Homophone

Last updated

Venn diagram showing the relationships between homophones (blue circle) and related linguistic concepts Homograph homophone venn diagram.png
Venn diagram showing the relationships between homophones (blue circle) and related linguistic concepts

A homophone ( /ˈhɒməfn,ˈhmə-/ ) is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning. A homophone may also differ in spelling. The two words may be spelled the same, for example rose (flower) and rose (past tense of "rise"), or spelled differently, as in rain, reign, and rein. The term homophone may also apply to units longer or shorter than words, for example a phrase, letter, or groups of letters which are pronounced the same as another phrase, letter, or group of letters. Any unit with this property is said to be homophonous ( /həˈmɒfənəs/ ).

Contents

Homophones that are spelled the same are also both homographs and homonyms, e.g. the word read, as in "He is well read" (he is very learned) vs. the sentence "I read that book" (I have finished reading that book). [lower-alpha 1]

Homophones that are spelled differently are also called heterographs, e.g. to, too, and two.

Etymology

"Homophone" derives from Greek homo- (ὁμο‑), "same", and phōnḗ (φωνή), "voice, utterance".

Wordplay and games

Site is a homophone of sight. Auction-storage-no-trespassing-sign-tn1.jpg
Site is a homophone of sight.

Homophones are often used to create puns and to deceive the reader (as in crossword puzzles) or to suggest multiple meanings. The last usage is common in poetry and creative literature. An example of this is seen in Dylan Thomas's radio play Under Milk Wood: "The shops in mourning" where mourning can be heard as mourning or morning. Another vivid example is Thomas Hood's use of birth and berth as well as told and toll'd (tolled) in his poem "Faithless Sally Brown":

His death, which happen'd in his berth,
At forty-odd befell:
They went and told the sexton, and
The sexton toll'd the bell.

In some accents, various sounds have merged in that they are no longer distinctive, and thus words that differ only by those sounds in an accent that maintains the distinction (a minimal pair) are homophonous in the accent with the merger. Some examples from English are:

Wordplay is particularly common in English because the multiplicity of linguistic influences offers considerable complication in spelling and meaning and pronunciation compared with other languages.

Malapropisms, which often create a similar comic effect, are usually near-homophones. See also Eggcorn.

Same-sounding phrases

Same-sounding (homophonous, or homophonic) phrases are often used in various word games. Examples of same-sounding phrases (which may only be true homophones in certain dialects of English) include:

American comedian Jeff Foxworthy frequently uses same-sounding phrases in his Appalachian comedy routine, which play on exaggerated "country" accents. Notable examples include:

During the 1980s, an attempt was made to promote a distinctive term for same-sounding multiple words or phrases, by referring to them as "oronyms", [lower-alpha 2] but the term oronym was already well established in linguistics as an onomastic designation for a class of toponymic features (names of mountains, hills, etc.), [2] the alternative use of the same term was not well accepted in scholarly literature. [3]

Number

English

There are sources [4] which maintain lists of homophones (words with identical pronunciations but different spellings) and even 'multinyms.' There is disagreement among such lists due to dialectical variations in pronunciation and archaic uses. In English, concerning groups of homophones (excluding proper nouns), there are approximately 88 triplets, 24 quadruplets, 2 quintuplets, 1 sextet, 1 septet, and 1 questionable octet (possibly a second septet). The questionable octet is:

raise, rays, rase, raze, rehs, res, reais, [race]

Other than the common words raise, rays, and race this octet includes

The inclusion of "race" in the octet above is questionable, since its pronunciation differs from the other words on the list (ending with /s/ instead of /z/).

If proper names are included, then a possible nonet would be:

German

There are many homophones in present-day standard German. As in other languages, however, there exists regional and/or individual variation in certain groups of words or in single words, so that the number of homophones varies accordingly. Regional variation is especially common in words that exhibit the long vowels ä and e. According to the well-known dictionary Duden, these vowels should be distinguished as /ɛ:/ and /e:/, but this is not always the case, so that words like Ähre (ear of corn) and Ehre (honor) may or may not be homophones. Individual variation is shown by a pair like Gäste (guests) – Geste (gesture), the latter of which varies between /ˈɡe:stə/ and /ˈɡɛstə/ and by a pair like Stiel (handle, stalk) – Stil (style), the latter of which varies between /ʃtiːl/ and /stiːl/.

