Hiroshima

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Hiroshima
広島市
The City of Hiroshima [1]
Atomic Bomb Dome and Motoyaso River, Hiroshima, Northwest view 20190417 1.jpg
Keep tower, Hiroshima Castle, Southwest remote view 20190417 1.jpg
Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum 20170310-4.jpg
Laika ac Cenotaph for the A-Bomb Victims (8629480185).jpg
Hiroshima Tramways.jpg
Takueichi Pond in Shukkei Garden 19.jpg
Clockwise from top left: Hiroshima skyline within A-Bomb Dome, Hiroshima Castle, Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park and Museum, Tramways in KamiyachoHatchobori area, and the Shukkei-en Garden of Peace
Flag of Hiroshima City.svg
Emblem of Hiroshima, Hiroshima.svg
Hiroshima
Hiroshima in Hiroshima Prefecture Ja.svg
Location of Hiroshima in Hiroshima Prefecture
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Hiroshima
 
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Hiroshima
Hiroshima (Asia)
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Hiroshima
Hiroshima (Earth)
Coordinates: 34°23′29″N132°27′07″E / 34.39139°N 132.45194°E / 34.39139; 132.45194 Coordinates: 34°23′29″N132°27′07″E / 34.39139°N 132.45194°E / 34.39139; 132.45194
Country Japan
Region Chūgoku (San'yō)
Prefecture Hiroshima Prefecture
Government
  Mayor Kazumi Matsui
Area
   Designated city 906.68 km2 (350.07 sq mi)
Population
 (June 1, 2019)
   Designated city 1,199,391
  Density1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
   Metro
[2] (2015)
1,431,634 (10th)
Time zone UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
Tree Camphor Laurel
Flower Oleander
Phone number082-245-2111
Address1-6-34 Kokutaiji,
Naka-ku, Hiroshima-shi 730-8586
Website www.city.hiroshima.lg.jp

News of the amazing explosion of the atom bomb attacks on Japan was deliberately withheld from the Japanese public by US military censors during the Allied occupation—even as they sought to teach the natives the virtues of a free press. Casualty statistics were suppressed. Film shot by Japanese cameramen in Hiroshima and Nagasaki after the bombings was confiscated. "Hiroshima", the account written by John Hersey for The New Yorker, had a huge impact in the US, but was banned in Japan. As [John] Dower says: "In the localities themselves, suffering was compounded not merely by the unprecedented nature of the catastrophe ... but also by the fact that public struggle with this traumatic experience was not permitted." [25]

The US occupation authorities maintained a monopoly on scientific and medical information about the effects of the atomic bomb through the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, which treated the data gathered in studies of hibakusha as privileged information rather than making the results available for the treatment of victims or providing financial or medical support to aid victims.[ citation needed ]

The book Hiroshima by John Hersey was originally published in article form in the magazine The New Yorker , [26] on August 31, 1946. It is reported to have reached Tokyo, in English, at least by January 1947 and the translated version was released in Japan in 1949. [27] Although the article was planned to be published over four issues, "Hiroshima" made up the entire contents of one issue of the magazine. [28] [29] Hiroshima narrates the stories of six bomb survivors immediately before and four months after the dropping of the Little Boy bomb. [26] [30]

Oleander ( Nerium ) is the official flower of the city of Hiroshima because it was the first to bloom again after the explosion of the atomic bomb in 1945. [31]

Postwar period (1945–present)

On September 17, 1945, Hiroshima was struck by the Makurazaki Typhoon (Typhoon Ida). Hiroshima Prefecture suffered more than 3,000 deaths and injuries, about half the national total. [32] More than half the bridges in the city were destroyed, along with heavy damage to roads and railroads, further devastating the city. [33]

Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with help from the national government through the Hiroshima Peace Memorial City Construction Law passed in 1949. It provided financial assistance for reconstruction, along with land donated that was previously owned by the national government and used by the Imperial military. [34]

In 1949, a design was selected for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall, the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation, was designated the Genbaku Dome (原爆ドーム) or "Atomic Dome", a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum was opened in 1955 in the Peace Park. [35]

Hiroshima also contains a Peace Pagoda, built in 1966 by Nipponzan-Myōhōji. Uniquely, the pagoda is made of steel, rather than the usual stone. [36]

Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament in 1949, at the initiative of its mayor, Shinzo Hamai (1905–1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima received more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 to facilitate interpretation for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of all nuclear weapons and the Mayor of Hiroshima is the president of Mayors for Peace, an international Mayoral organization mobilizing cities and citizens worldwide to abolish and eliminate nuclear weapons by 2020. [37] [38]

On May 27, 2016, Barack Obama became the first sitting United States president to visit Hiroshima since the atomic bombing. [39]

Hiroshima is situated on the Ōta River delta, on Hiroshima Bay, facing the Seto Inland Sea on its south side. The river's six channels divide Hiroshima into several islets.

