|Died||September 18, 2014 86) (aged|
|Institution|| Stanford University |
University of California at Berkeley
University of Chicago
University of Tokyo
|Alma mater|| University of Tokyo (B.Math, 1951)|
Tohoku University (Ph.D., 1962)
| David Cass |
|Influences|| Shokichi Iyanaga |
|Contributions|| Uzawa two-sector growth model |
|Awards|| Person of Cultural Merit (1983)|
Order of Culture (1997)
Blue Planet Prize (2009)
|Information at IDEAS / RePEc|
Hirofumi Uzawa (宇沢 弘文, Uzawa Hirofumi, July 21, 1928 – September 18, 2014) was a Japanese economist.
Uzawa was born on July 21, 1928 in Yonago, Tottori to a farming family.
He attended the Tokyo First Middle School (currently the Hibiya High School ) and the First Higher School, Japan (now the University of Tokyo's College of Arts and Sciences faculty).[ citation needed ]
He graduated from the Mathematics Department of the University of Tokyo in 1951; he was a special research student from 1951 to 1953. At that time, he discovered the true nature of economics in the words of John Ruskin, “There is no wealth, but life.” which was quoted in the foreword to Tale of Poverty (貧乏物語, binbō monogatari) by Hajime Kawakami, and decided to study economics.
A paper on decentralized economic planning written by him caught the eye of Kenneth Arrow at the Stanford University, he went to study Economics at Stanford University in 1956 with Fulbright fellowship, and became a research assistant, then assistant professor in 1956, then assistant professor at the University of California, Berkeley in 1960, and then associate professor at Stanford in 1961.Meanwhile, in 1962, he received a Ph.D. from Tohoku University. He afterwards was professor at the University of Chicago in 1964, and later assumed the position of professor of the Department of Economics at the University of Tokyo in 1969. He also taught at Niigata University, Chuo University, and United Nations University. Joseph E. Stiglitz and George A. Akerlof did research under Uzawa at the University of Chicago and David Cass studied under Uzawa at Stanford University.
Uzawa was a senior fellow at the social, commonness, and capital research center of Doshisha University. He held the position of the president of the Econometric Society from 1976 to 1977. He also held the position of Counsel for the Development Bank of Japan's Research Institute of Capital Formation (RICF) from 1968 until his passing.
Uzawa initiated the field of mathematical economics in postwar days and formulated the growth theory of neoclassical economics. This is reflected in the Uzawa–Lucas model, the Uzawa iteration, the Uzawa condition, and Uzawa's Theorem, among others.
In his 1962 paper,Uzawa proved that the two of Walrasian equilibrium and Brouwer's fixed-point theorem are equivalent.
In economics, general equilibrium theory attempts to explain the behavior of supply, demand, and prices in a whole economy with several or many interacting markets, by seeking to prove that the interaction of demand and supply will result in an overall general equilibrium. General equilibrium theory contrasts to the theory of partial equilibrium, which only analyzes single markets. In general equilibrium, constant influences are considered to be noneconomic, therefore, resulting beyond the natural scope of economic analysis.
Kenneth Joseph Arrow was an American economist, mathematician, writer, and political theorist. He was the joint winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with John Hicks in 1972.
Gérard Debreu was a French-born economist and mathematician. Best known as a professor of economics at the University of California, Berkeley, where he began work in 1962, he won the 1983 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
Harold Hotelling was an American mathematical statistician and an influential economic theorist, known for Hotelling's law, Hotelling's lemma, and Hotelling's rule in economics, as well as Hotelling's T-squared distribution in statistics. He also developed and named the principal component analysis method widely used in finance, statistics and computer science.
William Jack Baumol was an American economist. He was a professor of economics at New York University, Academic Director of the Berkley Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation, and Professor Emeritus at Princeton University. He was a prolific author of more than eighty books and several hundred journal articles.
