Hohenstaufen

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Hohenstaufen
Staufer
Or three leopards sable.svg
Coat of arms (c.1220) [lower-alpha 1]
Country Duchy of Swabia
Holy Roman Empire
Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Jerusalem
Founded1079
Founder Frederick I, Duke of Swabia
Final ruler Conradin
Titles
Estate(s)Swabia
Dissolution1268

The Hohenstaufen ( /ˈhənʃtfən/ , also US: /ˌhənˈʃtfən, -st-/ , [2] [3] [4] [5] German: [ˌhoːənˈʃtaʊfn̩] ), also known as Staufer, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages. Before ascending to the kingship, they were Dukes of Swabia from 1079. As kings of Germany, they had a claim to Italy, Burgundy and the Holy Roman Empire. Three members of the dynasty—Frederick I (1155), Henry VI (1191) and Frederick II (1220)—were crowned emperor. Besides Germany, they also ruled the Kingdom of Sicily (1194–1268) and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1225–1268). The Hohenstaufen portrayed themselves as the successors of ancient Romans and their traditions. [6]

American English Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. American English is considered one of the most influential dialects of English globally, including on other varieties of English.

Middle Ages Period of European history from the 5th to the 15th century

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

The Dukes of Swabia were the rulers of the Duchy of Swabia during the Middle Ages. Swabia was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German kingdom, and its dukes were thus among the most powerful magnates of Germany. The most notable family to rule Swabia was the Hohenstaufen family, who held it, with a brief interruption, from 1079 until 1268. For much of this period, the Hohenstaufen were also Holy Roman Emperors. With the death of Conradin, the last Hohenstaufen duke, the duchy itself disintegrated, although King Rudolf I attempted to revive it for his Habsburg family in the late-13th century.

Contents

Name

Ruins of Hohenstaufen Castle Hohenstaufen Castle Ruins.jpg
Ruins of Hohenstaufen Castle

The dynasty is named after a castle, which in turn is named after a mountain. The names used by scholars today, however, are conventional and somewhat anachronistic.

The name Hohenstaufen was first used in the 14th century to distinguish the "high" (hohen) conical hill named Staufen in the Swabian Jura, in the district of Göppingen, from the village of the same name in the valley below. The new name was only applied to the hill castle of Staufen by historians in the 19th century, to distinguish it from other castles of the same name. The name of the dynasty followed, but in recent decades the trend in German historiography has been to prefer the name Staufer, which is closer to contemporary usage. [7]

Conical hill

A conical hill is a landform with a distinctly conical shape. It is usually isolated or rises above other surrounding foothills, and is often, but not always, of volcanic origin.

Hohenstaufen (mountain) mountain in Göppingen District, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

The Hohenstaufen is a mountain in the Swabian Jura with an elevation of 684 metres (2,244 ft) Together with the Rechberg and Stuifen, Staufer Frius, it forms the so-called "Three Kaiser mountains". It is easily visible from the little town of Lorch; it towers over the forests of that previously occupied the Staufer the Hohenstaufen Castle – the seat of the former House of Hohenstaufen – is now in ruin.

Swabian Jura low mountain range in Germany

The Swabian Jura, sometimes also named Swabian Alps in English, is a mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, extending 220 km (140 mi) from southwest to northeast and 40 to 70 km in width. It is named after the region of Swabia.

The name "Staufen" itself derives from Stauf (OHG stouf, akin to Early Modern English stoup), meaning "chalice". This term was commonly applied to conical hills in Swabia in the Middle Ages. [7] It is a contemporary term for both the hill and the castle, although its spelling in the Latin documents of the time varies considerably: Sthouf, Stophe, Stophen, Stoyphe, Estufin etc. The castle was built or at least acquired by Duke Frederick I of Swabia in the latter half of the 11th century. [8]

Old High German Earliest stage of the German language, spoken from 500/750 to 1050 AD

Old High German is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 750 to 1050. There is no standardised or supra-regional form of German at this period, and Old High German is an umbrella term for the group of continental West Germanic dialects which underwent the set of consonantal changes called the Second Sound Shift.

Early Modern English or Early New English is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.

Chalice ecclesiastical drinking vessels for eucharistic wine having a stem, often with a central knop, and a foot

A chalice or goblet is a footed cup intended to hold a drink. In religious practice, a chalice is often used for drinking during a ceremony or may carry a certain symbolic meaning.

