Hockey World Cup

Last updated
Men's Hockey World Cup
Most recent season or competition:
2018 Men's Hockey World Cup
FIH flag.svg
Sport Field hockey
Founded1971
No. of teams16
Continent International (FIH)
Most recent
champion(s)
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium (1st title)
Most titlesFlag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan (4 titles)
Qualification Hockey Series
Official website www.fih.ch

The Men's Hockey World Cup is an international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation (FIH). The tournament was started in 1971. It is held every four years, bridging the four years between the Summer Olympics.

Contents

There is also a Women's Hockey World Cup, which has been held since 1974 and was organised by the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations (IFWHA) until 1981, when the governing bodies merged into the current International Hockey Federation in 1982.

Pakistan is the most successful team, having won the tournament four times. The Netherlands and Australia have each won three titles, and Germany has won two titles. Belgium and India have both won the tournament once.

The 2018 tournament was held in Bhubaneswar, India from 28 November to 16 December. [1] [2] Belgium defeated Netherlands in a penalty shoot-out 3–2 after the match ended in a 0–0 tie to win their first World Cup title. The World Cup expanded to 16 teams in 2018, and FIH will evaluate the possibility of increasing it to 24 in 2022. [3]

History

The Hockey World Cup was first conceived by Pakistan's Air Marshal Nur Khan. He proposed his idea to the FIH through Patrick Rowley, the first editor of World Hockey magazine. Their idea was approved on 26 October 1969, and adopted by the FIH Council at a meeting in Brussels on 12 April 1970. The FIH decided that the inaugural World Cup would be held in October 1971, in Pakistan.

However, political issues would prevent that first competition from being played in Pakistan. The FIH had inadvertently scheduled the first World Cup to be played in Pakistan during the Bangladesh Liberation War. Furthermore, Pakistan and India had been at war with each other only six years earlier. When Pakistan invited India to compete in the tournament, a crisis arose. Pakistanis, led by cricketer Abdul Hafeez Kardar, protested against India's participation in the Hockey World Cup.

Given the intense political climate between Pakistan and India, the FIH decided to move the tournament elsewhere. In March 1971, coincidentally in the same month Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan, the FIH decided to move the first Hockey World Cup to the Real Club de Polo grounds in Barcelona, Spain, which was considered a neutral and peaceful European site. [4]

The FIH has set no requirements or limitations on the size of the competition. The 1971 Cup included only ten nations, the smallest World Cup to date. The 1978 Cup featured fourteen nations. The 2002 Cup featured sixteen nations, the largest World Cup to date. The remaining 9 World Cups have featured 12 nations.

The first three tournaments were held every two years. The 1978 cup was the only tournament held three years from the previous one. It was halfway between the Summer Olympics hockey competition and has continued that way. In other words, the tournament has been held every four years ever since.

Trophy

The Hockey World Cup trophy was designed by the Bashir Moojid and created by the Pakistani Army. On 27 March 1971, in Brussels, the trophy was formally handed to FIH President Rene Frank by Mr H.E Masood, the Pakistani Ambassador to Belgium. The trophy consists of a silver cup with an intricate floral design, surmounted by a globe of the world in silver and gold, placed on a high blade base inlaid with ivory. At its peak is a model hockey stick and ball. Without its base, the trophy stands 120.85 mm (4.758 in) high. Including the base, the trophy stands 650 mm (26 in). It weighs 11,560  g (408 oz), including 895 g (31.6 oz) of gold, 6,815 g (240.4 oz) of silver, 350 g (12 oz) of ivory and 3,500 g (120 oz) of teak. [5]

Format

The Hockey World Cup consists of a qualification stage and a final tournament stage. The format for each stage is the same.

Qualification

The qualification stage has been a part of the Hockey World Cup since 1977. All participating teams play in the qualification round. The teams divide into two or more pools and compete for a berth in the final tournament. The top two teams are automatically qualified and the rest of the berths are decided in playoffs.

Final tournament

The final tournament features the continental champions and other qualified teams. Sometimes it also features the winners of the Summer Olympics' hockey competition or the continental runners-up. The teams divide into pools once more and play a round robin tournament. The composition of the pools is determined using the current world rankings. The top two teams in each pool play in the semifinals for a place in the final. The bottom two teams in the semifinals have a third place playoff. The rest of the teams have playoffs to determine their final positions. If they are third or fourth in their pool, they play for fifth place; if they are fifth or sixth in their pool, they play for ninth place.

