In algebraic topology, a homology sphere is an n-manifold X having the homology groups of an n-sphere, for some integer . That is,
Therefore X is a connected space, with one non-zero higher Betti number, namely, . It does not follow that X is simply connected, only that its fundamental group is perfect (see Hurewicz theorem).
A rational homology sphere is defined similarly but using homology with rational coefficients.
The Poincaré homology sphere (also known as Poincaré dodecahedral space) is a particular example of a homology sphere, first constructed by Henri Poincaré. Being a spherical 3-manifold, it is the only homology 3-sphere (besides the 3-sphere itself) with a finite fundamental group. Its fundamental group is known as the binary icosahedral group and has order 120. Since the fundamental group of the 3-sphere is trivial, this shows that there exist 3-manifolds with the same homology groups as the 3-sphere that are not homeomorphic to it.
A simple construction of this space begins with a dodecahedron. Each face of the dodecahedron is identified with its opposite face, using the minimal clockwise twist to line up the faces. Gluing each pair of opposite faces together using this identification yields a closed 3-manifold. (See Seifert–Weber space for a similar construction, using more "twist", that results in a hyperbolic 3-manifold.)
Alternatively, the Poincaré homology sphere can be constructed as the quotient space SO(3)/I where I is the icosahedral group (i.e., the rotational symmetry group of the regular icosahedron and dodecahedron, isomorphic to the alternating group ). More intuitively, this means that the Poincaré homology sphere is the space of all geometrically distinguishable positions of an icosahedron (with fixed center and diameter) in Euclidean 3-space. One can also pass instead to the universal cover of SO(3) which can be realized as the group of unit quaternions and is homeomorphic to the 3-sphere. In this case, the Poincaré homology sphere is isomorphic to where is the binary icosahedral group, the perfect double cover of I embedded in .
Another approach is by Dehn surgery. The Poincaré homology sphere results from +1 surgery on the right-handed trefoil knot.
In 2003, lack of structure on the largest scales (above 60 degrees) in the cosmic microwave background as observed for one year by the WMAP spacecraft led to the suggestion, by Jean-Pierre Luminet of the Observatoire de Paris and colleagues, that the shape of the universe is a Poincaré sphere.In 2008, astronomers found the best orientation on the sky for the model and confirmed some of the predictions of the model, using three years of observations by the WMAP spacecraft. As of 2016, the publication of data analysis from the Planck spacecraft suggests that there is no observable non-trivial topology to the universe.
If A is a homology 3-sphere not homeomorphic to the standard 3-sphere, then the suspension of A is an example of a 4-dimensional homology manifold that is not a topological manifold. The double suspension of A is homeomorphic to the standard 5-sphere, but its triangulation (induced by some triangulation of A) is not a PL manifold. In other words, this gives an example of a finite simplicial complex that is a topological manifold but not a PL manifold. (It is not a PL manifold because the link of a point is not always a 4-sphere.)
Galewski and Stern showed that all compact topological manifolds (without boundary) of dimension at least 5 are homeomorphic to simplicial complexes if and only if there is a homology 3 sphere Σ with Rokhlin invariant 1 such that the connected sum Σ#Σ of Σ with itself bounds a smooth acyclic 4-manifold. As of 2013 [update] the existence of such a homology 3-sphere was an unsolved problem. On March 11, 2013, Ciprian Manolescu posted a preprint on the ArXiv claiming to show that there is no such homology sphere with the given property, and therefore, there are 5-manifolds not homeomorphic to simplicial complexes. In particular, the example originally given by Galewski and Stern (see Galewski and Stern, A universal 5-manifold with respect to simplicial triangulations, in Geometric Topology (Proceedings Georgia Topology Conference, Athens Georgia, 1977, Academic Press, New York, pp 345–350)) is not triangulable.
Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces. The basic goal is to find algebraic invariants that classify topological spaces up to homeomorphism, though usually most classify up to homotopy equivalence.