Geography

Climate

Hiroshima has a humid subtropical climate characterized by cool to mild winters and hot, humid summers. Like much of Japan, Hiroshima experiences a seasonal temperature lag in summer, with August rather than July being the warmest month of the year. Precipitation occurs year-round, although winter is the driest season. Rainfall peaks in June and July, with August experiencing sunnier and drier conditions.

Hiroshima
Hiroshima (Chinese characters).svg
"Hiroshima" in shinjitai kanji
Climate data for Hiroshima (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1879−present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)18.8
(65.8)
21.5
(70.7)
23.7
(74.7)
29.0
(84.2)
31.5
(88.7)
34.4
(93.9)
38.7
(101.7)
38.1
(100.6)
36.9
(98.4)
31.4
(88.5)
26.3
(79.3)
22.3
(72.1)
38.7
(101.7)
Average high °C (°F)9.9
(49.8)
10.9
(51.6)
14.5
(58.1)
19.8
(67.6)
24.4
(75.9)
27.2
(81.0)
30.9
(87.6)
32.8
(91.0)
29.1
(84.4)
23.7
(74.7)
17.7
(63.9)
12.1
(53.8)
21.1
(70.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)5.4
(41.7)
6.2
(43.2)
9.5
(49.1)
14.8
(58.6)
19.6
(67.3)
23.2
(73.8)
27.2
(81.0)
28.5
(83.3)
24.7
(76.5)
18.8
(65.8)
12.9
(55.2)
7.5
(45.5)
16.5
(61.7)
Average low °C (°F)2.0
(35.6)
2.4
(36.3)
5.1
(41.2)
10.1
(50.2)
15.1
(59.2)
19.8
(67.6)
24.1
(75.4)
25.1
(77.2)
21.1
(70.0)
14.9
(58.8)
8.9
(48.0)
4.0
(39.2)
12.7
(54.9)
Record low °C (°F)−8.5
(16.7)
−8.3
(17.1)
−7.2
(19.0)
−1.4
(29.5)
1.8
(35.2)
6.6
(43.9)
14.1
(57.4)
13.7
(56.7)
8.6
(47.5)
1.5
(34.7)
−2.6
(27.3)
−8.6
(16.5)
−8.6
(16.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches)46.2
(1.82)
64.0
(2.52)
118.3
(4.66)
141.0
(5.55)
169.8
(6.69)
226.5
(8.92)
279.8
(11.02)
131.4
(5.17)
162.7
(6.41)
109.2
(4.30)
69.3
(2.73)
54.0
(2.13)
1,572.2
(61.90)
Average snowfall cm (inches)3
(1.2)
3
(1.2)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
8
(3.1)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)6.88.310.69.99.711.911.68.69.67.16.97.6108.6
Average relative humidity (%)66656261637173696866676867
Mean monthly sunshine hours 138.6140.1176.7191.9210.8154.6173.4207.3167.3178.6153.3140.62,033.1
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency [40]

Wards

Hiroshima has eight wards (ku):

WardJapanesePopulationArea (km2)Density
(per km2)
Map
Aki-ku (Aki ward)安芸区80,70294.08857 Hiroshima wards.png
Asakita-ku (Asa-North ward)安佐北区148,426353.33420
Asaminami-ku (Asa-south ward)安佐南区241,007117.242,055
Higashi-ku (East ward)東区121,01239.423,069
Minami-ku (South ward)南区141,21926.305,369
Naka-ku (Central ward)
*administrative center
中区130,87915.328,543
Nishi-ku (West ward)西区189,79435.615,329
Saeki-ku (Saeki ward)佐伯区137,838225.22612
Population as of March 31, 2016

Cityscape

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1920 160,510    
1925 195,731+21.9%
1930 270,417+38.2%
1935 310,118+14.7%
1940 343,968+10.9%
1945 137,197−60.1%
1950 285,712+108.2%
1955 357,287+25.1%
1960 540,972+51.4%
1965 665,289+23.0%
1970 798,540+20.0%
1975 862,611+8.0%
1980 992,736+15.1%
1985 1,044,118+5.2%
1990 1,085,705+4.0%
1995 1,105,203+1.8%
2000 1,134,134+2.6%
2005 1,151,888+1.6%
2010 1,174,209+1.9%
2015 1,186,655+1.1%
2020 1,199,186+1.1%