Besides websites that offer extensive lists of German homophones, [5] there are others which provide numerous sentences with various types of homophones. [6] In the German language homophones occur in more than 200 instances. Of these, a few are triples like

Most are couples like lehren (to teach) – leeren (to empty).

Spanish

Although Spanish has far fewer homophones than in English, they are far from being non-existent. Some are homonyms, such as basta, which can either mean 'enough' or 'coarse', but most exist because of homophonous letters. For example, the letters b and v are pronounced exactly alike, so the words basta (coarse) and vasta (vast) are pronounced identically. [7]

Other homonyms are etymologically related, but have different genders, and in some cases the different genders producing different lexical items. In the case of persona, el persona (the male or ungendered/unidentified person) and la persona (the female person) are the masculine and feminine forms of the noun persona (person) respectively. However, el capital and la capital have drastically different meanings, in which the masculine noun means 'money' and the feminine noun means 'capital city' or 'capital letter'. [8]

Japanese

There are many homophones in Japanese, due to the use of Sino-Japanese vocabulary, where borrowed words and morphemes from Chinese are widely used in Japanese, but many sound differences, such as the original words' tones, are lost.[ citation needed ] These are to some extent disambiguated via Japanese pitch accent (i.e. 日本 vs. 二本, both pronounced nihon, but with different pitches), or from context, but many of these words are primarily or almost exclusively used in writing, where they are easily distinguished as they are written with different kanji; others are used for puns, which are frequent in Japanese.

An extreme example is kikō (hiragana: きこう), which is the pronunciation of at least 22 words (some quite rare or specialized, others common; all these examples are two-character compounds), including:

  • 機構 (organization / mechanism)
  • 紀行 (travelogue)
  • 稀覯 (rare)
  • 騎行 (horseback riding)
  • 貴校 (school (respectful))
  • 奇功 (outstanding achievement)
  • 貴公 (word for "you" used by men addressing male equals or inferiors)
  • 起稿 (draft)
  • 奇行 (eccentricity)
  • 機巧 (contrivance)
  • 寄港 (stopping at port)
  • 帰校 (returning to school)
  • 気功 (breathing exercise, qigong)
  • 寄稿 (contribute an article / a written piece)
  • 機甲 (armor, e.g. of a tank)
  • 帰航 (homeward voyage)
  • 奇効 (remarkable effect)
  • 季候 (season / climate)
  • 気孔 (stoma)
  • 起工 (setting to work)
  • 気候 (climate)
  • 帰港 (returning to port)

Even some native Japanese words are homophones. For example, kami (かみ) is the pronunciation of the words

  • 紙 (paper)
  • 髪 (hair)
  • 神 (god/spirit)
  • 上 (up)

The former two words are disambiguated from the latter two by pitch accent.

Korean

The Korean language contains a combination of words that strictly belong to Korean and words that are loanwords from Chinese. Due to Chinese being pronounced with varying tones and Korean's removal of those tones, and because the modern Korean writing system, Hangeul, has a more finite number of phonemes than, for example, Latin-derived alphabets such as that of English, there are many homonyms with both the same spelling and pronunciation. For example

There are heterographs, but far fewer, contrary to the tendency in English. For example,

Using hanja (한자;漢字), which are Chinese characters, such words are written differently.

As in other languages, Korean homonyms can be used to make puns. The context in which the word is used indicates which meaning is intended by the speaker or writer.

Mandarin Chinese

Due to phonological constraints in Mandarin syllables (as Mandarin only allows for an initial consonant, a vowel, and a nasal or retroflex consonant in respective order), there are only a little over 400 possible unique syllables that can be produced, [9] compared to over 15,831 in the English language. [10]

Chinese has an entire genre of poems taking advantage of the large amount of homophones called one-syllable articles, or poems where every single word in the poem is pronounced as the same syllable if tones are disregarded. An example is the Lion-Eating Poet in the Stone Den.

Like all Chinese languages, Mandarin uses phonemic tones to distinguish homophonic syllables; Mandarin has five tones. A famous example,

Although all these words consist of the same string of consonants and vowels, the only way to distinguish each of these words audibly is by listening to which tone the word has, and as shown above, saying a consonant-vowel string using a different tone can produce an entirely different word altogether. If tones are included, the number of unique syllables in Mandarin increases to at least 1,522. [11]

However, even with tones, Mandarin retains a very large amount of homophones. , for example, has at least 125 homophones, [12] and it is the pronunciation used for Chinese characters such as 义, 意, 易, 亿, 议, 一, and 已.

