|Directed by||Hideo Gosha|
|Produced by||Fuji Telecasting, |
|Written by||Shinobu Hashimoto|
|Starring|| Shintaro Katsu |
|Distributed by|| Daiei Film (Japan), |
Japanese Film Exchange (USA),
Daiei International Films (USA)
|9 August 1969|
Hitokiri (人斬り) is a 1969 Japanese samurai film directed by Hideo Gosha set during the end of the Tokugawa shogunate and based on the lives of the historical Four Hitokiri of the Bakumatsu. It is notable for starring the famous author Yukio Mishima.
Okada Izō is a rōnin born into poverty who joins the Kinnō-Tō, a group of Imperial loyalists based in Tosa and headed by Takechi Hanpeita. Izō soon becomes a well known and successful killer, and he is stubbornly loyal to Hanpeita. However, Sakamoto Ryōma warns him that he is merely "Takechi's dog" and that Hanpeita will end up betraying him. After Izō fouls a night attack by the Kinnō-Tō on Ishibe Station by revealing his identity, Hanpeita's wrath at his blunder and resentment at his own subordinacy begins to test Izō's loyalty. Eventually abandoning Hanpeita, the regretful Izō returns and apologizes. He is then ordered to assassinate the aristocrat Anegakōji Kintomo using the sword of Tanaka Shinbei. The assassination is successful, and during his interrogation over Anegakōji's death, Tanaka commits harakiri after his recovered sword is presented to him as evidence. As Hanpeita becomes increasingly determined to succeed in his plan to become daimyo of Tosa by eliminating his opponents, it becomes necessary to sacrifice Izō, which he does by betraying him after he is arrested as a rōnin by the Aizu Mimawarigumi and later by trying to poison him with amygdalin-drugged sake (座枯らし). Izō survives, but, disillusioned, confesses to his murders for the Kinnō-Tō, and is condemned to crucifixion. Before being killed, he is told that Hanpeita will be forced to commit harakiri.
Yukio Mishima, born Kimitake Hiraoka was a Japanese author, poet, playwright, actor, model, Shintoist, nationalist, and founder of the Tatenokai, an unarmed civilian militia. Mishima is considered one of the most important Japanese authors of the 20th century. He was considered for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1968, but the award went to his countryman and benefactor Yasunari Kawabata. His works include the novels Confessions of a Mask and The Temple of the Golden Pavilion, and the autobiographical essay Sun and Steel. Mishima's work is characterized by "its luxurious vocabulary and decadent metaphors, its fusion of traditional Japanese and modern Western literary styles, and its obsessive assertions of the unity of beauty, eroticism and death".
The Four Hitokiri of the Bakumatsu was a term given to four samurai during the Bakumatsu era in Japanese history. The four men were Kawakami Gensai, Kirino Toshiaki, Tanaka Shinbei, and Okada Izō. They opposed the Tokugawa shogunate. These four samurai were warrior elite and widely considered undefeatable by normal people. The word hitokiri literally means "manslayer" or "man cutter," as the kanji 人 means person, while 斬 can alternatively mean slay or cut.
Sakamoto Ryōma was a Japanese samurai and influential figure of the Bakumatsu and establishment of the Empire of Japan in the late Edo period.
Tanaka Shinbei was one of the Four Hitokiri of the Bakumatsu, elite samurai, active in Japan during the late Tokugawa shogunate in the 1860s.
IZO is a 2004 Japanese film directed by Takashi Miike. The main character of the film is Izo Okada (1832–1865), the historical samurai and assassin in 19th-century Japan who was tortured and executed by beheading in Tosa.
Okada Izō was a Japanese samurai of the late Edo period, feared as one of the four most notable assassins of the Bakumatsu period. He was a member of Tosa Kinnoto in his hometown, Tosa Domain. Izō and Tanaka Shinbei were active in Kyoto as assassins under the leadership of Takechi Hanpeita.
Samurai Executioner, known in Japan as Kubikiri Asa (首斬り朝), is a 10-volume manga created by writer Kazuo Koike and artist Goseki Kojima, the same team that created the popular Lone Wolf and Cub series. The series was first serialized in Japan, from 1972–1976. Samurai Executioner is set earlier than Lone Wolf and Cub, with the main character of the former series appearing in a chapter of the latter.
