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Mariano Fortuny's depiction of the Battle of Tetuan , oil on canvas (MNAC).
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The Hispano-Moroccan War, also known as the Spanish–Moroccan War, the First Moroccan War, the Tetuán War, or, in Spain, as the African War (Spanish : Guerra de África), was fought from Spain's declaration of war on Morocco on 22 October 1859 until the Treaty of Wad-Ras on 26 April 1860. It began with a conflict over the borders of the Spanish city of Ceuta and was fought in northern Morocco. Morocco sued for peace after the Spanish victory at the Battle of Tetuán.
Throughout the 19th century, Morocco suffered military defeats at the hands of Europeans powers, notably in the Franco-Moroccan War in 1844. In 1856 the Moroccan government signed the Anglo-Moroccan Treaty with the British which set the Moroccan customs duty at 10% and brought an end to royal monopolies.
The casus belli for Spain were the unrelenting attacks of Berber tribesmen on Spanish settlements in North Africa; following unfruitful negotiations with Sultan Abd al-Rahman vis-à-vis the reparations (the latter, unable to control the cabilas , actually died in the midst of negotiations and was replaced by his brother Muhammad IV), a declaration of war propelled by Leopoldo O'Donnell was unanimously passed by the Congress of Deputies on 22 October 1859.
The Spaniards reached Tetuán on February 3, 1860. They bombarded the city for the following two days which allowed chaos to reign free. Riffian tribesmen poured into the city and pillaged it (mainly the Jewish quarters). The Moroccan historian Ahmad ibn Khalid al-Nasiri described the looting during the bombardment:
A tumult broke out in the town,... the hand of the mob stretched out to plunder, and even [normal] people took off the cloak of decency.... People of the Jabal, and the Arabs, and the riffraff began to pillage and steal; they broke down the doors of the houses and the shops.... keeping at it the whole night until the morning
On February 5 the Spanish entered the city, ending both the battle and the war.
Following an armistice of 32 days, 20,000,000 duros were paid.the Treaty of Wad-Ras or Peace of Tétouan was signed on 26 April 1860. The treaty contemplated the extension on perpetuity of the Spanish presence in Ceuta and Melilla, the end of tribal raids on those cities, the recognition by Morocco of Spanish sovereignty over the Chafarinas Islands, the retrocession of the territory of Santa Cruz de la Mar Pequeña (a territory of uncertain location by that time, ultimately Sidi Ifni) to Spain in order to establish a fishing post, the permission to missionaries for establishing a Christian church in Tétouan, and the Spanish administration over the later city until reparations of
Once Morocco paid the compensation (partially through money lent by the British), O'Donnell retired his troops from Tétouan.
Melilla is a Spanish autonomous city located on the northwest coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco. It has an area of 12.3 km2 (4.7 sq mi). Melilla, an exclave, is one of two permanently inhabited Spanish cities in mainland Africa, the other being Ceuta. It was part of the Province of Málaga until 14 March 1995, when the city's Statute of Autonomy was passed.
Tétouan, nicknamed the White Dove, is a city located in northern Morocco. It lies along the Martil Valley and is one of the two major ports of Morocco on the Mediterranean Sea, a few miles south of the Strait of Gibraltar, and about 60 km (40 mi) E.S.E. of Tangier. In the 2014 Moroccan census, the city recorded a population of 380,787 inhabitants. It is part of the administrative division Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima.
The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.
The Treaty of Fes, was a treaty signed by Sultan Abd al-Hafid of Morocco under duress and French diplomat Eugène Regnault on 30 March 1912. It established the French protectorate in Morocco, and remained in effect until the Franco-Moroccan Joint Declaration of March 2, 1956.
MoulayMuhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman, also known as Muhammad IV was the Sultan of Morocco from 1859 to 1873. He was a member of the Alaouite dynasty.
Moghreb Athlétic de Tétouan is a Moroccan football club based in Tetouan. MA Tétouan was founded in 1922 and used to compete in the Spanish leagues under the names Athletic Club Tetuán (1922–1947) and Club Atlético de Tetuán (1947–1956) till 1956 when Morocco gained independence from Spain as the club made the transition to the Moroccan league after the club split in two forming Moghreb Atlético Tetuàn (Moroccan) and AD Ceuta FC (Spanish).