There are even place names in China that have identical pronunciations, aside for the difference in tone. For example, there are two neighboring provinces with nearly identical names, Shanxi (山西) and Shaanxi (陕西) Province. The only difference in pronunciation between the two names are the tone in the first syllable (Shanxi is pronounced Shānxī whereas Shaanxi is pronounced Shǎnxī). As most languages exclude the tone diacritics when transcribing Chinese place names into their own languages, the only way to visually distinguish the two names is to write Shaanxi in Gwoyeu Romatzyh romanization. Otherwise, nearly all other spellings of placenames in mainland China are spelled using Hanyu Pinyin romanization.

Many scholars believe that the Chinese language did not always have such a large number of homophones and that the phonological structure of Chinese syllables was once more complex, which allowed for a larger amount of possible syllables so that words sounded more distinct from each other.

Scholars also believe that Old Chinese had no phonemic tones, but tones emerged in Middle Chinese to replace sounds that were lost from Old Chinese. Since words in Old Chinese sounded more distinct from each other at this time, it explains why many words in Classical Chinese consisted of only one syllable. For example, the Standard Mandarin word 狮子(shīzi, meaning "lion") was simply 狮 (shī) in Classical Chinese, and the Standard Mandarin word 教育 (jiàoyù, "education") was simply 教 (jiào) in Classical Chinese.

Since many Chinese words became homophonic over the centuries, it became difficult to distinguish words when listening to documents written in Classical Chinese being read aloud. One-syllable articles like those mentioned above are evidence for this. For this reason, many one-syllable words from Classical Chinese became two-syllable words, like the words mentioned in the previous paragraph.

Even with the existence of two- or two-syllable words, however, there are even multisyllabic homophones. Such homophones even play a major role in daily life throughout China, including Spring Festival traditions, which gifts to give (and not give), political criticism, texting, and many other aspects of people's lives. [13]

Another complication that arises within the Chinese language is that in non-rap songs, tones are disregarded in favor of maintaining melody in the song. [14] While in most cases, the lack of phonemic tones in music does not cause confusion among native speakers, there are instances where puns may arise.

For example, in the song Duìbùqǐ wǒ de zhōngwén bù hǎo (对不起我的中文不好) by Transition, the singer sings about his difficulty communicating with Chinese speakers as a native English speaker learning Chinese. In one line of the song, the singer says, wo yao shuijiao (我要水饺), which means "I want dumplings", but the native Chinese speaker misunderstands the English speaker and thought he wanted to sleep, because if tones are disregarded shuijiao (睡觉) means "to sleep". [15] Although the song lacks Mandarin tones – like most songs in Mandarin – the lyrics imply that the English speaker probably used the wrong tones when saying the word.

Subtitles in Chinese characters are usually displayed on music videos and in songs sung on movies and TV shows to disambiguate the song's lyrics.

Vietnamese

It is estimated that there are approximately 4,500 to 4,800 possible syllables in Vietnamese, depending on the dialect. [16] The exact number is difficult to calculate because there are significant differences in pronunciation among the dialects. For example, the graphemes and digraphs "d", "gi", and "r" are all pronounced /z/ in the Hanoi dialect, so the words dao (knife), giao (delivery), and rao (advertise) are all pronounced /zaw˧/. In Saigon dialect, however, the graphemes and digraphs "d", "gi", and "v" are all pronounced /j/, so the words dao (knife), giao (delivery), and vao (enter) are all pronounced /jaw˧/.

Pairs of words that are homophones in one dialect may not be homophones in the other. For example, the words sắc (sharp) and xắc (dice) are both pronounced /săk˧˥/ in Hanoi dialect, but pronounced /ʂăk˧˥/ and /săk˧˥/ in Saigon dialect respectively.

