Historia de Belgrano y de la Independencia Argentina (in Spanish, History of Belgrano and of the Independence of Argentina) is an Argentine history book written by Bartolomé Mitre. It is mainly a biography of Manuel Belgrano, but the author expanded the scope into the whole Argentine War of Independence, where Belgrano was involved. It was the first book about the history of Argentina, and as such it was the starting point of the historiography of Argentina. It includes as well the autobiography of Manuel Belgrano, which was published by the first time in this book.
Bartolomé Mitre Martínez was an Argentine statesman, military figure, and author. He was the President of Argentina from 1862 to 1868.
Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano y González, usually referred to as Manuel Belgrano, was an Argentine economist, lawyer, politician, and military leader. He took part in the Argentine Wars of Independence and created the Flag of Argentina. He is regarded as one of the main Libertadores of the country.
The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli and José de San Martín against royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown. On July 9, 1816, an assembly met in San Miguel de Tucumán, declared full independence with provisions for a national constitution.
When it was edited, the book generated controversies between the author and Dalmacio Vélez Sarsfield and Juan Bautista Alberdi.
Dalmacio Vélez Sarsfield was an Argentine lawyer and politician who wrote the Argentine Civil Code of 1869, which remained in force until 2015, when it was replaced by the new Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación.
Juan Bautista Alberdi was an Argentine political theorist and diplomat. Although he lived most of his life in exile in Montevideo, Uruguay and in Chile, he influenced the content of the Constitution of Argentina of 1853.
The flag of Argentina is a triband, composed of three equally wide horizontal bands coloured light blue and white. There are multiple interpretations on the reasons for those colors. The flag was created by Manuel Belgrano, in line with the creation of the Cockade of Argentina, and was first raised at the city of Rosario on February 27, 1812, during the Argentine War of Independence. The National Flag Memorial was later built on the site. The First Triumvirate did not approve the use of the flag, but the Asamblea del Año XIII allowed the use of the flag as a war flag. It was the Congress of Tucumán which finally designated it as the national flag, in 1816. A yellow Sun of May was added to the center in 1818.
The Jujuy Exodus was an episode of the Argentine War of Independence. It was a massive forced displacement of people from the Jujuy Province, by orders of General Manuel Belgrano, conducted by his patriot forces that were battling a Royalist army. The population was compelled to leave under the threat of execution.
Manuel Dorrego was an Argentine statesman and soldier. He was governor of Buenos Aires in 1820, and then again from 1827 to 1828.
The Argentine National Historical Museum is located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and is a museum dedicated to the history of Argentina, exhibiting objects relating to the May Revolution and the Argentine War of Independence.
Tomás Manuel de Anchorena was an Argentine statesman and lawyer. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina.
The Paraguay campaign (1810–11) was the attempt by a Buenos Aires-sponsored militia, commanded by Manuel Belgrano, to win the royalist Intendency of Paraguay for the cause of May Revolution. In Paraguay it is considered as their War of Independence. The first battles fought were the Battle of Campichuelo and Battle of Campo Maracana, in which Argentinians claimed victory. However, they were completely vanquished in the subsequent Battle of Paraguarí and Battle of Tacuarí. The campaign ended in a military failure and Paraguay broke its links with the Spanish crown just two months after Belgrano's withdrawal, starting its course towards full independence.
Second Alto Perú campaign (1812–1813): Manuel Belgrano led the Northern Army to victory in the Battles of Tucuman and Salta in the north of present-day Argentina. These cities have remained under the Argentine government ever since. Again, they were stopped in Upper Perú in the battles of Vilcapugio and Ayohuma. In order to prevent the Spanish from getting supplies or taking prisoners in the city of San Salvador de Jujuy, Belgrano ordered the evacuation of the people and the burning of anything else left behind. This is known as the Jujuy Exodus.
The Battle of Tacuarí was a battle in Southern Paraguay between revolutionary forces under the command of General Manuel Belgrano, member of the Primera Junta government of Argentina, and Paraguayan troops under colonel Manuel Atanasio Cabañas, at the time at the service of the royalists.
Los mitos de la historia argentina is a series of books written by Felipe Pigna, focused on the History of Argentina. As of 2010 the series have four books, which span from the Spanish arrival to America up to the governments of Juan Domingo Perón.
The autobiography of Manuel Belgrano was written in 1814. It is part of his Memories and it was first published by Bartolomé Mitre in 1877 as part of the book Historia de Belgrano y de la Independencia Argentina. The second part of the Memories deals with the Paraguay campaign and the third and last with the Battle of Tucumán, being included at the Memorias Póstumas of José María Paz in 1855.
The Historiography of Argentina is composed of the works of the authors that have written about the History of Argentina. The first historiographical works are usually considered to be those by Bartolomé Mitre and other authors from the middle 19th century.
The Anniversary of the First National Government is a public holiday of Argentina, commemorating the May Revolution and the creation on May 25, 1810 of the Primera Junta, which is considered the first patriotic government of Argentina. Along with the 9 July, which commemorates the Declaration of Independence, it is considered a National Day of Argentina.
Belgrano is an Argentine film, based on the life of the Argentine national hero Manuel Belgrano. It is being produced in the context of the Argentina Bicentennial, which raised the public interest in the May Revolution and the Argentine War of Independence. Pablo Rago, one of the actors of the aforementioned movie, had the lead role as Belgrano. He left the TV series Botineras before its ending, in order to take part in this movie.
The flag of Macha is the name given to a pair of flags of Argentina found at a chapel in the hamlet of Titiri, near the village of Macha, north of Potosí, Bolivia. They are considered to be the first physical flags created by Manuel Belgrano, who in November 1813 hid the standards to prevent them from falling into enemy hands. They were discovered in 1885. Bolivia kept one of those flags at Sucre; the other was given to Argentina in 1896 and is currently kept at the National Historical Museum. Tucumán Province has used it as provincial flag since 2010. The flag preserved in Argentina is a triband of blue, white and blue bands, like the modern flag of Argentina, but the one kept in Bolivia is a triband of white, blue and white.
Historia de San Martín y de la emancipación sudamericana is a biography of José de San Martín, written by Bartolomé Mitre in 1869. Along with his biography of Manuel Belgrano, it is one of the earliest major works of the historiography of Argentina.
The Yatasto relay was the handover of the command of the Army of the North by Manuel Belgrano to José de San Martín, in January 1814, during the Argentine War of Independence. It is named after the Yatasto relay, a horse relay at the modern Salta Province, but modern historians consider it could have taken place elsewhere.
The Bicentennial of the flag of Argentina was celebrated on February 27, 2012. It commemorated the 200th anniversary of the creation of the flag of Argentina by Manuel Belgrano, during the Argentine War of Independence. Most celebrations took place at Rosario, as the event took place in that city.
The Plaza Belgrano is a plaza located in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. It was the location of the battle of Tucumán during the Argentine Wars of Independence.
Joseph Gregorio Belgrano (1762-1823) was an Argentine military officer and politician. His brother was the General Manuel Belgrano, member of the Primera Junta and hero in Argentine War of Independence.