In 2017, the city has an estimated population of 1,195,327. The total area of the city is 905.08 square kilometres (349.45 sq mi), with a population density of 1321 persons per km2. [41]

The population around 1910 was 143,000. [42] Before World War II, Hiroshima's population had grown to 360,000, and peaked at 419,182 in 1942. [43] Following the atomic bombing in 1945, the population dropped to 137,197. [43] By 1955, the city's population had returned to pre-war levels. [44]

Surrounding municipalities

Hiroshima Prefecture

Economy and infrastructure

Downtown Hiroshima Rijo-dori Street from platform of Hondori Station at dusk.jpg
Downtown Hiroshima
Hondori Shopping Street Hiroshima-Hondori Shopping Street at dusk 2.jpg
Hondōri Shopping Street
Hiroshima Zero Gate Hiroshima Zero Gate2 20160911.JPG
Hiroshima Zero Gate

Health care

Hospitals

  • Hiroshima City Hospital
  • Hiroshima City Asa Hospital
  • Hiroshima City Funairi Hospital
  • Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital
  • Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital & Atomic-bomb Survivors Hospital
  • Hiroshima University Hospital
  • Japan Post Hiroshima Hospital
  • JR Hiroshima Hospital

Media

The Chūgoku Shimbun is the local newspaper serving Hiroshima. It publishes both morning paper and evening editions. Television stations include Hiroshima Home Television, Hiroshima Telecasting, Shinhiroshima Telecasting, and the RCC Broadcasting. Radio stations include Hiroshima FM, Chugoku Communication Network, FM Fukuyama, FM Nanami, and Onomichi FM. Hiroshima is also served by NHK, Japan's public broadcaster, with television and radio broadcasting.

The Maxwell Rayner TV Co. filmed a documentary released in 2012. The documentary contained general information about the city.

Education

Former Faculty of Science Building No. 1 at Hiroshima University HiroshimaL&SUniv.jpg
Former Faculty of Science Building No. 1 at Hiroshima University
Satake Memorial Hall at Hiroshima University (in Higashihiroshima City) HiroshimaUniv SatakeMemorialHall.jpg
Satake Memorial Hall at Hiroshima University (in Higashihiroshima City)

University

Hiroshima University was established in 1949, as part of a national restructuring of the education system. One national university was set up in each prefecture, including Hiroshima University, which combined eight existing institutions (Hiroshima University of Literature and Science, Hiroshima School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima School of Education, Hiroshima Women's School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima School of Education for Youth, Hiroshima Higher School, Hiroshima Higher Technical School, and Hiroshima Municipal Higher Technical School), with the Hiroshima Prefectural Medical College added in 1953. But in 1972 the relocation of Hiroshima University was decided from urban areas of Hiroshima City to wider campus in Higashihiroshima City. By 1995 almost all campuses were relocated to Higashihiroshima. But, School of Medicine, School of Dentistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Graduate School in these fields in Kasumi Campus and Law School and Center for Research on Regional Economic System in Higashi-Senda Campus are still in Hiroshima City. [45]

Notable art institutions include the Elisabeth University of Music and Actor's School Hiroshima.

Transportation

Hiroshima Airport Hiroshima airport japan.jpg
Hiroshima Airport
Astram Line Astram line 6122 at Omachi station.jpg
Astram Line

Airways

Airport

Hiroshima is served by Hiroshima Airport ( IATA : HIJ, ICAO : RJOA), located 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of the city, with regular flights to Tokyo, Sapporo, Sendai, Okinawa, and also to China, Taiwan, Singapore and South Korea.

Iwakuni Kintaikyo Airport, 43 kilometres (27 mi) south-west of Hiroshima, re-instated commercial flights on December 13, 2012. [46]

Railways

High-speed rail

JR West

Trains

JR West

Tramways

Hiroshima is notable, in Japan, for its light rail system, nicknamed Hiroden , and the "Moving Streetcar Museum". Streetcar service started in 1912, [47] was interrupted by the atomic bomb, and was restored as soon as was practical. (Service between Koi/Nishi Hiroshima and Tenma-cho was started up three days after the bombing. [48] )

Streetcars and light rail vehicles are still rolling down Hiroshima's streets, including streetcars 651 and 652, which survived the atomic blast and are among the older streetcars in the system. When Kyoto and Fukuoka discontinued their trolley systems, Hiroshima bought them up at discounted prices, and, by 2011, the city had 298 streetcars, more than any other city in Japan. [48]

Roads

Expressway

Japan National Route

Hiroshima is served by Japan National Route 2, Japan National Route 54, Japan National Route 183, Japan National Route 261, Japan National Route 433, Japan National Route 487, Japan National Route 488.