Members of the family occasionally used the toponymic surname de Stauf or variants thereof. Only in the 13th century does the name come to be applied to the family as a whole. Around 1215 a chronicler referred to the "emperors of Stauf". In 1247, the Emperor Frederick II himself referred to his family as the domus Stoffensis (Staufer house), but this was an isolated instance. Otto of Freising (d. 1158) associated the Staufer with the town of Waiblingen and around 1230 Burchard of Ursberg referred to the Staufer as of the "royal lineage of the Waiblingens" (regia stirps Waiblingensium). The exact connection between the family and Waiblingen is not clear, but as a name for the family it became very popular. The pro-imperial Ghibelline faction of the Italian civic rivalries of the 13th and 14th centuries took its name from Waiblingen. [8]

A toponymic surname or topographic surname is a surname derived from a place name. This can include specific locations, such as the individual's place of origin, residence, or of lands that they held, or can be more generic, derived from topographic features.

Otto of Freising Austrian medieval chronicler

Otto of Freising was a German churchman and chronicler. He was Otto I Bishop of Freising as from 1138.

Waiblingen Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Waiblingen is a town in the southwest of Germany, located in the center of the densely populated Stuttgart region, directly neighboring Stuttgart. It is the capital of the Rems-Murr district. As of September 30, 2004 Waiblingen accommodated 52,948 inhabitants.

In Italian historiography, the Staufer are known as the Svevi (Swabians). [7]

Origins

The noble family first appeared in the late 10th century in the Swabian Riesgau region around the former Carolingian court of Nördlingen. A local count Frederick (d. about 1075) is mentioned as progenitor in a pedigree drawn up by Abbot Wibald of Stavelot at the behest of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1153. He held the office of a Swabian count palatine; his son Frederick of Buren (c.1020–1053) married Hildegard of Egisheim-Dagsburg (d. 1094/95), a niece of Pope Leo IX. Their son Frederick I was appointed Duke of Swabia at Hohenstaufen Castle by the Salian king Henry IV of Germany in 1079.

Duchy of Swabia former country

The Duchy of Swabia was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German kingdom. It arose in the 10th century in the southwestern area that had been settled by Alemanni tribes in Late Antiquity.

Carolingian Empire final stage in the history of the early medieval realm of the Franks, ruled by the Carolingian dynasty

The Carolingian Empire (800–888), also known as the Empire of the Romans and Franks, was a large Frankish-dominated empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks since 751 and as kings of the Lombards in Italy from 774. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned emperor in Rome by Pope Leo III in an effort to revive the Roman Empire in the west. The Carolingian Empire is considered the first phase in the history of the Holy Roman Empire, which lasted until 1806.

Nördlingen Place in Bavaria, Germany

Nördlingen is a town in the Donau-Ries district, in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany, with a population of approximately 19,190. It was built in an impact crater, and was first mentioned in recorded history in 898, and in 1998 the town celebrated its 1100th anniversary. The town was the location of two battles during the Thirty Years' War, which took place between 1618 and 1648. Today it is one of only three towns in Germany that still has a completely intact city wall, the other two being Rothenburg ob der Tauber and Dinkelsbühl.

At the same time, Duke Frederick I was engaged to the king's approximately seventeen-year-old daughter, Agnes. Nothing is known about Frederick's life before this event, but he proved to be an imperial ally throughout Henry's struggles against other Swabian lords, namely Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Frederick's predecessor, and the Zähringen and Welf lords. Frederick's brother Otto was elevated to the Strasbourg bishopric in 1082.

Upon Frederick's death, he was succeeded by his son, Duke Frederick II, in 1105. Frederick II remained a close ally of the Salians, he and his younger brother Conrad were named the king's representatives in Germany when the king was in Italy. Around 1120, Frederick II married Judith of Bavaria from the rival House of Welf.

Ruling in Germany

The Holy Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the early to middle 13th century under the Hohenstaufen dynasty (1155-1268). Mitteleuropa zur Zeit der Staufer.svg
The Holy Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the early to middle 13th century under the Hohenstaufen dynasty (1155–1268).
German royal dynasties
House of Hohenstaufen
Chronology
Conrad III 1138–1152
Frederick I Barbarossa 1152–1190
Henry VI 1190–1197
Philip of Swabia 1198–1208
Frederick II 1212–1250
Conrad IV 1250–1254
Family
Family tree of the German monarchs
Succession
Preceded by
Süpplingenburg dynasty
Followed by
House of Habsburg

When the last male member of the Salian dynasty, Emperor Henry V, died without heirs in 1125, a controversy arose about the succession. Duke Frederick II and Conrad, the two current male Staufers, by their mother Agnes, were grandsons of late Emperor Henry IV and nephews of Henry V. Frederick attempted to succeed to the throne of the Holy Roman Emperor (formally known as the King of the Romans) through a customary election, but lost to the Saxon duke Lothair of Supplinburg. A civil war between Frederick's dynasty and Lothair's ended with Frederick's submission in 1134. After Lothair's death in 1137, Frederick's brother Conrad was elected King as Conrad III.

