Hockenheim

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Hockenheim
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Coat of arms
Location of Hockenheim
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Hockenheim
Baden-Wuerttemberg location map.svg
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Hockenheim
Coordinates: 49°19′05″N08°32′50″E / 49.31806°N 8.54722°E / 49.31806; 8.54722 Coordinates: 49°19′05″N08°32′50″E / 49.31806°N 8.54722°E / 49.31806; 8.54722
Country Germany
State Baden-Württemberg
Admin. region Karlsruhe
District Rhein-Neckar-Kreis
Municipal assoc. with Reilingen, Neulußheim and Altlußheim
Government
   Lord Mayor Dieter Gummer (SPD)
Area
  Total34.84 km2 (13.45 sq mi)
Elevation
102 m (335 ft)
Population
(2017-12-31) [1]
  Total21,739
  Density620/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
68754–68766
Dialling codes 06205
Vehicle registration HD
Website www.hockenheim.de

Hockenheim ( Loudspeaker.svg pronunciation  ) is a town in northwest Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about 20 km south of Mannheim and 10 km west of Walldorf. It is located in the Upper Rhine valley on the tourist theme routes Baden Asparagus Route ("Badische Spargelstraße") and Bertha Benz Memorial Route . The town is widely known for its Hockenheimring, a motor racing course, which has hosted over 30 Formula One German Grand Prix races since 1970.

Baden-Württemberg State in Germany

Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany’s third-largest state, with an area of 35,751 km2 (13,804 sq mi) and 11 million inhabitants. Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and partly sovereign, federated state which was formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern. The largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Pforzheim, Reutlingen and Ulm.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Contents

Hockenheim is one of the six largest towns in the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis district; since 1999 the number of inhabitants exceeded the 20,000 threshold, thus the town received the status of a regional central town ("Große Kreisstadt") in 2001. It is twinned with the French town of Commercy, the German town of Hohenstein-Ernstthal in Saxony and the American town of Mooresville, North Carolina.

Rhein-Neckar-Kreis District in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Rhein-Neckar-Kreis is a Landkreis (district) in the northwest of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Neighboring districts are Bergstraße, Odenwaldkreis, Neckar-Odenwald, Heilbronn, Karlsruhe, the independent city of Speyer, the Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis, and the independent cities of Mannheim and Heidelberg. The administrative headquarters are based in the city of Heidelberg, which does not form part of the district itself.

Große Kreisstadt city classification in Germany

Große Kreisstadt is a term in the municipal law (Gemeindeordnung) of several German states. In some federal states the term is used as a special legal status for a district-affiliated town—as distinct from an independent city—with additional competences in comparison with other municipalities of the district. The title is based on sovereign conferment by the state government.

Commercy Subprefecture and commune in Grand Est, France

Commercy is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. The 18th-century Lorraine historian Nicolas Luton Durival (1713–1795) was born in Commercy.

Geography

Location and environment

Hockenheim is located in the Upper Rhine valley on an old trade route from Frankfurt to Basel. The brook Kraichbach divides the town in an eastern and a smaller western area, and flows into the Rhine to the north near Ketsch. Hockenheim's total municipal area covers 3,484 ha, with ca. 28.8 percent used for settlement and transportation and ca. 45.9 percent for agriculture. The remaining area consists of ca. 22 percent forests and ca. 2.4 percent rivers and seas. [2]

The Upper Rhine Plain, Rhine Rift Valley or Upper Rhine Graben is a major rift, about 350-kilometre-long (220 mi) and on average 50-kilometre-wide (31 mi), between Basel in the south and the cities of Frankfurt/Wiesbaden in the north. Its southern section straddles the border between France and Germany. It forms part of the European Cenozoic Rift System, which extends across central Europe. The Upper Rhine Graben formed during the Oligocene as a response to the evolution of the Alps to the south and remains active to the present day. Today, the Rhine Rift Valley forms a downfaulted trough through which the river Rhine flows.

Frankfurt Place in Hesse, Germany

Frankfurt is a metropolis and the largest city of the German federal state of Hesse, and its 746,878 (2017) inhabitants make it the fifth-largest city of Germany after Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, and Cologne. On the River Main, it forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring city of Offenbach am Main, and its urban area has a population of 2.3 million. The city is at the centre of the larger Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.5 million and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr Region. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the geographic centre of the EU is about 40 km (25 mi) to the east of Frankfurt's central business district. Like France and Franconia, the city is named after the Franks. Frankfurt is the largest city in the Rhine Franconian dialect area.

Basel Place in Basel-Stadt, Switzerland

Basel is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine. Basel is Switzerland's third-most-populous city with about 180,000 inhabitants.

