Holbrook, Arizona

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Holbrook
Historic Navajo County Courthouse and Museum cropped.jpg
Historic Navajo County Courthouse and Museum
Motto(s): 
"Gateway to the Petrified Forest"
Navajo County Arizona Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Holbrook Highlighted 0433280.svg
Location of Holbrook in Navajo County, Arizona
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Holbrook
Location in Arizona
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Holbrook
Location in United States
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Holbrook
Location in North America
Coordinates: 34°54′26″N110°9′46″W / 34.90722°N 110.16278°W / 34.90722; -110.16278 Coordinates: 34°54′26″N110°9′46″W / 34.90722°N 110.16278°W / 34.90722; -110.16278
Country United States
State Arizona
County Navajo
Incorporated1917
Government
  Type Council-Manager
  BodyHolbrook City Council
  MayorPhil Cobb
Area
[1]
  Total17.37 sq mi (44.99 km2)
  Land17.34 sq mi (44.92 km2)
  Water0.03 sq mi (0.07 km2)
Elevation
[2]
5,082 ft (1,548 m)
Population
  Total5,053
  Estimate 
(2017) [4]
5,049
  Density292.55/sq mi (112.96/km2)
Time zone UTC-7 (MST (no DST))
ZIP code
86025
Area code(s) 928
FIPS code 04-33280
GNIS ID(s) 5871, 2410773
Airport Holbrook Municipal Airport
Website City of Holbrook

Holbrook (Navajo : Tʼiisyaakin) is a city in Navajo County, Arizona, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city was 5,053. [3] The city is the county seat of Navajo County. [5]

Navajo language Athabaskan language of Na-Dené stock spoken in the southwestern United States

Navajo or Navaho is a Southern Athabaskan language of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America. Navajo is spoken primarily in the Southwestern United States, especially on the Navajo Nation. It is one of the most widely spoken Native American languages and is the most widely spoken north of the Mexico–United States border, with almost 170,000 Americans speaking Navajo at home as of 2011. The language has struggled to keep a healthy speaker base, although this problem has been alleviated to some extent by extensive education programs on the Navajo Nation.

Navajo County, Arizona County in the United States

Navajo County is located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 107,449. The county seat is Holbrook.

Arizona state of the United States of America

Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico; its other neighboring states are Nevada and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.

Contents

Holbrook was founded in 1881 or 1882, when the railroad was built, and named to honor the first chief engineer of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. [6]

Atlantic and Pacific Railroad

The Atlantic and Pacific Railroad was a U.S. railroad that owned or operated two disjointed segments, one connecting St. Louis, Missouri with Tulsa, Oklahoma, and the other connecting Albuquerque, New Mexico with Southern California. It was incorporated by the U.S. Congress in 1866 as a transcontinental railroad connecting Springfield, Missouri and Van Buren, Arkansas with California. The central portion was never constructed, and the two halves later became parts of the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway and Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway systems, now both merged into the BNSF Railway.

History

The Holbrook area was inhabited first by the Anasazi, then Puebloans, then the Navajo and Apache. In 1540 (some seventy years before Jamestown or the Pilgrims) Coronado searched for the Seven Cities of Cibola and camped some sixty miles east of Holbrook. Coronado sent an expedition west to find the Colorado River, and they crossed the Little Colorado some twenty-five miles east of Holbrook and found a wonderland of colors they named "El Desierto Pintada" - The Painted Desert. The expedition was then led by the Hopis to the Grand Canyon.

The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common agricultural, material and religious practices. When Spaniards entered the area beginning in the 16th century, they came across complex, multi-story villages built of adobe, stone and other local materials, which they called pueblos, or towns, a term that later came to refer also to the peoples who live in these villages.

The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache. Distant cousins of the Apache are the Navajo, with which they share the Southern Athabaskan languages. There are Apache communities in Oklahoma, Texas, and reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. Apache people have moved throughout the United States and elsewhere, including urban centers. The Apache Nations are politically autonomous, speak several different languages and have distinct cultures.

