Hong Kong

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Hong Kong
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
Chinese:中華人民共和國香港特別行政區
Cantonese Yale romanisation:Jūng'wàh Yàhnmàhn Guhng'wòhgwok Hēunggóng Dahkbiht Hàhngjingkēui
Hong Kong in China (zoomed) (+all claims hatched).svg
Location of Hong Kong within China
Sovereign state China
British possession 26 January 1841
Treaty of Nanking 29 August 1842
Convention of Peking 24 October 1860
New Territories lease 9 June 1898
Imperial Japanese occupation 25 December 1941 to 30 August 1945
Sino-British Joint Declaration 19 December 1984
Handover to China 1 July 1997
Administrative centre Tamar
Largest district
by population
Sha Tin
Official languages
Cantonese [lower-alpha 1]
Traditional Chinese [lower-alpha 2]
English alphabet
Ethnic groups
(2016)
92.0% Han Chinese
2.5% Filipino
2.1% Indonesian
1.1% Indian
0.8% White
0.3% Nepalese
1.6% Others [6]
Demonym(s) Hongkongers
Government Devolved executive-led government within a unitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic [7]
John Lee
Eric Chan
Andrew Leung
Andrew Cheung
Legislature Legislative Council
National representation
36 deputies
203 delegates [8]
Area
 Total
2,754.97 [9]  km2 (1,063.70 sq mi)(168th)
 Water (%)
59.70%
(1644.79 km2;
635.05 sq mi) [9]
 Land
1,110.18 km2
(428.64 sq mi) [9]
Highest elevation957 m (3,140 ft)
Lowest elevation0 m (0 ft)
Population
 2022 estimate
Decrease2.svg 7,291,600 [10]
 2021 census
Increase2.svg 7,413,070 [11]
 Density
6,801 [12] /km2 (17,614.5/sq mi)(4th)
GDP  (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
Increase2.svg $518.743 billion [13] (48th)
 Per capita
Increase2.svg $69,987 [13] (11th)
GDP  (nominal)2022 estimate
 Total
Decrease2.svg $368.373 billion [13] (43rd)
 Per capita
Decrease2.svg$49,700 [13] (18th)
Gini  (2016)Increase Negative.svg 53.9 [14]
high
HDI  (2021)Increase2.svg 0.952 [15]
very high ·  4th
Currency Hong Kong dollar (HK$) (HKD)
Time zone UTC+08:00 (HKT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
yyyy年mm月dd日
Mains electricity 220 V–50 Hz
Driving side left [lower-alpha 3]
Calling code +852
ISO 3166 code
Internet TLD
License plate prefixes None for local vehicles, 粤Z for cross-boundary vehicles

Hong Kong ( /ˈhɒŋkɒŋ/ (US) or /hɒŋˈkɒŋ/ (UK); Chinese :香港, Cantonese: [hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (abbr. Hong Kong SAR or HKSAR), [lower-alpha 4] is a city and special administrative region of China on the eastern Pearl River Delta in South China. With 7.5 million residents of various nationalities [lower-alpha 5] in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated places in the world. Hong Kong is also a major global financial centre and one of the most developed cities in the world.

Contents

Hong Kong was established as a colony of the British Empire after the Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island from Xin'an County at the end of the First Opium War in 1841 then again in 1842. [18] The colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War and was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. [19] [20] British Hong Kong was occupied by Imperial Japan from 1941 to 1945 during World War II; British administration resumed after the surrender of Japan. [21] The whole territory was transferred to China in 1997. [22] As one of China's two special administrative regions (the other being Macau), Hong Kong maintains separate governing and economic systems from that of mainland China under the principle of "one country, two systems". [23] [lower-alpha 6]

Originally a sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, [18] [24] the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports. [25] It is the world's tenth-largest exporter and ninth-largest importer. [26] [27] Hong Kong has a market economy characterised by a focus on services, low taxation and free trade; its currency, the Hong Kong dollar, is the eighth most traded currency in the world. [28] Hong Kong is home to the third-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world, [29] the second-highest number of billionaires of any city in Asia, and the largest concentration of ultra high-net-worth individuals of any city in the world. [30] [31] Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, severe income inequality exists among the population. [32] Most notably, housing in Hong Kong has been well-documented to experience a chronic persistent shortage; the extremely compact house sizes and the extremely high housing density are the effects of Hong Kong's housing market being the least affordable and the most expensive housing market in the world. [33] [34] [35]

Hong Kong is a highly developed territory and ranks fourth on the UN Human Development Index. [36] The city has the largest number of skyscrapers of any city in the world, [37] and its residents have some of the highest life expectancies in the world. [36] The dense space has led to a highly developed transportation network with public transport rates exceeding 90%. [38] Hong Kong is ranked 3rd in the Global Financial Centres Index. [39]

Etymology

Dim Sum Breakfast.jpg
Cha Chaan Teng.jpg
Typical fare at a dim sum restaurant (left); cha chaan teng breakfast food with Hong Kong-style milk tea (right)

