Hjalmar Branting

Last updated
Hjalmar Branting
Hjalmar branting stor bild.jpg
Hjalmar Branting
Prime Minister of Sweden
In office
10 March 1920 27 October 1920
Monarch Gustaf V
Preceded by Nils Edén
Succeeded by Louis De Geer
In office
13 October 1921 19 April 1923
MonarchGustaf V
Preceded by Oscar von Sydow
Succeeded by Ernst Trygger
In office
18 October 1924 24 January 1925
MonarchGustaf V
Preceded by Ernst Trygger
Succeeded by Rickard Sandler
Personal details
Born(1860-11-23)23 November 1860
Stockholm
Died24 February 1925(1925-02-24) (aged 64)
Stockholm
Political party Social Democrats
Spouse(s) Anna Branting (née Jäderin)
Signature Hjalmar Branting Signature.svg

Loudspeaker.svg Karl Hjalmar Branting   (23 November 1860 24 February 1925) was a Swedish politician. He was the leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party (1907–1925), and Prime Minister during three separate periods (1920, 1921–1923, and 1924–1925). When Branting came to power in 1920, he was the first Social Democratic Prime Minister of Sweden. When he took office for a second term after the general election of 1921, he became the first socialist politician in Europe to do so following elections with universal suffrage. In 1921, Sweden's Prime Minister Hjalmar Branting shared the Nobel Peace Prize with the Norwegian secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union Christian Lous Lange.

Sweden constitutional monarchy in Northern Europe

Sweden, formal name: the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million of which 2.5 million have a foreign background. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre (57/sq mi). The highest concentration is in the southern half of the country.

Swedish Social Democratic Party political party

The Swedish Social Democratic Party, contesting elections as the Arbetarepartiet–Socialdemokraterna and usually referred to just as the Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterna), is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden. The current party leader since 2012 is Stefan Löfven, who has also been Prime Minister of Sweden since 2014.

Contents

Biography

He was born to the professor Lars Gabriel Branting and the noblewoman and pianist Emma af Georgii. Branting was educated in Stockholm and at Uppsala University. He developed a scientific background in mathematical astronomy and was an assistant at the Stockholm Observatory, but gave up his devotion to scientific work to become a journalist in 1884 and began editing the newspapers Tiden and Social-Demokraten. His decision to publish an article by the more radical socialist Axel Danielsson - a piece denounced by opponents as insulting to religious sensitivities - resulted in political convictions for blasphemy and imprisonment for both men. [1] Branting was imprisoned for three months in 1888. [2]

Stockholm Capital city in Södermanland and Uppland, Sweden

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries; 965,232 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.6 million in the urban area, and 2.4 million in the metropolitan area. The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea. Outside the city to the east, and along the coast, is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is also the capital of Stockholm County.

Uppsala University research university in Uppsala, Sweden

Uppsala University is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477. It ranks among the world's 100 best universities in several high-profile international rankings. The university uses "Gratiae veritas naturae" as its motto and embraces natural sciences.

Stockholm Observatory

The Stockholm Observatory is an astronomical observatory and institution in Stockholm, Sweden, founded in the 18th century and today part of Stockholm University. In 1931, the new Stockholm Observatory, nicknamed "Saltis", was inaugurated on the Karlsbaderberget at Saltsjöbaden, near Stockholm, and operated until 2001.

Together with August Palm, Branting was in 1889 one of the main organizers of the Swedish Social Democratic Party. He was its first Member of Parliament from 1896, and for six years the only one.

August Palm Swedish politician

August Teodor Palm was a Swedish socialist activist and a key person in introducing the then revolutionary social democratic labour movement in Sweden.

In the early years of the 20th century, Branting led the Social Democrats in opposing a war to keep Norway united with Sweden. When the crisis came in 1905, he coined the slogan "Hands off Norway, King!" The Social Democrats organized resistance to a call-up of reserves and a general strike against a war, and are credited with a substantial share in preventing one.

Norway Country in Northern Europe

Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula; the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard are also part of the Kingdom of Norway. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land.

Hjalmar Branting accepted Eduard Bernstein's revision of Marxism and became a reformist socialist, advocating a peaceful transition from capitalism towards socialism. He believed that if workers were given the vote, this could be achieved by parliamentary ways. Branting supported the February Revolution in Russia in 1917. He was pro-Menshevik and defended the government of Alexander Kerensky, whom he even personally visited in Petrograd.