Because the Welf duke Henry the Proud, son-in-law and heir of Lothair and the most powerful prince in Germany, who had been passed over in the election, refused to acknowledge the new king, Conrad III deprived him of all his territories, giving the Duchy of Saxony to Albert the Bear and that of Bavaria to Leopold IV, Margrave of Austria. In 1147, Conrad heard Bernard of Clairvaux preach the Second Crusade at Speyer, and he agreed to join King Louis VII of France in a great expedition to the Holy Land which failed.

Conrad's brother Duke Frederick II died in 1147, and was succeeded in Swabia by his son, Duke Frederick III. When King Conrad III died without adult heir in 1152, Frederick also succeeded him, taking both German royal and Imperial titles.

Frederick Barbarossa

Frederick I, known as Frederick Barbarossa because of his red beard, struggled throughout his reign to restore the power and prestige of the German monarchy against the dukes, whose power had grown both before and after the Investiture Controversy under his Salian predecessors. As royal access to the resources of the church in Germany was much reduced, Frederick was forced to go to Italy to find the finances needed to restore the king's power in Germany. He was soon crowned emperor in Italy, but decades of warfare on the peninsula yielded scant results. The Papacy and the prosperous city-states of the Lombard League in northern Italy were traditional enemies, but the fear of Imperial domination caused them to join ranks to fight Frederick. Under the skilled leadership of Pope Alexander III, the alliance suffered many defeats but ultimately was able to deny the emperor a complete victory in Italy. Frederick returned to Germany. He had vanquished one notable opponent, his Welf cousin, Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony and Bavaria in 1180, but his hopes of restoring the power and prestige of the monarchy seemed unlikely to be met by the end of his life.

During Frederick's long stays in Italy, the German princes became stronger and began a successful colonization of Slavic lands. Offers of reduced taxes and manorial duties enticed many Germans to settle in the east in the course of the Ostsiedlung . In 1163 Frederick waged a successful campaign against the Kingdom of Poland in order to re-install the Silesian dukes of the Piast dynasty. With the German colonization, the Empire increased in size and came to include the Duchy of Pomerania. A quickening economic life in Germany increased the number of towns and Imperial cities, and gave them greater importance. It was also during this period that castles and courts replaced monasteries as centers of culture. Growing out of this courtly culture, Middle High German literature reached its peak in lyrical love poetry, the Minnesang, and in narrative epic poems such as Tristan , Parzival , and the Nibelungenlied .

Henry VI

Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his sons King Henry VI and Duke Frederick V of Swabia, Welfenchronik, 1167/79, Weingarten Abbey Friedrich-barbarossa-und-soehne-welfenchronik 1-1000x1540.jpg
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his sons King Henry VI and Duke Frederick V of Swabia, Welfenchronik, 1167/79, Weingarten Abbey

Frederick died in 1190 while on the Third Crusade and was succeeded by his son, Henry VI. Elected king even before his father's death, Henry went to Rome to be crowned emperor. He married Princess Constance of Sicily, and deaths in his wife's family gave him claim of succession and possession of the Kingdom of Sicily in 1189 and 1194 respectively, a source of vast wealth. Henry failed to make royal and Imperial succession hereditary, but in 1196 he succeeded in gaining a pledge that his infant son Frederick would receive the German crown. Faced with difficulties in Italy and confident that he would realize his wishes in Germany at a later date, Henry returned to the south, where it appeared he might unify the peninsula under the Hohenstaufen name. After a series of military victories, however, he fell ill and died of natural causes in Sicily in 1197. His underage son Frederick could only succeed him in Sicily and Malta, while in the Empire the struggle between the House of Staufen and the House of Welf erupted once again.

Philip of Swabia

Because the election of a three-year-old boy to be German king appeared likely to make orderly rule difficult, the boy's uncle, Duke Philip of Swabia, brother of late Henry VI, was designated to serve in his place. Other factions however favoured a Welf candidate. In 1198, two rival kings were chosen: the Hohenstaufen Philip of Swabia and the son of the deprived Duke Henry the Lion, the Welf Otto IV. A long civil war began; Philip was about to win when he was murdered by the Bavarian count palatine Otto VIII of Wittelsbach in 1208. Pope Innocent III initially had supported the Welfs, but when Otto, now sole elected monarch, moved to appropriate Sicily, Innocent changed sides and accepted young Frederick II[ how? ] and his ally, King Philip II of France, who defeated Otto at the 1214 Battle of Bouvines. Frederick had returned to Germany in 1212 from Sicily, where he had grown up, and was elected king in 1215. When Otto died in 1218, Fredrick became the undisputed ruler, and in 1220 was crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

Philip changed the coat of arms from a black lion on a gold shield to three leopards, [9] probably derived from the arms of his Welf rival Otto IV.