In mathematics, homology is a general way of associating a sequence of algebraic objects, such as abelian groups or modules, to other mathematical objects such as topological spaces. Homology groups were originally defined in algebraic topology. Similar constructions are available in a wide variety of other contexts, such as abstract algebra, groups, Lie algebras, Galois theory, and algebraic geometry.
In mathematics, and more specifically in algebraic topology and polyhedral combinatorics, the Euler characteristic is a topological invariant, a number that describes a topological space's shape or structure regardless of the way it is bent. It is commonly denoted by .
In topology, a branch of mathematics, two continuous functions from one topological space to another are called homotopic if one can be "continuously deformed" into the other, such a deformation being called a homotopy between the two functions. A notable use of homotopy is the definition of homotopy groups and cohomotopy groups, important invariants in algebraic topology.
In mathematics, homotopy groups are used in algebraic topology to classify topological spaces. The first and simplest homotopy group is the fundamental group, which records information about loops in a space. Intuitively, homotopy groups record information about the basic shape, or holes, of a topological space.
In mathematics, particularly algebraic topology and homology theory, the Mayer–Vietoris sequence is an algebraic tool to help compute algebraic invariants of topological spaces, known as their homology and cohomology groups. The result is due to two Austrian mathematicians, Walther Mayer and Leopold Vietoris. The method consists of splitting a space into subspaces, for which the homology or cohomology groups may be easier to compute. The sequence relates the (co)homology groups of the space to the (co)homology groups of the subspaces. It is a natural long exact sequence, whose entries are the (co)homology groups of the whole space, the direct sum of the (co)homology groups of the subspaces, and the (co)homology groups of the intersection of the subspaces.
In mathematics, the Poincaré duality theorem, named after Henri Poincaré, is a basic result on the structure of the homology and cohomology groups of manifolds. It states that if M is an n-dimensional oriented closed manifold, then the kth cohomology group of M is isomorphic to the th homology group of M, for all integers k
In mathematics, geometric topology is the study of manifolds and maps between them, particularly embeddings of one manifold into another.
A lens space is an example of a topological space, considered in mathematics. The term often refers to a specific class of 3-manifolds, but in general can be defined for higher dimensions.
In mathematics, a 3-manifold is a space that locally looks like Euclidean 3-dimensional space. A 3-manifold can be thought of as a possible shape of the universe. Just as a sphere looks like a plane to a small enough observer, all 3-manifolds look like our universe does to a small enough observer. This is made more precise in the definition below.
In mathematics, Seifert–Weber space is a closed hyperbolic 3-manifold. It is also known as Seifert–Weber dodecahedral space and hyperbolic dodecahedral space. It is one of the first discovered examples of closed hyperbolic 3-manifolds.
In mathematics, a 4-manifold is a 4-dimensional topological manifold. A smooth 4-manifold is a 4-manifold with a smooth structure. In dimension four, in marked contrast with lower dimensions, topological and smooth manifolds are quite different. There exist some topological 4-manifolds which admit no smooth structure, and even if there exists a smooth structure, it need not be unique.
In mathematics, topology generalizes the notion of triangulation in a natural way as follows:
In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point. More precisely, an n-dimensional manifold, or n-manifold for short, is a topological space with the property that each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of n-dimensional Euclidean space.
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In topology, Borel−Moore homology or homology with closed support is a homology theory for locally compact spaces, introduced by (1960).
In 4-dimensional topology, a branch of mathematics, Rokhlin's theorem states that if a smooth, closed 4-manifold M has a spin structure, then the signature of its intersection form, a quadratic form on the second cohomology group , is divisible by 16. The theorem is named for Vladimir Rokhlin, who proved it in 1952.
In 3-dimensional topology, a part of the mathematical field of geometric topology, the Casson invariant is an integer-valued invariant of oriented integral homology 3-spheres, introduced by Andrew Casson.
This is a glossary of properties and concepts in algebraic topology in mathematics.