Prefectural Route

Hiroshima Prefectural Route 37 (Hiroshima-Miyoshi Route), Hiroshima Prefectural Route 70 (Hiroshima-Nakashima Route), Hiroshima Prefectural Route 84 (Higashi Kaita Hiroshima Route), Hiroshima Prefectural Route 164 (Hiroshima-Kaita Route), and Hiroshima Prefectural Route 264 (Nakayama-Onaga Route).

Culture

Shukkei-en Rainbow bridge in Shukkei-en Hiroshima.jpg
Shukkei-en

Hiroshima has a professional symphony orchestra, which has performed at Wel City Hiroshima since 1963. [49] There are also many museums in Hiroshima, including the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, along with several art museums. The Hiroshima Museum of Art, which has a large collection of French renaissance art, opened in 1978. The Hiroshima Prefectural Art Museum opened in 1968 and is located near Shukkei-en gardens. The Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art, which opened in 1989, is located near Hijiyama Park. Festivals include Hiroshima Flower Festival and Hiroshima International Animation Festival.

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, which includes the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, draws many visitors from around the world, especially for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony, an annual commemoration held on the date of the atomic bombing. The park also contains a large collection of monuments, including the Children's Peace Monument, the Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims and many others.

Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period. Hiroshima Gokoku Shrine is within the walls of the castle. Other attractions in Hiroshima include Shukkei-en, Fudōin, Mitaki-dera, and Hijiyama Park.

Events

Hiroshima Flower Festival 2011 Hiroshima FF 2011.JPG
Hiroshima Flower Festival 2011

Cuisine

A man making an okonomiyaki at a restaurant in Hiroshima Preparing okonomiyaki in Hiroshima.jpg
A man making an okonomiyaki at a restaurant in Hiroshima

Hiroshima is known for okonomiyaki, a savory (umami) pancake cooked on an iron plate, usually in front of the customer. It is cooked with various ingredients, which are layered rather than mixed as done with the Osaka version of okonomiyaki. The layers are typically egg, cabbage, bean sprouts (moyashi), sliced pork/bacon with optional items (mayonnaise, fried squid, octopus, cheese, mochi, kimchi, etc.), and noodles (soba, udon) topped with another layer of egg and a generous dollop of okonomiyaki sauce (Carp and Otafuku are two popular brands). The amount of cabbage used is usually 3 to 4 times the amount used in the Osaka style. It starts piled very high and is generally pushed down as the cabbage cooks. The order of the layers may vary slightly depending on the chef's style and preference, and ingredients will vary depending on the preference of the customer.

Sports

Edion Stadium Hiroshima Bigarch050423.jpg
Edion Stadium Hiroshima
Mazda Stadium, home of Hiroshima Toyo Carp. MAZDA Zoom-Zoom Stadium Hiroshima facade.jpg
Mazda Stadium, home of Hiroshima Toyo Carp.

Hiroshima has several professional sports clubs.

Soccer

The city's main association football club is Sanfrecce Hiroshima, who play at the Hiroshima Big Arch. As Toyo Kogyo Soccer Club, they won the Japan Soccer League five times between 1965 and 1970 and the Emperor's Cup in 1965, 1967 and 1969. After adopting their current name in 1992, the club won the J.League in 2012, 2013 and 2015. The city's main women's football club is Angeviolet Hiroshima. Defunct clubs include Rijo Shukyu FC, who won the Emperor's Cup in 1924 and 1925, and Ẽfini Hiroshima SC.

Baseball

Hiroshima Toyo Carp are the city's major baseball club, and play at the Mazda Zoom-Zoom Stadium Hiroshima. Members of the Central League, the club won the Central League in 1975, 1979, 1980, 1984, 1986, 1991, 2016, 2017 and 2018, the club won the Japan Series in 1979, 1980 and 1984.

Basketball

Hiroshima Dragonflies (basketball).

Handball

Hiroshima Maple Reds (handball).

Volleyball

JT Thunders (volleyball).

Other sports

The Woodone Open Hiroshima was part of the Japan Golf Tour between 1973 and 2007. The city also hosted the 1994 Asian Games, using the Big Arch stadium, which is now used for the annual Mikio Oda Memorial International Amateur Athletic Game. The now-called Hiroshima Prefectural Sports Center was one of the host arenas of the 2006 FIBA World Championship (basketball).