Psychological research

Pseudo-homophones

Pseudo-homophones are pseudowords that are phonetically identical to a word. For example, groan/grone and crane/crain are pseudo-homophone pairs, whereas plane/plain is a homophone pair since both letter strings are recognised words. Both types of pairs are used in lexical decision tasks to investigate word recognition. [17]

Use as ambiguous information

Homophones, specifically heterographs, where one spelling is of a threatening nature and one is not (e.g. slay/sleigh, war/wore) have been used in studies of anxiety as a test of cognitive models that those with high anxiety tend to interpret ambiguous information in a threatening manner. [18]

See also

Wiktionary

Footnotes

  1. According to the strict sense of homonyms as words with the same spelling and pronunciation; however, homonyms according to the loose sense common in nontechnical contexts are words with the same spelling or pronunciation, in which case all homophones are also homonyms. [1]
  2. The name oronym was first proposed and advocated by Gyles Brandreth in his book The Joy of Lex (1980), and such use was also accepted in the BBC programme Never Mind the Full Stops, which featured Brandreth as a guest.

Related Research Articles

English orthography is the writing system used to represent spoken English, allowing readers to connect the graphemes to sound and to meaning. It includes English's norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalisation, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.

Spoken English shows great variation across regions where it is the predominant language. For example, the United Kingdom has the largest variation of accents of any country in the world, and therefore no single "British accent" exists. This article provides an overview of the numerous identifiable variations in pronunciation; such distinctions usually derive from the phonetic inventory of local dialects, as well as from broader differences in the Standard English of different primary-speaking populations.

Non-native pronunciations of English result from the common linguistic phenomenon in which non-native users of any language tend to carry the intonation, phonological processes and pronunciation rules from their first language or first languages into their English speech. They may also create innovative pronunciations for English sounds not found in the speaker's first language.

Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect. In general, however, the regional dialects of English share a largely similar phonological system. Among other things, most dialects have vowel reduction in unstressed syllables and a complex set of phonological features that distinguish fortis and lenis consonants.

The close and mid-height front vowels of English have undergone a variety of changes over time and often vary by dialect.

In English, many vowel shifts affect only vowels followed by in rhotic dialects, or vowels that were historically followed by that has been elided in non-rhotic dialects. Most of them involve the merging of vowel distinctions and so fewer vowel phonemes occur before than in other positions of a word.

The phonological history of the English language includes various changes in the phonology of consonant clusters.

Most dialects of modern English have two close back vowels: the near-close near-back rounded vowel found in words like foot, and the close back rounded vowel found in words like goose. The STRUT vowel, which historically was back, is often central as well. This article discusses the history of these vowels in various dialects of English, focusing in particular on phonemic splits and mergers involving these sounds.

General Chinese is a diaphonemic orthography invented by Yuen Ren Chao to represent the pronunciations of all major varieties of Chinese simultaneously. It is "the most complete genuine Chinese diasystem yet published". It can also be used for the Korean, Japanese, and Vietnamese pronunciations of Chinese characters, and challenges the claim that Chinese characters are required for interdialectal communication in written Chinese.

L-vocalization, in linguistics, is a process by which a lateral approximant sound such as, or, perhaps more often, velarized, is replaced by a vowel or a semivowel.

In the history of English phonology, there have been many diachronic sound changes affecting vowels, especially involving phonemic splits and mergers. A number of these changes are specific to vowels which occur before.

The grave accent is a diacritical mark used to varying degrees in French, Dutch, Portuguese, Italian and many other western European languages, as well as for a few unusual uses in English. It is also used in other languages using the Latin alphabet, such as Mohawk and Yoruba, and with non-Latin writing systems such as the Greek and Cyrillic alphabets and the Bopomofo or Zhuyin Fuhao semi-syllabary. It has no single meaning, but can indicate pitch, stress, or other features.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Portuguese orthography</span> Alphabet and spelling

Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes. The diaeresis was abolished by the last Orthography Agreement. Accented letters and digraphs are not counted as separate characters for collation purposes.

Erhua ; also called erization or rhotacization of syllable finals) refers to a phonological process that adds r-coloring or the "er" sound to syllables in spoken Mandarin Chinese. Erhuayin is the pronunciation of "er" after rhotacization of syllable finals.

Heteronym (linguistics) Distinct words with the same spelling

A heteronym is a word that has a different pronunciation and meaning from another word but the same spelling. These are homographs that are not homophones. Thus, lead and lead are heteronyms, but mean (average) and mean (intend) are not, since they are pronounced the same. Heteronym pronunciation may vary in vowel realisation, in stress pattern, or in other ways.