Eduard Bernstein German politician

Eduard Bernstein was a German social-democratic Marxist theorist and politician. A member of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), Bernstein had held close association to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, but he saw flaws in Marxist thinking and began to criticize views held by Marxism when he investigated and challenged the Marxist materialist theory of history. He rejected significant parts of Marxist theory that were based upon Hegelian metaphysics and rejected the Hegelian dialectical perspective.

Marxism economic and sociopolitical worldview based on the works of Karl Marx

Marxism is a theory and method of working-class self-emancipation. As a theory, it relies on a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement. Within the socialist movement, reformism is the view that gradual changes through existing institutions can eventually lead to fundamental changes in a society’s political and economic systems. Reformism as a political tendency and hypothesis of social change grew out of opposition to revolutionary socialism, which contends that revolutionary upheaval is a necessary precondition for the structural changes necessary to transform a capitalist system to a qualitatively different socialist economic system.

When the October Revolution broke out the same year, Branting condemned the Bolshevik seizure of power. 1917 saw a split in the Swedish Social Democratic Party on this question, and the youth league and the revolutionary sections of the party broke away and formed the Social Democratic Left Party of Sweden, headed by Zeth Höglund. This group soon became the Swedish Communist Party. Zeth Höglund later returned to the Social Democratic Party, and wrote a two-volume biography about Hjalmar Branting.

October Revolution Bolshevik uprising during the Russian Revolution of 1917

The October Revolution, officially known in Soviet historiography as the Great October Socialist Revolution and commonly referred to as the October Uprising, the October Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Bolshevik Coup or the Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place through an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November 1917.

Young Left is a socialist, Marxist, and feminist youth organisation. It is the official youth wing of the Swedish Left Party. The organisation calls themselves a ''revolutionary youth organisation with roots in the communist part of the labour movement''.

Left Party (Sweden) socialist and feminist political party in Sweden

The Left Party is a socialist political party in Sweden. The party originated as a split from the Swedish Social Democratic Party in 1917, as the Swedish Social Democratic Left Party, and became the Communist Party of Sweden in 1921. In 1967, the party was renamed Left Party - the Communists; it adopted its current name in 1990. The party has never been part of a government at the national level.

As Prime Minister he brought Sweden into the League of Nations and was personally active as a delegate within it. When the question of whether Åland should be handed over to Sweden after the independence of Finland from Russia was brought up, he let the League of Nation decide upon the issue. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1921 for his work in the League of Nations, sharing the prize with the Norwegian Christian Lous Lange.

Monuments and memorials

Monument to Hjalmar Branting at Stockholm Hjalmar Branting Denkmal Stockholm DSC 0005w.jpg
Monument to Hjalmar Branting at Stockholm

Branting is commemorated by the Branting Monument in Stockholm. Additionally in Gothenburg, there is a tram and bus interchange named after Branting, in Swedish it is Hjalmar Brantingsplatsen. Stockholms Plads (Stockholm Square) in Copenhagen was renamed Hjalmar Brantings Plads in 1925.

See also

Related Research Articles

Per Albin Hansson Swedish 20th century prime minister

Per Albin Hansson was a Swedish politician, chairman of the Social Democrats from 1925 and two-time Prime Minister in four governments between 1932 and 1946, governing all that period save for a short-lived crisis in the summer of 1936, which he ended by forming a coalition government with his main adversary, Axel Pehrsson-Bramstorp. During World War II, in which Sweden maintained a policy of neutrality, he presided over a government of national unity that included all major parties in the Riksdag with the exception of the Communist Party. Forging the Social Democratic grip on Swedish politics that would last throughout the century, Hansson left an astounding legacy on his party as well as creating the idea of Sweden to become "Folkhemmet", "The People's Home". This remained intact until the early 1990s, including a strict policy of neutrality, a wide-stretching welfare state through parliamentary legislation, and reformist social corporatism rather than Marxist socialization of the means of production. Following the war, Hansson formed a Social Democratic cabinet enjoying absolute majority in the Riksdag before succumbing to a heart attack on his way home from work late at night on 6 October 1946.

Christian Lous Lange Norwegian diplomat and Nobel Peace Prize recipient

Christian Lous Lange was a Norwegian historian, teacher, and political scientist. He was one of the world's foremost exponents of the theory and practice of internationalism.

Nils Edén Swedish 20th century prime minister

Nils Edén was a Swedish historian and liberal politician, Prime Minister of Sweden 1917–1920, and along with Hjalmar Branting acknowledged as co-architect of Sweden's transition from quasi-absolute monarchy to a parliamentary democracy with equal male and female suffrage.

Nils Flyg Swedish politician

Nils Svante Flyg was a Swedish Communist politician who turned pro-Nazi during World War II.