Michio Morishima was a Japanese heterodox economist and public intellectual who was the Sir John Hicks Professor of Economics at the London School of Economics from 1970–88. He was also professor at Osaka University and member of the British Academy. In 1976 he won the Order of Culture.
The overlapping generations (OLG) model is one of the dominating frameworks of analysis in the study of macroeconomic dynamics and economic growth. In contrast, to the Ramsey–Cass–Koopmans neoclassical growth model in which individuals are infinitely-lived, in the OLG model individuals live a finite length of time, long enough to overlap with at least one period of another agent's life.
Karl Shell is an American theoretical economist, specializing in macroeconomics and monetary economics.
Takeshi Amemiya is an economist specializing in econometrics and the economy of ancient Greece.
David Cass was a professor of economics at the University of Pennsylvania, mostly known for his contributions to general equilibrium theory. His most famous work was on the Ramsey–Cass–Koopmans model of economic growth.
Jacob Marschak was an American economist.
Leonid "Leo" Hurwicz was a Polish-American economist and mathematician, known for his work in game theory and mechanism design. He originated the concept of incentive compatibility, and showed how desired outcomes can be achieved by using incentive compatible mechanism design. Hurwicz shared the 2007 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his seminal work on mechanism design. Hurwicz was one of the oldest Nobel Laureates, having received the prize at the age of 90.
Turnpike theory refers to a set of economic theories about the optimal path of accumulation in a system, depending on the initial and final levels. In the context of a macroeconomic exogenous growth model, for example, it says that if an infinite optimal path is calculated, and an economic planner wishes to move an economy from one level of capital to another, as long as the planner has sufficient time, the most efficient path is to quickly move the level of capital stock to a level close to the infinite optimal path, and to allow capital to develop along that path until it is nearly the end of the desired term and the planner must move the capital stock to the desired final level. The name of the theory refers to the idea that a turnpike is the fastest route between two points which are far apart, even if it is not the most direct route.
Roger Bruce Myerson is an American economist and professor at the University of Chicago. He holds the title of the David L. Pearson Distinguished Service Professor of Global Conflict Studies at The Pearson Institute for the Study and Resolution of Global Conflicts in the Harris School of Public Policy, the Griffin Department of Economics, and the College. Previously, he held the title The Glen A. Lloyd Distinguished Service Professor of Economics. In 2007, he was the winner of the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel with Leonid Hurwicz and Eric Maskin for "having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory." He was elected a Member of the American Philosophical Society in 2019.
Miguel Sidrauski was an Argentine economist who made important contributions to the theory of economic growth by developing a modified version of the Ramsey–Cass–Koopmans model to describe the effects of money on long-run growth. He also published an article on exchange rate determination. Sidrauski taught economics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Ross Marc Starr is an American economist who specializes in microeconomic theory, monetary economics and mathematical economics. He is a Professor at the University of California, San Diego.
In economics, non-convexity refers to violations of the convexity assumptions of elementary economics. Basic economics textbooks concentrate on consumers with convex preferences and convex budget sets and on producers with convex production sets; for convex models, the predicted economic behavior is well understood. When convexity assumptions are violated, then many of the good properties of competitive markets need not hold: Thus, non-convexity is associated with market failures, where supply and demand differ or where market equilibria can be inefficient. Non-convex economies are studied with nonsmooth analysis, which is a generalization of convex analysis.
The Uzawa–Lucas model is an economic model that explains long-term economic growth as consequence of human capital accumulation. Developed by Robert Lucas, Jr., building upon initial contributions by Hirofumi Uzawa, it extends the AK model by a two-sector setup, in which physical and human capital are produced by different technologies. The Uzawa–Lucas model is part of endogenous growth theory.
Hukukane Nikaido was a Japanese economist.
Makoto Yano is a Japanese economist, currently the President and Chief Research Officer of the Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry. He is also a Professor Emeritus at Kyoto University and a Professor by Special Appointment at Kyoto University's Institute of Economic Research and Sophia University.