The municipal area is divided into two large natural regions, the "Rheinaue" to the west and the slightly higher "Niederterrasse" to the east. The so-called "Hockenheimer Rheinbogen" is a meander area of the Rhine, which stretches over the municipalities of Ketsch, Hockenheim and Altlußheim. 30 parts of it with a total of 656 ha are under nature conservation. An additional area three times larger is designated as landscape conservation area, with less strict usage limitations. The "Rheinbogen" offers biologically diverse, secondary wetlands as habitat for endangered plants and animals, it is also an internationally important resting and feeding area for migrating birds in winter. [3]

Meander A sinuous bend in a series in the channel of a river

A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, bends, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse. It is produced by a stream or river swinging from side to side as it flows across its floodplain or shifts its channel within a valley. A meander is produced by a stream or river as it erodes the sediments comprising an outer, concave bank and deposits this and other sediment downstream on an inner, convex bank which is typically a point bar. The result of sediments being eroded from the outside concave bank and their deposition on an inside convex bank is the formation of a sinuous course as a channel migrates back and forth across the down-valley axis of a floodplain. The zone within which a meandering stream shifts its channel across either its floodplain or valley floor from time to time is known as a meander belt. It typically ranges from 15 to 18 times the width of the channel. Over time, meanders migrate downstream, sometimes in such a short time as to create civil engineering problems for local municipalities attempting to maintain stable roads and bridges.

Town structure

The central urban area forms one unit and is only divided into five districts for statistical purposes. Together with the central town several small settlements belong to Hockenheim: the industrial areas "Bahnstation Talhaus" and "Wasserwerk", the farms and houses "Insultheimerhof", "Herrenteich, Ziegelei" and "Ketschau, Ziegelei“ as well as the deserted settlement "Westeheim".

History

Hockenheim and surroundings 1907 Hockenheim-1907.png
Hockenheim and surroundings 1907

Stamped bricks of the Roman Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix were found 1984 in a brick kiln during an excavation in Hockenheim. The stationing of this legion near Mainz from 71AD until 92AD indicates an early settlement in this area. [4] Hockenheim was first mentioned 769 as "Ochinheim" in a donation document of the Lorsch Codex, an early monastery gift documentation. The name "Hockenheim" itself appeared first in 1238 in official documents. In the Middle Ages Hockenheim was owned by several alternating local authorities: the castle district Wersau, the Diocese of Speyer during the 12th and 13th century, various Palatinate ("Pfalz") rulers since 1286 and the Electoral Palatinate ("Kurpfalz") since 1462.

Roman Empire period of Imperial Rome following the Roman Republic (27 BC–395 AD)

The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. It had a government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, and West Asia. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the crisis of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome. The Roman Empire was then divided between a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople, and it was ruled by multiple emperors.

Legio XIV Gemina Roman legion

Legio quarta decima Gemina was a legion of the Imperial Roman army, levied by Julius Caesar in 57 BC. The cognomen Gemina (Twinned) was added when the legion was combined with another understrength legion after the Battle of Actium. The cognomen Martia Victrix was added sequentially following their service in the Pannonian War c. AD 9 and the defeat of Boudicca in AD 61. The emblem of the legion was the Capricorn, as with many of the legions levied by Caesar, their shield device displayed the thunderbolt of Jupiter with wings. It was the only legion to do so in the same manner as the Praetorian Guard.

Mainz Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Mainz is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The city is located on the Rhine river at its confluence with the Main river, opposite Wiesbaden on the border with Hesse. Mainz is an independent city with a population of 206,628 (2015) and forms part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region.

In the 17th century Hockenheim was severely devastated twice by French troops, 1644 in the Thirty Years' War and 1674 in the Franco-Dutch War. During this period the former cultivation of hops in the area was partly replaced with tobacco, brought into the country by the French. 1803 the Electoral Palatinate was dissolved and the village was integrated in Baden. With the growing tobacco crop the village flourished and was awarded town rights on 22 July 1895 by Frederick I, Grand Duke of Baden.

Thirty Years War War between 1618 and 1648; with over 8 million fatalities

The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but also from violence, famine, and plague. Casualties were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the rest being battle deaths from various foreign armies. In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period January to May 1945; one of its enduring results was 19th-century Pan-Germanism, when it served as an example of the dangers of a divided Germany and became a key justification for the 1871 creation of the German Empire.

Franco-Dutch War war fought by France and other countries against the Dutch Republic

The 1672-1678 Franco-Dutch War, or Dutch War, was a conflict whose primary participants were the Dutch Republic and France, supported initially by Münster, Cologne and England.

Hops female flowers of Humulus lupulus

Hops are the flowers of the hop plant Humulus lupulus. They are used primarily as a bittering, flavouring, and stability agent in beer, to which they impart, in addition to bitterness, floral, fruity, or citric flavours and aromas. Hops are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine. The hop plant is a vigorous, climbing, herbaceous perennial, usually trained to grow up strings in a field called a hopfield, hop garden, or hop yard when grown commercially. Many different varieties of hops are grown by farmers around the world, with different types used for particular styles of beer.