Zeth Höglund Swedish politician

Carl Zeth "Zäta" Konstantin Höglund was a leading Swedish communist politician, anti-militarist, author, journalist and mayor (finansborgarråd) of Stockholm (1940–1950).

Ture Nerman Swedish socialist

Ture Nerman was a Swedish socialist. As a journalist and author, he was a well-known political activist in his time. He also wrote poems and songs.

Fredrik Ström Swedish politician

Otto Fredrik Ström was a Swedish politician, editor and a prolific writer. He held a seat in the Riksdag from 1916–1921, and from 1930 - 1948.

Carl Lindhagen Swedish lawyer, socialist politician and pacifist

Carl Albert Lindhagen was a Swedish lawyer, socialist politician, and pacifist.

Kata Dalström Swedish politician

Anna Maria Katarina "Kata" Dalström, née Carlberg, was a Swedish socialist and writer. She belonged to the leading socialist agitators and leftist writers in contemporary Sweden, and has been referred to as "the mother of the Swedish socialist working class movement".

Karl Kilbom Swedish politician

Karl Kilbom was a Swedish Socialist politician.

Ernst Trygger Swedish 20th century prime minister

Ernst Trygger was a Swedish jurist professor and conservative politician. He served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1923 to 1924. He also served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1928 to 1930 in the government of Arvid Lindman. He was a member of the first chamber of the Swedish Riksdag from 1898 to 1937, and also leader of the conservatives in that chamber from 1913 to 1933.

Rickard Sandler Prime Minister of Sweden

Rickard Johannes Sandler was a Swedish Social Democratic politician. He served as Minister without Portfolio in the Swedish government from 10 March 1920 to 30 June 1920, Minister for Finance from 1 July 1920 to 27 October 1920, Minister without Portfolio from 13 October 1921 to 19 April 1923, Minister for Trade from 14 October 1924 to 24 January 1925, Prime Minister from 24 January 1925 to 7 June 1926, and as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 24 September 1932 to 19 June 1936 and again from 28 September 1936 to 13 December 1939. Sandler is the only Swedish Social Democratic Prime Minister who did not also hold the post of party chairman. He is also the second-youngest Prime Minister of Sweden, aged 41 when he took office.

Hinke Bergegren Swedish politician

Henrik "Hinke" Bergegren was a Swedish Social Democratic politician.

1921 Swedish general election election

Early general elections were held in Sweden between 10 and 26 September 1921. In the first elections held under universal suffrage, the Swedish Social Democratic Party remained the largest party, winning 93 of the 230 seats in the Second Chamber of the Riksdag. Party leader Hjalmar Branting formed his second government.

Events in the year 1869 in Norway.

The first cabinet of Hjalmar Branting was the cabinet of Sweden between 10 March 1920 and 27 October 1920.

The third cabinet of Hjalmar Branting was the cabinet of Sweden between 14 October 1924 and 24 February 1925.

Fredrik Vilhelm Thorsson Swedish politician

Fredrik Vilhelm Thorsson was a Swedish politician and shoemaker. He was Minister for Finance during three separate periods, and Minister for Trade in 1920.

Helmer Molander Swedish politician

Helmer Molander was a Swedish politician.

Hjalmar Brantings Plads square in Copenhagen

'Hjalmar Brantings Plads is a square between Stockholmsgade and Oluf Palmes Gade in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is named for the Nobel Peace Prize-winning former Swedish prime minister Hjalmar Branting.

References

  1. Enander, Crister (14 December 2009). "I krigarens lofliga uppsåt att såra och döda". Tidningen Kulturen. Retrieved 21 May 2010. (in Swedish)
  2. Robertson, J. M. (2003). History of Freethought in the Nineteenth Century, Part 2. Kessinger Publishing. p. 487. ISBN   0-7661-3955-7.
Party political offices
Preceded by
Claes Tholin
Leader of the Social Democratic Party
1907–1925
Succeeded by
Per Albin Hansson
Political offices
Preceded by
Conrad Carleson
Minister for Finance
1917–1918
Succeeded by
Fredrik Thorsson
Preceded by
Nils Edén
Prime Minister of Sweden
1920
Succeeded by
Louis De Geer
Preceded by
Herman Wrangel
Minister for Foreign Affairs
1921–1923
Succeeded by
Carl Hederstierna
Preceded by
Oscar von Sydow
Prime Minister of Sweden
1921–1923
Succeeded by
Ernst Trygger
Preceded by
Ernst Trygger
Prime Minister of Sweden
1924–1925
Succeeded by
Rickard Sandler