–110 BCE Lysias Strato I
110–100 BCE Antialcidas Heliokles II
100 BCE Polyxenos Demetrius III
100–95 BCE Philoxenus
95–90 BCE Diomedes Amyntas Epander
90 BCE Theophilos Peukolaos Thraso
90–85 BCE Nicias Menander II Artemidoros
90–70 BCE Hermaeus Archebius
Yuezhi occupation Maues (Indo-Scythian)
75–70 BCE Vonones Telephos Apollodotus II
65–55 BCE Spalirises Hippostratos Dionysios
55–35 BCE Azes I (Indo-Scythians) Zoilos II
55–35 BCE Vijayamitra/ Azilises Apollophanes
25 BCE – 10 CE Gondophares Zeionises Kharahostes Strato II
Strato III
Gondophares (Indo-Parthian) Rajuvula (Indo-Scythian)
Kujula Kadphises (Kushan Empire) Bhadayasa
(Indo-Scythian)
Sodasa
(Indo-Scythian)

See also

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References

Preceded by
Apollodotus II
Indo-Greek Ruler
(in Western Punjab)

65 – 55 BCE
Succeeded by
Azes I
(as Indo-Scythian King)
  1. O. Bopearachchi, "Monnaies gréco-bactriennes et indo-grecques, Catalogue raisonné", Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, 1991, p.453
  2. History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE, Sonya Rhie Quintanilla, BRILL, 2007, p.9