Results

Summaries

YearHostFinalThird place match
WinnerScoreRunner-upThird placeScoreFourth place
1971
Details
Barcelona, SpainFlag of Pakistan.svg
Pakistan
1–0Flag of Spain (1945–1977).svg
Spain
Flag of India.svg
India
2–1
after extra time
Flag of Kenya.svg
Kenya
1973
Details
Amstelveen, NetherlandsFlag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
2–2
(4–2)
penalty strokes
Flag of India.svg
India
Flag of Germany.svg
West Germany
1–0Flag of Pakistan.svg
Pakistan
1975
Details
Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaFlag of India.svg
India
2–1Flag of Pakistan.svg
Pakistan
Flag of Germany.svg
West Germany
4–0Flag of Malaysia.svg
Malaysia
1978
Details
Buenos Aires, ArgentinaFlag of Pakistan.svg
Pakistan
3–2Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
Flag of Australia.svg
Australia
4–3Flag of Germany.svg
West Germany
1982
Details
Bombay, IndiaFlag of Pakistan.svg
Pakistan
3–1Flag of Germany.svg
West Germany
Flag of Australia.svg
Australia
4–2Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
1986
Details
London, EnglandFlag of Australia.svg
Australia
2–1Flag of England.svg
England
Flag of Germany.svg
West Germany
3–2
after extra time
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union
1990
Details
Lahore, PakistanFlag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
3–1Flag of Pakistan.svg
Pakistan
Flag of Australia.svg
Australia
2–1
after extra time
Flag of Germany.svg
West Germany
1994
Details
Sydney, AustraliaFlag of Pakistan.svg
Pakistan
1–1
(4–3)
penalty strokes
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
Flag of Australia.svg
Australia
5–2Flag of Germany.svg
Germany
1998
Details
Utrecht, NetherlandsFlag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
3–2
after extra time
Flag of Spain.svg
Spain
Flag of Germany.svg
Germany
1–0Flag of Australia.svg
Australia
2002
Details
Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaFlag of Germany.svg
Germany
2–1Flag of Australia.svg
Australia
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
2–1
after extra time
Flag of South Korea (1997–2011).svg
South Korea
2006
Details
Mönchengladbach, GermanyFlag of Germany.svg
Germany
4–3Flag of Australia.svg
Australia
Flag of Spain.svg
Spain
3–2
after extra time
Flag of South Korea (1997–2011).svg
South Korea
2010
Details
New Delhi, IndiaFlag of Australia.svg
Australia
2–1Flag of Germany.svg
Germany
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
4–3Flag of England.svg
England
2014
Details
The Hague, NetherlandsFlag of Australia.svg
Australia
6–1Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
Flag of Argentina.svg
Argentina
2–0Flag of England.svg
England
2018
Details
Bhubaneswar, IndiaFlag of Belgium (civil).svg
Belgium
0–0
(3–2)

penalty shootout
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
Flag of Australia.svg
Australia
8–1Flag of England.svg
England

Successful national teams

Field Hockey Titles Field Hockey WC Winners.jpg
Field Hockey Titles

Twenty four teams have qualified for a Hockey World Cup. Of these, eleven teams have made it to the semifinals. Seven teams have made it through to the finals.

To date the most successful teams are Pakistan, with four titles from six final appearances, the Netherlands, with three titles from seven final appearances, and Australia with three titles from five final appearances. Germany won in 2002 and 2006, while India and Belgium won their lone titles in 1975 and 2018, respectively.

Below is a list of teams that have finished in the top four positions in the tournament:

Teams reaching the top four
TeamChampionsRunners-upThird placeFourth placeTop 4
Finishes
Top 3
Finishes
Top 2
Finishes
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 4 (1971, 1978, 1982, 1994)2 (1975, 1990*)1 (1973)766
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 3 (1973*, 1990, 1998*)4 (1978, 1994, 2014*, 2018)2 (2002, 2010)1 (1982)1097
Flag of Australia.svg  Australia 3 (1986, 2010, 2014)2 (2002, 2006)5 (1978, 1982, 1990, 1994*, 2018)1 (1998)11105
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany^2 (2002, 2006*)2 (1982, 2010)4 (1973, 1975, 1986, 1998)3 (1978, 1990, 1994)1184
Flag of India.svg  India 1 (1975)1 (1973)1 (1971)332
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 1 (2018)111
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 2 (1971*, 1998)1 (2006)332
Flag of England.svg  England 1 (1986*)3 (2010, 2014, 2018)411
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1 (2014)110
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 2 (2002, 2006)200
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 1 (1971)100
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 1 (1975*)100
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union#1 (1986)100
* = host nation
^ = includes results representing West Germany between 1971 and 1990
# = states that have since split into two or more independent nations

Performance by host nations

Nine nations have hosted the Hockey World Cup. Only the Netherlands (1973 and 1998) and Germany (2006) have won the tournament as hosts. Spain, England, and Pakistan emerged as host runners-up in the 1971, 1986 and 1990 tournaments. Australia placed third when it hosted the 1994 tournament in Sydney.