Colorado River major river in the western United States and Mexico

The Colorado River is one of the principal rivers in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The 1,450-mile-long (2,330 km) river drains an expansive, arid watershed that encompasses parts of seven U.S. and two Mexican states. Starting in the central Rocky Mountains of Colorado, the river flows generally southwest across the Colorado Plateau and through the Grand Canyon before reaching Lake Mead on the Arizona–Nevada border, where it turns south toward the international border. After entering Mexico, the Colorado approaches the mostly dry Colorado River Delta at the tip of the Gulf of California between Baja California and Sonora.

U.S. settlements

After the Mexican–American War ended in 1848 the area was ceded to the United States. From 1851 to 1857 the U.S. Army sent three expeditions along the 35th parallel, the third led by Lt. Beale who created a ten foot wide wagon road. The area was known as Navajo Springs, after a spring a dozen miles northeast of Holbrook. Soon afterwards a store and saloon were established at the confluence of the Rio Puerco and Little Colorado Rivers two miles east of Holbrook, and the area became known as Horsehead Crossing.

Mexican–American War armed conflict between the United States of America and Mexico from 1846 to 1848

The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the Second Federal Republic of Mexico from 1846 to 1848. It followed in the wake of the 1845 American annexation of the Republic of Texas, not formally recognized by the Mexican government, disputing the Treaties of Velasco signed by the unstable Mexican caudillo President/General Antonio López de Santa Anna after the Texas Revolution a decade earlier. In 1845, newly elected U.S. President James K. Polk, who saw the annexation of Texas as the first step towards a further expansion of the United States, sent troops to the disputed area and a diplomatic mission to Mexico. After Mexican forces attacked American forces, Polk cited this in his request that Congress declare war.

Navajo Springs is an unincorporated community located on the Navajo Nation, near Holbrook, Arizona. The community is almost exclusively Native American, and a permit is required from the Navajo Nation for off-road travel in that area. During the time of the Old West, this area was frequented by notable western characters, such as Commodore Perry Owens. Navajo Springs was a stopping place for travelers to water their horses and themselves. The Beale Wagon Road, a precursor of the transcontinental railroad built through the area in 1882 as well as the "mother road", U.S. Route 66, ran through Navajo Springs. The Arizona territorial government was organized here, and later a monument at the springs was erected to commemorate the event. At the insistence of the Santa Fe Railway company, all Navajos were forcibly moved away from the Navajo Springs area, and by the 1930s, all allotted lands within the area were extinguished and the lands forcibly vacated. But by the late 1980s, the lands were once again occupied by Navajos, this time by Navajo "refugees" from the Navajo-Hopi land dispute.

In 1876 Mormons emigrated from Utah and began settlements near Horsehead Crossing on both the Little Colorado and Rio Puerco rivers. During 1881 and 1882, railroad tracks were laid down and a railroad station was built to supply wood and water and to freight supplies south to Fort Apache. The community was then named Holbrook after the first engineer of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. The railroad sold a million acres to a Boston investment group which established the Aztec Land and Cattle Company, better known as the Hashknife Outfit. It leased another million acres of government land and became one of the largest cattle ranches to ever exist. Holbrook became its headquarters and quickly grew into a cow-town.

Mormons Religious group part of the Latter Day Saint movement

Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, initiated by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s. After Smith's death in 1844, the Mormons followed Brigham Young to what would become the Utah Territory. Today, most Mormons are understood to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Some Mormons are also either independent or non-practicing. The center of Mormon cultural influence is in Utah, and North America has more Mormons than any other continent, though the majority of Mormons live outside the United States.

Fort Apache, Arizona Unincorporated community in Arizona, United States

Fort Apache is an unincorporated community in Navajo County, Arizona, United States. Fort Apache is on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation 2 miles (3.2 km) east of Canyon Day. Fort Apache has a post office with ZIP code 85926.

Aztec Land & Cattle Company cattle company that operated in northern Arizona Territory between 1884 and 1902

Aztec Land and Cattle Company, Limited ("Aztec") is a land company with a historic presence in Arizona. It was formed in 1884 and incorporated in early 1885 as a cattle ranching operation that purchased 1,000,000 acres in northern Arizona from the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad. It then imported approximately 32,000 head of cattle from Texas and commenced ranching operations in Arizona. Because Aztec's brand was the Hashknife, a saddler's knife used on early day ranches, the company was known more famously as The Hashknife Outfit. The company has been in continuous existence since 1884.