Ruling in Italy

The conflict between the Staufer dynasty and the Welf had irrevocably weakened the Imperial authority and the Norman kingdom of Sicily became the base for Staufer rule.

Frederick II

Emperor Frederick II spent little time in Germany as his main concerns lay in Southern Italy. He founded the University of Naples in 1224 to train future state officials and reigned over Germany primarily through the allocation of royal prerogatives, leaving the sovereign authority and imperial estates to the ecclesiastical and secular princes. He made significant concessions to the German nobles, such as those put forth in an imperial statute of 1232, which made princes virtually independent rulers within their territories. These measures favoured the further fragmentation of the Empire.

Frederick's Castel del Monte, in Andria, Apulia, Italy. Castel del Monte BW 2016-10-14 12-26-11 r.jpg
Frederick's Castel del Monte, in Andria, Apulia, Italy.

By the 1226 Golden Bull of Rimini, Frederick had assigned the military order of the Teutonic Knights to complete the conquest and conversion of the Prussian lands. A reconciliation with the Welfs took place in 1235, whereby Otto the Child, grandson of the late Saxon duke Henry the Lion, was named Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg. The power struggle with the popes continued and resulted in Fredrick's excommunication in 1227. In 1239, Pope Gregory IX excommunicated Fredrick again, and in 1245 he was condemned as a heretic by a church council. Although Frederick was one of the most energetic, imaginative, and capable rulers of the time, he was not concerned with drawing the disparate forces in Germany together. His legacy was thus that local rulers had more authority after his reign than before it. The clergy also had become more powerful.

Frederick II with his falcon, from De arte venandi cum avibus, c. 1240, Vatican Library Frederick II and eagle.jpg
Frederick II with his falcon, from De arte venandi cum avibus , c. 1240, Vatican Library

By the time of Frederick's death in 1250, little centralized power remained in Germany. The Great Interregnum, a period in which there were several elected rival kings, none of whom was able to achieve any position of authority, followed the death of Frederick's son King Conrad IV of Germany in 1254. The German princes vied for individual advantage and managed to strip many powers away from the diminished monarchy. Rather than establish sovereign states however, many nobles tended to look after their families. Their many male heirs created more and smaller estates, and from a largely free class of officials previously formed, many of these assumed or acquired hereditary rights to administrative and legal offices. These trends compounded political fragmentation within Germany. The period was ended in 1273 with the election of Rudolph of Habsburg, a godson of Frederick.

End of the Staufer dynasty

Conrad IV was succeeded as duke of Swabia by his only son, two-year-old Conradin. By this time, the office of duke of Swabia had been fully subsumed into the office of the king, and without royal authority had become meaningless. In 1261, attempts to elect young Conradin king were unsuccessful. He also had to defend Sicily against an invasion, sponsored by Pope Urban IV (Jacques Pantaléon) and Pope Clement IV (Guy Folques), by Charles of Anjou, a brother of the French king. Charles had been promised by the popes the Kingdom of Sicily, where he would replace the relatives of Frederick II. Charles had defeated Conradin's uncle Manfred, King of Sicily, in the Battle of Benevento on 26 February 1266. The king himself, refusing to flee, rushed into the midst of his enemies and was killed. Conradin's campaign to retake control ended with his defeat in 1268 at the Battle of Tagliacozzo, after which he was handed over to Charles, who had him publicly executed at Naples. With Conradin, the direct line of the Dukes of Swabia finally ceased to exist, though most of the later emperors were descended from the Staufer dynasty indirectly.

During the political decentralization of the late Staufer period, the population had grown from an estimated 8 million in 1200 to about 14 million in 1300, and the number of towns increased tenfold. The most heavily urbanized areas of Germany were located in the south and the west. Towns often developed a degree of independence, but many were subordinate to local rulers if not immediate to the emperor. Colonization of the east also continued in the thirteenth century, most notably through the efforts of the Teutonic Knights. German merchants also began trading extensively on the Baltic.