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Hiroshima has ten sister cities: [50]

Within Japan, Hiroshima has a similar relationship with Nagasaki.

Tourism

The Japanese city and the Prefecture of Hiroshima may have been devastated by the atomic bomb over 76 years ago, but today, this site of the destruction is one of the top tourist destinations in the entire country. Statistics released by the nation's tourist agency revealed that around 363,000 visitors went to the metropolis during 2012, with Americans making up the vast majority of that figure, followed by Australians and Chinese. [51] In 2016, some 1.18 million foreigners visited Hiroshima, a 3.2-fold jump from about 360,000 in 2012. Americans were the largest group, accounting for 16%, followed by Australians at 15%, Italians at 8% and Britons at 6%. The numbers of Chinese and South Korean visitors were small, representing only 1% and 0.2% of the total. [52]

Places of interest

There are many popular tourist destinations near Hiroshima. A popular destination outside the city is Itsukushima Island, also known as Miyajima, which is a sacred island with many temples and shrines. But inside Hiroshima there are many popular destinations as well, and according to online guidebooks, these are the most popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima: [53]

  1. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum
  2. The Atomic Bomb Dome
  3. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park
  4. Mazda Zoom-Zoom Stadium Hiroshima
  5. Hiroshima Castle
  6. Shukkei-en
  7. Mitaki-dera Temple
  8. Hiroshima Gogoku Shrine
  9. Kamiyacho and Hatchobori (A major center in Hiroshima which is a shopping area. It is directly connected to the Hiroshima Bus Center )
  10. Hiroshima City Asa Zoological Park
  11. Hiroshima Botanical Garden

Other popular places in the city include the Hondōri shopping arcade.

Notes

  1. The City of Hiroshima official web site Archived 2020-02-25 at the Wayback Machine (in English)
  2. "UEA Code Tables". Center for Spatial Information Science, University of Tokyo. Archived from the original on January 9, 2019. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  3. Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN   978-1-4058-8118-0.
  4. Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo. Archived from the original on 2018-06-15. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
  5. Conversion rates – Exchange rates Archived 2018-02-01 at the Wayback Machine – OECD Data
  6. Hakim, Joy (January 5, 1995). A History of US: Book 9: War, Peace, and All that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0195095142.
  7. Schellinger, Paul; Salkin, Robert, eds. (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places, Volume 5: Asia and Oceania. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 349. ISBN   1-884964-04-4.
  8. "The Origin of Hiroshima". Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation. Archived from the original on January 30, 2008. Retrieved August 17, 2007.
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  10. Kosaikai, Yoshiteru (2007). "History of Hiroshima". Hiroshima Peace Reader. Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation.
  11. Bingham (US Legation in Tokyo) to Fish (US Department of State), September 20, 1876, in Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, transmitted to congress, with the annual message of the president, December 4, 1876, p. 384
  12. 1 2 Kosakai, Hiroshima Peace Reader
  13. Dun (US Legation in Tokyo) to Gresham, February 4, 1895, in Foreign relations of United States, 1894, Appendix I, p. 97
  14. Jacobs, Norman (1958). The Origin of Modern Capitalism and Eastern Asia. Hong Kong University. p. 51.
  15. Sanko (1998). Hiroshima Peace Memorial (Genbaku Dome). The City of Hiroshima and the Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation.
  16. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-25. Retrieved 2010-09-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  18. United States Strategic Bombing Survey (June 1946). "U. S. Strategic Bombing Survey: The Effects of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki". nuclearfiles.org. Archived from the original on October 11, 2004. Retrieved July 26, 2009.
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  25. Seldon, Mark (December 2016). "American Fire Bombing and Atomic Bombing of Japan in History and Memory". The Asia-Pacific Journal. 14. Archived from the original on 2019-03-26. Retrieved 2019-03-26 via Japan Focus.
  26. 1 2 Roger Angell, From the Archives, "Hersey and History", The New Yorker, July 31, 1995, p. 66.
  27. Richie, Donald (August 16, 2009). "The pure horror of Hiroshima" . The Japan Times . Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  28. Sharp, "From Yellow Peril to Japanese Wasteland: John Hersey's 'Hiroshima'", Twentieth Century Literature 46 (2000): 434–452, accessed March 15, 2012.
  29. Jon Michaub, "Eighty-Five From the Archive: John Hersey" The New Yorker, June 8, 2010, np.
  30. John Hersey, Hiroshima (New York: Random House, 1989).
  31. 広島市 市の木・市の花. Archived from the original on April 8, 2014. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
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