Wild west cow-town

The Hashknife Outfit hired cowboys, many of whom were wanted men hiding from arrest. Rustling of cattle and horses over two million acres plagued the Hashknife Outfit. With cowmen, sheepmen, farmers, rustlers and outlaws competing for the same land, a range war ensued, called both the Pleasant Valley War and the Tonto Basin War. It likely killed as many men as any of the western range wars. Many of the events that played out during the Pleasant Valley War up to 1887 occurred in and around Holbrook, including the famous Holbrook Shootout.

Pleasant Valley War

The Pleasant Valley War, sometimes called the Tonto Basin Feud, or Tonto Basin War, or Tewksbury-Graham Feud, was a range war fought in Pleasant Valley, Arizona in the years 1882-1892. The conflict involved two feuding families, the ranchers Grahams and Tewksburys. The Tewksburys, who were part Indian, started their operations as cattle ranchers before branching out to sheep.

Holbrook shootout

On September 4, 1887 Commodore Perry Owens, the Apache County Sheriff, came to Holbrook to arrest Andy Blevins (A.K.A Andy Cooper) for horse theft (Blevins had also recently bragged about killing two men and had killed many more, including two lawmen). Sheriff Owens insisted on confronting the Blevins brothers alone, knowing there would likely be a shootout. Sheriff Owens went to the Blevins house (which still stands), knocked on the door and when Blevins asked what he wanted, announced he'd come to arrest Blevins. Blevins resisted arrest and a shootout occurred. Blevins, two brothers, a friend, and Blevins horse were all shot - all died except one brother. Owens emerged unscathed despite being shot at from a half-dozen feet away. Owens single-handedly taking on four men made him a western legend rivaling the Earp Brothers and Texas John Slaughter as lawmen of the west.

Later development

Holbrook was known as "the town too tough for women and churches" and in 1914 was said to be the only county seat in the U.S. that didn't have a church (the Mormons had moved twenty-five miles south to Snowflake and Taylor). The original railroad station was replaced by the Santa Fe Depot in 1892. Navajo County was divided off of Apache County in 1895 and Holbrook became the county seat. Many lawmen and cowboys from the area became Rough Riders with Teddy Roosevelt in the late 1800s. But by 1902 The Hashknife Outfit was bankrupt and the land was sold to the Babbitt brothers.

President Roosevelt named the Petrified Forest (including part of the Painted Desert) a National Monument in 1906. Holbrook was incorporated in 1917. Most of the Beale Wagon Road became Route 66 in 1926 and passed through both the Petrified Forest and Holbrook. Tourism started taking over the economy.

Holbrook meteorite

Fragment of the "Holbrook" meteorite Holbrook meteorite small.jpg
Fragment of the "Holbrook" meteorite

Arizona is famous for its huge Meteor Crater, but Holbrook also witnessed its own small meteor event. In the evening of July 19, 1912, a smoke trail appeared in the sky and soon after, at 7:15 PM, a meteorite with an estimated mass of 190 kilograms (419 pounds) exploded high in the atmosphere. An estimated 16,000 or more minor fragments rained down over Navajo County in an area about 6 miles east of Holbrook. The primary explosion was heard at least 40 miles away and one of the witnesses in Holbrook, then seventeen-year-old Pauline McCleve, described the event as the loudest sound she ever heard. The largest piece of the Holbrook Meteorite that has been recovered was found shortly after. It weighs 14.5 pounds and resides at Arizona State University in Tempe. The Holbrook meteorite was found to be of the chondrite type. [7]

Geography

Holbrook is located at 34°54′26″N110°9′46″W / 34.90722°N 110.16278°W / 34.90722; -110.16278 (34.907203, -110.162882). [8]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.4 square miles (40 km2), all of it land.

Climate

Holbrook has a semi-arid climate (BSk) with cold to cool winters and hot summers. Although the mean snowfall is 0.16 metres (6.30 in), the median is zero, so the majority of winters do not have measurable snow. There are high diurnal temperature variations year-round.