Performance by continental zones

To date, the finals of the Hockey World Cup have been contested by Asian, European and Oceania continental teams. European teams have won the most with six titles, followed by Asian teams with five titles. Australia is the only team from Oceania to win the tournament. Neither the Americas nor Africa have ever won the title.

ContinentBest performance
Europe 6 titles, won by the Netherlands (3), Germany (2) and Belgium (1)
Asia 5 titles, won by Pakistan (4) and India (1)
Oceania 3 titles, won by Australia
Americas Third place (Argentina, 2014)
Africa Fourth place (Kenya, 1971)

Team appearances

Team Flag of Spain (1945–1977).svg
1971
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
1973
Flag of Malaysia.svg
1975
Flag of Argentina.svg
1978
Flag of India.svg
1982
Flag of England.svg
1986
Flag of Pakistan.svg
1990
Flag of Australia.svg
1994
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
1998
Flag of Malaysia.svg
2002
Flag of Germany.svg
2006
Flag of India.svg
2010
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
2014
Flag of India.svg
2018
Total
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 10th9th11th8th12th6th9th7th6th10th7th3rd7th13
Flag of Australia.svg  Australia 8th5th3rd3rd1st3rd3rd4th2nd2nd1st1st3rd13
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus Part of the Soviet Union12th1
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 8th14th11th14th5th1st6
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 11th10th11th8th11th11th6
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 10th1
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 16th1
Flag of England.svg  England 6th6th7th8th2nd5th6th6th7th5th4th4th4th13
Flag of France.svg  France 7th7th8th3
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany^5th3rd3rd4th2nd3rd4th4th3rd1st1st2nd6th5th14
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 12th1
Flag of India.svg  India 3rd2nd1st6th5th12th10th5th9th10th11th8th9th6th14
Flag of Ireland hockey team.svg  Ireland 12th12th14th3
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 13th1
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 9th10th12th9th4
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 4th12th2
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 11th4th10th10th11th8th12th15th8
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 6th1st9th2nd4th7th1st2nd1st3rd7th3rd2nd2nd14
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 7th7th7th9th10th9th8th9th7th9th10
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 1st4th2nd1st1st11th2nd1st5th5th6th12th12th13
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 10th9th8th8th12th15th6
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 10th13th12th10th11th16th6
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 8th7th4th4th6th10th6
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union#6th4th6thDefunct3
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 2nd5th8th5th11th5th8th9th2nd11th3rd5th8th13th14
Total1012121412121212121612121216176
^ = includes results representing West Germany between 1971 and 1990
# = states that have since split into two or more independent nations

Germany, India, the Netherlands and Spain are the only teams to have competed at each World Cup; 24 teams have competed in at least one World Cup.

Debut of teams

YearDebutantsTotal
1971 Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina, Flag of Australia.svg  Australia, Flag of France.svg  France, Flag of India.svg  India, Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan, Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya, Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands, Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan, Flag of Spain (1945–1977).svg  Spain, Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany^10
1973 Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium, Flag of England.svg  England, Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand, Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 4
1975 Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana, Flag of Poland (1928–1980).svg  Poland 2
1978 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada, Flag of Ireland hockey team.svg  Ireland, Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 3
1982 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union#1
1986 0
1990 0
1994 Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus#, Flag of Germany.svg  Germany^, Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa, Flag of South Korea (1984–1997).svg  South Korea 3 (+1^)
1998 0
2002 Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 1
2006 0
2010 0
2014 0
2018 Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 1
Total25 (+1^)
^ = Germany is a successor of West Germany and not a separate team.
# = Belarus was a part of Soviet Union but not successor, hence Belarus is a new separate entity.

Total number of teams which have participated in the World Cups through 2018 is 25, using FIH's view on successor teams

References

  1. "Hockey turf job on fast track". Calcutta: The Telegraph. 2014-06-09. Retrieved 2014-06-14.
  2. "England & India to host Hockey World Cups 2018". FIH. 2013-11-07. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
  3. "World Cup field to expand to 16 teams in 2018". FIH. 2012-11-01. Retrieved 2012-11-03.
  4. "World Cup Hockey" . Retrieved 2006-08-02.
  5. "The World Cup — A Masterpiece". Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2006-08-15.