With the beginning of the 20th century asparagus cultivation replaced most of the remaining hops industry. At 29 May 1932 the Hockenheimring was opened with a motorcycle race. After World War II the decline of the cigar industry had begun, but Hockenheim was already known for its Hockenheimring and could expand in other industrial branches. January 1973 Hockenheim was assigned to the newly formed Rhein-Neckar-Kreis district. In 1991, Hockenheim was the host of the 11th Baden-Württemberg State Horticultural Show.

Politics

Town hall Hockenheim Rathaus 20130528.jpg
Town hall

The town is led by the Lord Mayor ("Oberbürgermeister"), who is elected directly by the population every 8 years; since 2004 this office is held by Dieter Gummer (SPD). Its Permanent Representative is the "Erste Beigeordnete", with the office designation of mayor ("Bürgermeister"). As of the local election on 25 May 2014, the local council of Hockenheim consists of 22 members, who hold the title "Stadtraetin/Stadtrat", and the Lord Mayor presiding the council.

In 1975 the Hockenheim government agreed upon a municipal association ("Verwaltungsgemeinschaft") with the neighboring villages Altlußheim, Neulußheim and Reilingen. Hockenheim is one of the six largest towns in the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis district; since 1999 the number of inhabitants exceeds the 20,000 threshold, thus the town received the status of a regional central town ("Große Kreisstadt") in 2001.

Coat of arms

Adopted in 1609, the coat of arms of Hockenheim has diagonally crossed silver hooks in a sign, below a crowned golden lion. The lion is the animal of the Electoral Palatinate, to which Hockenheim belonged; the hooks are probably derived from the place name. The form of the symbols was changed several times, but has been specified in its current form by municipal law since 1895.

Sport

The Hockenheimring Hockenheim Panorama.jpg
The Hockenheimring

The Hockenheimring, a motor racing course built in 1932, has become the home of the Formula One German Grand Prix. It has hosted this event over 30 times since 1970, including every year between 1986 and 2006. Since 2007 Formula One races in Germany are alternating annually between the Hockenheimring and the Nürburgring; Hockenheim hosts the event on even years. The course is also used for several other motor racing events and open-air concerts. After Nurburgring's withdrawal from 2015, Hockenheimring started hosting German Grand Prix annually since 2018.

Places of interest

The Protestant town church Hockenheim Evangelische Kirche 20130528.jpg
The Protestant town church

A museum for tobacco cultivation was founded 1984 as the first of its kind in Baden-Württemberg. The motorsport museum opened near the Hockenheimring in 1986 and shows over 200 exhibits of historical motorcycles and engines. The "Gartenschaupark" was created in 1991 to host the State Horticultural Show and is, with an area of 16 ha, Hockenheim's largest park.

Hockenheim's landmark is the water tower, constructed in 1910 in Art Nouveau. Other buildings of historical significance include the Protestant town church, a 1906 Neo-baroque building by architect Hermann Behaghel, and the Catholic Church (1910), done in Art Nouveau with a high tower, by Johannes Schroth. The old Catholic church, with a classical hall (1817) and a late Gothic choir tower (1490), serves as a community center today.

International relations

Source: [5]

Hockenheim is twinned with:

A town sponsorship  [ de ] (German: Städtepatenschaft) for Samba in Samba Department, Burkina Faso was established in May 1985.

Related Research Articles

Mannheim Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Mannheim is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants. The city is at the centre of the larger densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region which has a population of 2,400,000 and is Germany's eighth-largest metropolitan region.

Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis District in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Walldorf Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Altlußheim Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Bammental Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Kraichbach river in Germany

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Bruchsal – Schwetzingen federal electoral district of Germany

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Alte Burg, Alteburg or Burgstall Alte Burg refers to the name or nickname of various castles, castle ruins, castle sites and hillforts or ringworks:

Schwetzingen station railway station in Schwetzingen, Germany

Schwetzingen station is a through station in Schwetzingen, a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg and lies not far from its centre. It is located at kilometre 13.6 of the Rhine Railway, which runs from Mannheim via Hockenheim and Graben-Neudorf to Karlsruhe. North of the station, the line to Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld branches to connect with the Main-Neckar Railway; the branch is almost exclusively used by freight. Until 1967, the Heidelberg–Speyer railway gave Schwetzingen direct connections to Heidelberg and Speyer. The only operating section of this line today is the section from Schwetzingen to the industrial area of Hockenheim-Talhaus, which is used for freight traffic.

References

  1. "Bevölkerung nach Nationalität und Geschlecht am 31. Dezember 2017". Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg (in German). 2018.
  2. (in German) Flächenerhebung 2011, Hockenheim, Stadt Archived 2013-02-17 at Archive.today Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg, data as of 31. December 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
  3. (in German) Hockenheimer Rheinbogen, Pflanzen und Tiere Landesanstalt für Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Württemberg. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
  4. (in German) Ulrich Brandl und Emmi Federhofer: Ton + Technik. Römische Ziegel. Theiss, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN   978-3-8062-2403-0 (Schriften des Limesmuseums Aalen. Nr. 61)
  5. "Hockenheim - Partnerstädte" (in German). Town council Hockenheim. Retrieved 22 May 2016.