This article summarizes the phonology of Standard Chinese.

The standard pronunciation of Cantonese is that of Guangzhou, also known as Canton, the capital of Guangdong Province. Hong Kong Cantonese is related to the Guangzhou dialect, and the two diverge only slightly. Yue dialects in other parts of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, such as Taishanese, may be considered divergent to a greater degree.

This article covers the phonology of modern Colognian as spoken in the city of Cologne. Varieties spoken outside of Cologne are only briefly covered where appropriate. Historic precedent versions are not considered.

Homophonic puns in Standard Chinese Common linguistics and jocular phenomenon

Standard Chinese, like many Sinitic varieties, has a significant number of homophonous syllables and words due to its limited phonetic inventory. The Cihai dictionary lists 149 characters representing the syllable "yì". Many Chinese take great delight in using the large amount of homophones in the language to form puns, and they have become an important component of Chinese culture. In Chinese, homophones are used for a variety of purposes from rhetoric and poetry to advertisement and humor, and are also common in Chinese loans, for example phono-semantic matching of brand names, computer jargon, technological terms and toponyms.

Rhoticity in English is the pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant by English speakers. The presence or absence of rhoticity is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified. In rhotic varieties, the historical English sound is preserved in all pronunciation contexts. In non-rhotic varieties, speakers no longer pronounce in postvocalic environments—that is, when it is immediately after a vowel and not followed by another vowel. For example, in isolation, a rhotic English speaker pronounces the words hard and butter as /ˈhɑːrd/ and /ˈbʌtər/, whereas a non-rhotic speaker "drops" or "deletes" the sound, pronouncing them as /ˈhɑːd/ and /ˈbʌtə/. When an r is at the end of a word but the next word begins with a vowel, as in the phrase "better apples", most non-rhotic speakers will pronounce the in that position, since it is followed by a vowel in this case.

References

  1. "Homonym". Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016 via Dictionary.com.
  2. Room 1996, p. 75.
  3. Stewart 2015, p. 91, 237.
  4. Burkardt, J. "Multinyms". Department of Scientific Computing. Fun / wordplay. Florida State University. Archived from the original on 25 August 2016.
  5. See, e.g. "Homophone und homonyme im deutschen Homophone". yumpu.com (in German). Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  6. See Fausto Cercignani, "Beispielsätze mit deutschen Homophonen" [Example sentences with German homophones] (in German). Archived from the original on 29 May 2020.
  7. "51 Spanish Words That Sound Exactly Like Other Spanish Words". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  8. "37 Spanish Nouns Whose Meanings Change With Gender". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  9. "Is there any similarity between Chinese and English?". Learn Mandarin Chinese Online. Study Online Mandarin Chinese Courses. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 25 January 2021. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  10. Barker (22 August 2016). "Syllables". Linguistics. New York University. Archived from the original on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  11. "Compare that with 413 syllables for Chinese if you ignore tones, 1,522 syllables". news.ycombinator.com. Hacker News. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  12. Chang, Chao-Huang. "Corpus-based adaptation mechanisms for Chinese Homophone disambiguation" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  13. "Chinese Homophones and Chinese Customs". yoyochinese.com (blog). Archived from the original on 9 April 2021. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  14. "How do people sing in a tonal language?". Diplomatic Language Services. 8 September 2016. Archived from the original on 28 November 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  15. "Transition (transition)". pinyin.azlyricdb.com. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2020. Dui bu qi wo de zhong wen bu hao (Sorry my Chinese isn't so good ) (对不起我的中文不好!(Sorry my Chinese isn't so good!)) Pinyin Lyrics
  16. "vietnamese tone marks pronunciation". pronunciator.com. Archived from the original on 18 May 2022. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  17. Martin, R.C. (1982). "The pseudohomophone effect: The role of visual similarity in non-word decisions". Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 34A (Pt 3): 395–409. doi:10.1080/14640748208400851. PMID   6890218. S2CID   41699283.
  18. Mogg, K.; Bradley, B.P.; Miller, T.; Potts, H.; Glenwright, J.; Kentish, J. (1994). "Interpretation of homophones related to threat: Anxiety or response bias effects?". Cognitive Therapy and Research. 18 (5): 461–477. doi:10.1007/BF02357754. S2CID   36150769.

Sources