Members of the Hohenstaufen family

Family tree of the Hohenstaufen emperors including their relation to succeeding dynasties Staufen dynasty.JPG
Family tree of the Hohenstaufen emperors including their relation to succeeding dynasties
Seal of Henry II of Swabia (dated 1216) shows him as a mounted knight with a shield and banner displaying three leopards (three lions passant guardant)as the Hohenstaufen coat of arms; the three lions (later shown just passant) would later become known as the Swabian coat of arms. Henry 7 of Germany.jpg
Seal of Henry II of Swabia (dated 1216) shows him as a mounted knight with a shield and banner displaying three leopards (three lions passant guardant)as the Hohenstaufen coat of arms; the three lions (later shown just passant) would later become known as the Swabian coat of arms.

Holy Roman Emperors and Kings of the Romans

The first ruling Hohenstaufen, Conrad III, like the last one, Conrad IV, was never crowned emperor. After a 20-year period (Great interregnum 1254–1273), the first Habsburg was elected king.

Kings of Italy

Note: The following kings are already listed above as German Kings

Kings of Sicily

Arms of the Hohenstaufen Sicily King Manfred of Sicily Arms.svg
Arms of the Hohenstaufen Sicily

Note: Some of the following kings are already listed above as German Kings

Dukes of Swabia

Note: Some of the following dukes are already listed above as German Kings

Family tree of the House of Hohenstaufen

 
 
 
 
Frederick
von Büren
HOUSE OF HOHENSTAUFEN
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frederick I
duke of Swabia
 
Agnes of Waiblingen
SALIAN
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frederick II
duke of Swabia
 
1.Judith of Bavaria
2.Agnes of Saarbrücken
 
 
 
 
 
Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (1486-c.1700).svg
Conrad III
king of Germany
 
1.Gertrude of Comburg
2.Gertrude of Sulzbach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1.Adelaide of Vohburg
2.Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy
 
Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (1486-c.1700).svg
Frederick I Barbarossa
king of Germany,
III as duke of Swabia
 
Conrad
count palatine of the Rhine
 
1.(daughter of
Gottfried I of Sponheim)
2.Irmengard of Henneberg
 
Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (1486-c.1700).svg
Henry Berengar
co-king of Germany
 
Frederick IV
duke of Swabia
Gertrude of Bavaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frederick V
duke of Swabia
 
Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (1486-c.1700).svg
Henry VI
king of Germany
Constance, Queen of Sicily
 
Frederick VI
duke of Swabia
 
Otto I
count of Burgundy
Margaret, Countess of Blois
 
Conrad II
duke of Swabia
Berengaria of Castile
 
Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (1486-c.1700).svg
Philip
king of Germany,
duke of Swabia
Irene Angelina
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (1486-c.1700).svg
Frederick II
king of Germany,
I as king of Sicily,
VII as duke of Swabia
 
1.Constance of Aragon
2.Isabella II of Jerusalem
3.Isabella of England
4.Bianca Lancia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (1486-c.1700).svg
Henry
co-king of Germany,
II as duke of Swabia
Margaret of Austria
 
Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (1486-c.1700).svg
Conrad IV
king of Germany,
I as king of Sicily,
III as duke of Swabia
Elisabeth of Bavaria
 
(Constance) Anna
John III Doukas Vatatzes
Roman Emperor
 
Manfred
king of Sicily
 
1.Beatrice of Savoy
2.Helena
Angelina Doukaina
of Epirus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Conradin
II as king of Sicily,
IV as duke of Swabia
 
 
 
 
 
Constance
Peter III of Aragon

See also

Notes

  1. The earliest depictions of the Staufer arms show a single lion; for a short time augmented to two lions, and after 1196 three lions or leopards. The tincture or and sable is attested in 1220. [1] The seal of Henry (VII) of Germany (1216) shows three leopards ( passant guardant ).

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Agnes of Hohenstaufen was the daughter and heiress of the Hohenstaufen count palatine Conrad of the Rhine. She was Countess of the Palatinate herself from 1195 until her death, as the wife of the Welf count palatine Henry V.

References

  1. Albrecht Rieber; Karl Reutter (1974). Die Pfalzkapelle in Ulm (in German). p. 204.
  2. "Hohenstaufen". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  3. "Hohenstaufen". Collins English Dictionary . HarperCollins . Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  4. "Hohenstaufen" (US) and "Hohenstaufen". Oxford Dictionaries . Oxford University Press . Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  5. "Hohenstaufen". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  6. 1 2 3 Hansmartin Schwarzmaier (2005). "Hohenstaufen, famiglia". Enciclopedia fridericiana. Rome: Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana. Translated by Maria Paola Arena
  7. 1 2 John B. Freed, Frederick Barbarossa: The Prince and the Myth (Yale University Press, 2016), pp. 5–6.
  8. Stälin, Paul Friedrich (1882). Geschichte Württembergs Erster Band Erste Hälfte (bis 1268). Gotha. pp. 389–393.