Hallo! Ryōma is a Japanese seinen manga written by Tetsuya Takeda and illustrated by Yū Koyama. It is a comical and serious account mixing history and fiction of the life of the Bakumatsu period leader Sakamoto Ryōma.
Shishi (志士), sometimes known as Ishin Shishi (維新志士), were a group of Japanese political activists of the late Edo period. The term shishi translates as "men of high purpose". While it is usually applied to the anti-shogunate, pro-sonnō jōi samurai primarily from the southwestern clans of Satsuma, Chōshū, and Tosa, the term shishi is also used by some with reference to supporters of the shogunate who held similar sonnō jōi views.
Chanbara (チャンバラ), also commonly spelled "chambara", meaning "sword fighting" movies, denotes the Japanese film genre called samurai cinema in English and is roughly equivalent to Western and swashbuckler films. Chanbara is a sub-category of jidaigeki, which equates to period drama. Jidaigeki may refer to a story set in a historical period, though not necessarily dealing with a samurai character or depicting swordplay.
Yamauchi Toyoshige, also known as Yamauchi Yōdō, was a Japanese daimyō in the Shikoku region in the late Edo period. He was usually referred to as “Lord Yōdō” in Western accounts.
Ryōmaden (龍馬伝) is the 49th NHK Taiga drama. It was shown on NHK from January 3 to November 28, 2010, spanning 48 episodes. The story centers on the life of 19th-century Japanese historical figures Iwasaki Yatarō and Sakamoto Ryōma. It has been announced that the series will be aired in several other countries, for example Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand.
Seppuku, sometimes referred to as Harakiri, a native Japanese kun reading, is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment. It was originally reserved for samurai in their code of honor but was also practiced by other Japanese people during the Shōwa period to restore honor for themselves or for their families. As a samurai practice, seppuku was used voluntarily by samurai to die with honor rather than fall into the hands of their enemies, as a form of capital punishment for samurai who had committed serious offenses, or performed because they had brought shame to themselves. The ceremonial disembowelment, which is usually part of a more elaborate ritual and performed in front of spectators, consists of plunging a short blade, traditionally a tantō, into the belly and drawing the blade from left to right, slicing the belly open. If the cut is deep enough, it can sever the descending aorta, causing a rapid death by blood loss.
Nakaoka Shintarō was a samurai in Bakumatsu period Japan, and a close associate of Sakamoto Ryōma in the movement to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate.
Takechi Zuizan, also known as Takechi Hanpeita, was a samurai of the Tosa han during the Bakumatsu period in Japan. Influenced by the effects of the Perry Expedition, Takechi formed the Tosa Kinnō-tō which was loyal to the Sonnō Jōi movement. The infamous Hitokiri operated under the auspices of this party, and Hanpeita used the phrase "Heaven's punishment" to refer to their killings. The Kinnō-tō killing of Yoshida Tōyō on 6 May 1862, led to Sonnō Jōi becoming the prevalent philosophy of The Tosa Han. Takechi became a central figure of the Sonnō Jōi movement in Kyoto and Edo but following the Coup of August 18, 1863, he was imprisoned by the order of the former head of the Tosa Domain Yamauchi Toyoshige. Following an imprisonment of 1 year 8 months and 20 days, he was ordered to commit seppuku which marked the end of the Tosa Kinnō-tō. He was survived by his wife, Takechi Tomiko. He didn't have any mistresses.
Viscount Kōno Togama was a Japanese statesman in Meiji period Japan.
Count Hijikata Hisamoto was a Japanese politician and cabinet minister of the Meiji period.
Ryū ga Gotoku Ishin! is a spin-off game in the Ryū ga Gotoku video game series, known in English localization as Yakuza. The video game was developed and published by Sega for PlayStation 3 and was a launch title for PlayStation 4.
Samurai Sensei (サムライせんせい) is a Japanese television drama based on the manga written by Esusuke Kuroe about a samurai who time-travelled 150 years to modern day Japan. The series was broadcast by TV Asahi from 13 October to 11 December 2015.
Katsu Kaishū (勝海舟) is a 1974 Japanese television series. It is the 12th NHK taiga drama. Tetsuya Watari was forced to step down from the role of Katsu Kaishū because of his illness so he appeared only first 9 episodes.