Climate data for Holbrook, Arizona
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)74
(23)
99
(37)
89
(32)
93
(34)
101
(38)
108
(42)
106
(41)
109
(43)
106
(41)
96
(36)
89
(32)
78
(26)
109
(43)
Average high °F (°C)50.6
(10.3)
57.9
(14.4)
65.1
(18.4)
73.3
(22.9)
81.9
(27.7)
92.2
(33.4)
95.4
(35.2)
92.2
(33.4)
86.3
(30.2)
74.7
(23.7)
61.6
(16.4)
51.5
(10.8)
73.6
(23.1)
Average low °F (°C)20.9
(−6.2)
25.2
(−3.8)
30.3
(−0.9)
35.9
(2.2)
43.3
(6.3)
51.4
(10.8)
59.8
(15.4)
59.0
(15.0)
50.9
(10.5)
38.2
(3.4)
27.6
(−2.4)
20.9
(−6.2)
38.6
(3.7)
Record low °F (°C)−20
(−29)
−19
(−28)
2
(−17)
10
(−12)
13
(−11)
30
(−1)
41
(5)
36
(2)
18
(−8)
15
(−9)
−10
(−23)
−21
(−29)
−21
(−29)
Average precipitation inches (mm)0.71
(18)
0.66
(17)
0.72
(18)
0.37
(9.4)
0.38
(9.7)
0.20
(5.1)
1.17
(30)
1.51
(38)
1.18
(30)
1.07
(27)
0.66
(17)
0.57
(14)
9.2
(233.2)
Average snowfall inches (cm)1.5
(3.8)
1.3
(3.3)
0.7
(1.8)
0.8
(2.0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1.1
(2.8)
0.9
(2.3)
6.3
(16)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 inch)4.03.54.62.73.31.66.08.05.44.13.03.649.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 inch)0.80.70.60.10000000.60.63.4
Source: [9]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1890 206
1910 609
1920 1,20698.0%
1930 1,115−7.5%
1940 1,1846.2%
1950 2,33697.3%
1960 3,43847.2%
1970 4,75938.4%
1980 5,78521.6%
1990 4,686−19.0%
2000 4,9174.9%
2010 5,0532.8%
Est. 20175,049 [4] −0.1%
U.S. Decennial Census [10]

As of the census [11] of 2000, there were 4,917 people, 1,626 households, and 1,195 families residing in the city. The population density was 318.4 people per square mile (122.9/km²). There were 1,906 housing units at an average density of 123.4 per square mile (47.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 59.28% White, 24.00% Native American, 2.36% Black or African American, 1.04% Asian, 8.38% from other races, and 4.94% from two or more races. 23.35% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 1,626 households out of which 40.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.3% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.5% were non-families. Of all households 22.6% were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.47.

In the city, the population was spread out with 35.7% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 8.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,746, and the median income for a family was $36,349. Males had a median income of $30,797 versus $24,088 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,912. About 16.6% of families and 20.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.7% of those under age 18 and 3.2% of those age 65 or over.

Points of interest

At the Wigwam Motel along U.S. Route 66, visitors can sleep in a teepee. WigwamMotel HolbrookAZ.JPG
At the Wigwam Motel along U.S. Route 66, visitors can sleep in a teepee.

Education

Primary and secondary schools

The city is served by the Holbrook Unified School District and serves 2324 students.

Three elementary schools: Park Elementary School (K–2) and Hulet Elementary School (3–5) serve the city and Indian Wells Elementary (K–6) serves the northern parts of the school district.

Holbrook Junior High School (6–8) and Holbrook High School (9–12) serve the city.

Colleges and universities

One of the four main campuses of Northland Pioneer College community college is located in Holbrook. The other three main campuses are in Show Low, Snowflake, and Winslow, all in Navajo County, Arizona.

Public libraries

The Holbrook Public Library is located in Holbrook. [13]

Notable people

Nearest cities and towns

See also

Further reading

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jul 18, 2017.
  2. "Feature Detail Report for: Holbrook". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey.
  3. 1 2 "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2014-08-23.
  4. 1 2 "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved September 7, 2018.
  5. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  6. http://www.azcommerce.com/doclib/commune/holbrook.pdf
  7. Weir, David. "Holbrook". Meteorite Studies.
  8. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  9. "HOLBROOK, AZ" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  10. "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  11. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  12. See the entry for September 19 on Ben Scott, Schott's Miscellany Calendar 2009 (New York: Workman Publishing Company, 2008).
  13. "Member Libraries." Navajo County Public Library District. Retrieved on January 21, 2011.