The Fuerzas Regulares Indígenas, known simply as the Regulares (Regulars), are volunteer infantry units of the Spanish Army, largely recruited in the cities of Ceuta and Melilla. Consisting of indigenous infantry and cavalry recruited in Spanish Morocco, forming part of the Army of Africa and officered by Spaniards, these troops played a significant role in the Spanish Civil War (1936–39).
The Second Melillan campaign was a conflict in 1909 in Morocco around Melilla. The fighting involved local Riffians and the Spanish Army.
The Battle of Tétouan was fought in 1860, near Tétouan, Morocco, between a Spanish army sent to North Africa and the tribal levies which at the time made up the Moroccan Army. The battle was part of the Spanish-Moroccan War of 1859-1860.
Santa Cruz de la Mar Pequeña was a Spanish settlement on the south-western coast of Morocco, across from the Canary Islands, founded in 1476 as a trading post with a fortress. It was located close to a lagoon not far off Cape Juby.
Club Atlético Tetuán was a Spanish football club based in Tétouan, Spanish protectorate of Morocco. The club played a single season in La Liga in 1951-52, after winning the Segunda División Southern Zone in 1950-51. This ended in relegation after finishing last of 16 teams.
Sania Ramel Airport is an airport serving Tétouan, a city in the Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima region in Morocco. It is also the closest airport to the Spanish city of Ceuta. The airport served over 15,000 passengers in the year 2008.
The July 1936 military uprising in Melilla occurred at the start of the Spanish Civil War. The rebels seized the main garrisons of the Spanish Army in Africa and by 18 July had crushed the resistance of the army officers loyal to the Republican government. The supporters of the Second Spanish Republic were detained or shot.
The Battle of Castillejos was a battle fought on New Year's Day, 1860, between the Spanish Army of Africa under Leopoldo O'Donnell and the Moroccan Army as the Spanish army attempted to capture the cities of Tetuan and Tangier. The Spanish were victorious.
The Morocco–Spain border consists of three non-contiguous lines totalling 18.5 km around the Spanish territories of Ceuta (8 km), Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera and Melilla (10.5 km). These three exclaves form part of Spain's plazas de soberanía, which also includes a number of small islands off the Moroccan coast.
The history of Tétouan stretches over 2000 years to its origins as a Mauretanian Berber settlement named Tamuda, located at near present-day Tetouan by the south bank of the Martil Valley. The site later became a Phoenician trading post. During the time of Emperor Augustus, Tamuda became part of Roman province Mauritania Tingitana.
The European enclaves in North Africa were towns, fortifications and trading posts on the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of western North Africa, obtained by various European powers in the period before they had the military capacity to occupy the interior. The earliest of these were established in the 11th century CE by the Italian Maritime republics; Spain and Portugal were the main European powers involved; both France and, briefly, England also had a presence. Most of these enclaves had been evacuated by the late 18th century, and today only the Spanish possessions of Ceuta, Melilla, and the Plazas de soberanía remain.
Abu al-Hassan Ali al-Mandari al-Garnati, also known as Almandari, Almandali, Al-Mandri I and Sidi al-Mandri, was the re-founder of the city of Tetouan in Morocco. He was born in Granada, Spain in the 15th century A.D. and died in Tétouan on an unknown date between 1515 and 1541.
The Treaty of Wad Ras was a treaty between Morocco and Spain, signed at the end of the Tetuan War on April 26, 1860 at Wad Ras, located between Tetuan and Tangier. The conditions of the treaty exacerbated Morocco's defeat in the war, with major concessions to Spain. Morocco was forced to pay a 20 million duro indemnity—far greater the balance of the Makhzen's treasury; the territories of the Spanish exclaves of Ceuta and Melilla were extended further into Moroccan territory; and Sidi Ifni became a Spanish possession.
El Eco de Tetuan was a hispanophone newspaper printed in Tetuan, Morocco. The first publication was on May 1, 1860, shortly after the Treaty of Wad Ras marked the end of the Hispano-Moroccan War. With the exception of El Liberal Africano first published in Ceuta around 1820, El Eco de Tetuan was the first newspaper in Morocco. It was edited by Pedro Antonio de Alarcón.
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