Food in Hong Kong is primarily based on Cantonese cuisine, despite the territory's exposure to foreign influences and its residents' varied origins. Rice is the staple food, and is usually served plain with other dishes. [297] Freshness of ingredients is emphasised. Poultry and seafood are commonly sold live at wet markets, and ingredients are used as quickly as possible. [298] There are five daily meals: breakfast, lunch, afternoon tea, dinner, and siu yeh . [299] Dim sum, as part of yum cha (brunch), is a dining-out tradition with family and friends. Dishes include congee, cha siu bao , siu yuk , egg tarts, and mango pudding. Local versions of Western food are served at cha chaan teng (Hong Kong-style cafes). Common cha chaan teng menu items include macaroni in soup, deep-fried French toast, and Hong Kong-style milk tea. [297]

Cinema

Statue of Bruce Lee on the Avenue of Stars, a tribute to the city's film industry Hong kong bruce lee statue.jpg
Statue of Bruce Lee on the Avenue of Stars, a tribute to the city's film industry

Hong Kong developed into a filmmaking hub during the late 1940s as a wave of Shanghai filmmakers migrated to the territory, and these movie veterans helped build the colony's entertainment industry over the next decade. [300] By the 1960s, the city was well known to overseas audiences through films such as The World of Suzie Wong . [301] When Bruce Lee's TheWay of the Dragon was released in 1972, local productions became popular outside Hong Kong. During the 1980s, films such as A Better Tomorrow , As Tears Go By , and Zu Warriors from the Magic Mountain expanded global interest beyond martial arts films; locally made gangster films, romantic dramas, and supernatural fantasies became popular. [302] Hong Kong cinema continued to be internationally successful over the following decade with critically acclaimed dramas such as Farewell My Concubine , To Live , and Chungking Express . The city's martial arts film roots are evident in the roles of the most prolific Hong Kong actors. Jackie Chan, Donnie Yen, Jet Li, Chow Yun-fat, and Michelle Yeoh frequently play action-oriented roles in foreign films. At the height of the local movie industry in the early 1990s, over 400 films were produced each year; since then, industry momentum shifted to mainland China. The number of films produced annually has declined to about 60 in 2017. [303]

Music

Leslie Cheung.jpg
Andy Lau (cropped).jpg
Leslie Cheung (left) is considered a pioneering Cantopop artist, and Andy Lau has been an icon of Hong Kong music and film for several decades as a member of the Four Heavenly Kings.

Cantopop is a genre of Cantonese popular music which emerged in Hong Kong during the 1970s. Evolving from Shanghai-style shidaiqu , it is also influenced by Cantonese opera and Western pop. [304] Local media featured songs by artists such as Sam Hui, Anita Mui, Leslie Cheung, and Alan Tam; during the 1980s, exported films and shows exposed Cantopop to a global audience. [305] The genre's popularity peaked in the 1990s, when the Four Heavenly Kings dominated Asian record charts. [306] Despite a general decline since late in the decade, [307] Cantopop remains dominant in Hong Kong; contemporary artists such as Eason Chan, Joey Yung, and Twins are popular in and beyond the territory. [308]

Western classical music has historically had a strong presence in Hong Kong and remains a large part of local musical education. [309] The publicly funded Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra, the territory's oldest professional symphony orchestra, frequently hosts musicians and conductors from overseas. The Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra, composed of classical Chinese instruments, is the leading Chinese ensemble and plays a significant role in promoting traditional music in the community. [310]

Sport and recreation

The Hong Kong Sevens, considered the premier tournament of the World Rugby Sevens Series, is played each spring. Crowd cheering, Hong Kong Sevens 2009.jpg
The Hong Kong Sevens, considered the premier tournament of the World Rugby Sevens Series, is played each spring.

Despite its small area, the territory is home to a variety of sports and recreational facilities. The city has hosted numerous major sporting events, including the 2009 East Asian Games, the 2008 Summer Olympics equestrian events, and the 2007 Premier League Asia Trophy. [311] The territory regularly hosts the Hong Kong Sevens, Hong Kong Marathon, Hong Kong Tennis Classic and Lunar New Year Cup, and hosted the inaugural AFC Asian Cup and the 1995 Dynasty Cup. [312] [313]

Hong Kong represents itself separately from mainland China, with its own sports teams in international competitions. [311] The territory has participated in almost every Summer Olympics since 1952 and has earned nine medals. Lee Lai-shan won the territory's first Olympic gold medal at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, [314] and Cheung Ka Long won the second one in Tokyo 2020. [315] Hong Kong athletes have won 126 medals at the Paralympic Games and 17 at the Commonwealth Games. No longer part of the Commonwealth of Nations, the city's last appearance in the latter was in 1994. [316]

Dragon boat races originated as a religious ceremony conducted during the annual Tuen Ng Festival. The race was revived as a modern sport as part of the Tourism Board's efforts to promote Hong Kong's image abroad. The first modern competition was organised in 1976, and overseas teams began competing in the first international race in 1993. [317]

The Hong Kong Jockey Club, the territory's largest taxpayer, [318] has a monopoly on gambling and provides over 7% of government revenue. [319] Three forms of gambling are legal in Hong Kong: lotteries, horse racing, and football. [318]

Education

Old campus of St. Paul's College, the first school established in the colonial era Bishop's House, Anglican Church, Hong Kong.JPG
Old campus of St. Paul's College, the first school established in the colonial era

Education in Hong Kong is largely modelled after that of the United Kingdom, particularly the English system. [320] Children are required to attend school from age 6 until completion of secondary education, generally at age 18. [321] [322] At the end of secondary schooling, all students take a public examination and awarded the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education on successful completion. [323] Of residents aged 15 and older, 81% completed lower-secondary education, 66% graduated from an upper secondary school, 32% attended a non-degree tertiary program, and 24% earned a bachelor's degree or higher. [324] Mandatory education has contributed to an adult literacy rate of 95.7%. [325] The literacy rate is lower than that of other developed economies because of the influx of refugees from mainland China during the post-war colonial era; much of the elderly population were not formally educated because of war and poverty. [326] [327]

Comprehensive schools fall under three categories: public schools, which are government-run; subsidised schools, including government aid-and-grant schools; and private schools, often those run by religious organisations and that base admissions on academic merit. These schools are subject to the curriculum guidelines as provided by the Education Bureau. Private schools subsidised under the Direct Subsidy Scheme; international schools fall outside of this system and may elect to use differing curricula and teach using other languages. [322]

University of Hong Kong main building Main Building HKU 20100926 03.JPG
University of Hong Kong main building

The government maintains a policy of "mother tongue instruction"; most schools use Cantonese as the medium of instruction, with written education in both Chinese and English. Other languages being used as medium of instruction in non-international school education include English and Putonghua (Standard Mandarin Chinese). Secondary schools emphasise "bi-literacy and tri-lingualism", which has encouraged the proliferation of spoken Mandarin language education. [328]

Hong Kong has eleven universities. The University of Hong Kong was founded as the city's first institute of higher education during the early colonial period in 1911. [329] The Chinese University of Hong Kong was established in 1963 to fill the need for a university that taught using Chinese as its primary language of instruction. [330] Along with the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and City University of Hong Kong, these universities are ranked among the best in Asia. [331] The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, [332] Hong Kong Baptist University, [333] Lingnan University, [334] Education University of Hong Kong, [335] Hong Kong Metropolitan University, [336] Hong Kong Shue Yan University and Hang Seng University of Hong Kong were all established in subsequent years. [337]

Media

TVB City, headquarters of Hong Kong's first over-the-air television station Tvbcity-s1.png
TVB City, headquarters of Hong Kong's first over-the-air television station

Most of the newsapapers in Hong Kong are written in Chinese but there are also a few English-language newspapers. The major one is the South China Morning Post , with The Standard serving as a business-oriented alternative. A variety of Chinese-language newspapers are published daily; the most prominent are Ming Pao and Oriental Daily News . Local publications are often politically affiliated, with pro-Beijing or pro-democracy sympathies. The central government has a print-media presence in the territory through the state-owned Ta Kung Pao and Wen Wei Po . [338] Several international publications have regional operations in Hong Kong, including The Wall Street Journal , Financial Times , The New York Times International Edition , USA Today , Yomiuri Shimbun , and The Nikkei . [339]

Three free-to-air television broadcasters operate in the territory; TVB, HKTVE, and Hong Kong Open TV air eight digital channels. [340] TVB, Hong Kong's dominant television network, has an 80% viewer share. [341] Pay TV services operated by Cable TV Hong Kong and PCCW offer hundreds of additional channels and cater to a variety of audiences. [340] RTHK is the public broadcaster, providing seven radio channels and three television channels. [342] Ten non-domestic broadcasters air programming for the territory's foreign population. [340] Access to media and information over the Internet is not subject to mainland Chinese regulations, including the Great Firewall, yet local control applies. [343]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 No specific variety of Chinese is official in the territory. Residents predominantly speak Cantonese, the de facto regional standard. [1] [2] [3]
  2. 1 2 For all government use, documents written using Traditional Chinese characters are authoritative over ones inscribed with Simplified Chinese characters. [4] English shares equal status with Chinese in all official proceedings. [5]
  3. Except for the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Hong Kong Link Road, which drives on the right. [16]
  4. Chinese :中華人民共和國香港特別行政區; Cantonese Yale :Hēunggóng Dahkbiht Hàhngjingkēui
  5. Hong Kong permanent residents can be of any nationality. A person without Chinese nationality who has entered Hong Kong with a valid travel document, has ordinarily resided there for a continuous period not less than seven years, and is permanently domiciled in the territory would be legally recognised as a Hongkonger. [17]
  6. However, decisions made by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress override any territorial judicial process. Furthermore, the State Council may enforce national law in the region under specific circumstances.
  7. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data in Hong Kong from 1991 to 2020.

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