Hong Kong

Last updated

Hong Kong
香港
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
Chinese:中華人民共和國香港特別行政區
Cantonese Yale Romanization:Jūng'wàh Yàhnmàhn Guhng'wòhgwok Hēunggóng Dahkbiht Hàhngjingkēui
Hong Kong in China (zoomed) (+all claims hatched).svg
Location of Hong Kong within China
Sovereign state People's Republic of China
British possession 26 January 1841
Treaty of Nanking 29 August 1842
Convention of Peking 24 October 1860
New Territories lease 9 June 1898
Imperial Japanese occupation 25 December 1941 to 30 August 1945
Sino-British Joint Declaration 19 December 1984
Handover to China 1 July 1997
National Security Law enacted 30 June 2020
Official languages
Cantonese [lower-alpha 1]
Traditional Chinese [lower-alpha 2]
English alphabet
Ethnic groups
(2016)
92.0% Han Chinese
2.5% Filipino
2.1% Indonesian
0.8% White
0.5% Indian
0.3% Nepalese
1.6% Others [6]
Demonym(s) Hong Konger
Hong Kongese
Government Devolved executive-led system within a unitary one-party socialist republic [7]
Carrie Lam
John Lee
Andrew Leung
Andrew Cheung
Legislature Legislative Council
National representation
36 deputies
203 delegates [8]
Area
 Total
2,754.97 [9]  km2 (1,063.70 sq mi)(168th)
 Water (%)
59.70%
(1644.79 km2;
635.05 sq mi) [9]
 Land
1,110.18 km2
(428.64 sq mi) [9]
Highest elevation957 m (3,140 ft)
Lowest elevation0 m (0 ft)
Population
 2019 estimate
7,500,700 [10] (103rd)
 Density
6,777 [11] /km2 (17,552.3/sq mi)(4th)
GDP  (PPP)2021 estimate
 Total
Increase2.svg $472.395 billion [12] (46th)
 Per capita
Increase2.svg $62,839 [12] (10th)
GDP  (nominal)2021 estimate
 Total
Increase2.svg $368.633 billion [12] (39th)
 Per capita
Increase2.svg $49,036 [12] (20th)
Gini  (2016)Increase Negative.svg 53.9 [13]
high
HDI  (2019)Increase2.svg 0.949 [14]
very high ·  4th
Currency Hong Kong dollar (HK$) (HKD)
Time zone UTC+08:00 (HKT)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
yyyy年mm月dd日
Mains electricity 220 V–50 Hz
Driving side left [lower-alpha 3]
Calling code +852
ISO 3166 code
Internet TLD
License plate prefixes None for local vehicles, 粤Z for cross-boundary vehicles
AbbreviationHK /

Hong Kong ( /ˈhɒŋkɒŋ/ ; Chinese :香港, Cantonese: [hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), [lower-alpha 4] is a city and special administrative region of China on the eastern Pearl River Delta in South China. With over 7.5 million residents of various nationalities [lower-alpha 5] in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated places in the world. Hong Kong is also one of the most developed cities in the world, with the most expensive housing.

Contents

Hong Kong was established as a colony of the British Empire after the Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island from Xin'an County at the end of the First Opium War in 1841 then again in 1842. [17] The colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War and was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. [18] [19] British Hong Kong was occupied by Imperial Japan from 1941 to 1945; British administration resumed after the surrender of Japan. [20] The whole territory was transferred to China in 1997. [21] As one of China's two special administrative regions (the other being Macau), Hong Kong maintains separate governing and economic systems from that of mainland China under the principle of "one country, two systems". [22] [lower-alpha 6]

Originally a sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, [17] the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports. [23] It is the world's tenth-largest exporter and ninth-largest importer. [24] [25] Hong Kong has a major capitalist service economy characterised by low taxation and free trade, and its currency, the Hong Kong dollar, is the eighth most traded currency in the world. [26] Hong Kong is home to the third-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world, [27] the second-highest number of billionaires of any city in Asia, and the largest concentration of ultra high-net-worth individuals of any city in the world. [28] [29] Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, severe income inequality exists among the population. [30]

Hong Kong is a highly developed territory and ranks fourth on the UN Human Development Index. [31] The city has the largest number of skyscrapers of any city in the world, [32] and its residents have some of the highest life expectancies in the world. [31] The dense space led to a developed transportation network with public transport rates exceeding 90%. [33] Hong Kong is ranked 4th in the Global Financial Centres Index. [34]

Etymology

Dim Sum Breakfast.jpg
Cha Chaan Teng.jpg
(left) Typical fare at a dim sum restaurant; (right) cha chaan teng breakfast food with Hong Kong-style milk tea

Food in Hong Kong is primarily based on Cantonese cuisine, despite the territory's exposure to foreign influences and its residents' varied origins. Rice is the staple food, and is usually served plain with other dishes. [281] Freshness of ingredients is emphasised. Poultry and seafood are commonly sold live at wet markets, and ingredients are used as quickly as possible. [282] There are five daily meals: breakfast, lunch, afternoon tea, dinner, and siu yeh . [283] Dim sum, as part of yum cha (brunch), is a dining-out tradition with family and friends. Dishes include congee, cha siu bao , siu yuk , egg tarts, and mango pudding. Local versions of Western food are served at cha chaan teng (Hong Kong-style cafes). Common cha chaan teng menu items include macaroni in soup, deep-fried French toast, and Hong Kong-style milk tea. [281]

Cinema

Statue of Bruce Lee on the Avenue of Stars, a tribute to the city's film industry Hong kong bruce lee statue.jpg
Statue of Bruce Lee on the Avenue of Stars, a tribute to the city's film industry

Hong Kong developed into a filmmaking hub during the late 1940s as a wave of Shanghai filmmakers migrated to the territory, and these movie veterans helped build the colony's entertainment industry over the next decade. [284] By the 1960s, the city was well known to overseas audiences through films such as The World of Suzie Wong . [285] When Bruce Lee's TheWay of the Dragon was released in 1972, local productions became popular outside Hong Kong. During the 1980s, films such as A Better Tomorrow , As Tears Go By , and Zu Warriors from the Magic Mountain expanded global interest beyond martial arts films; locally made gangster films, romantic dramas, and supernatural fantasies became popular. [286] Hong Kong cinema continued to be internationally successful over the following decade with critically acclaimed dramas such as Farewell My Concubine , To Live , and Chungking Express . The city's martial arts film roots are evident in the roles of the most prolific Hong Kong actors. Jackie Chan, Donnie Yen, Jet Li, Chow Yun-fat, and Michelle Yeoh frequently play action-oriented roles in foreign films. At the height of the local movie industry in the early 1990s, over 400 films were produced each year; since then, industry momentum shifted to mainland China. The number of films produced annually has declined to about 60 in 2017. [287]

Music

Leslie Cheung.jpg
Andy Lau (cropped).jpg
Leslie Cheung (left) is considered a pioneering Cantopop artist, and Andy Lau has been an icon of Hong Kong music and film for several decades as a member of the Four Heavenly Kings.

Cantopop is a genre of Cantonese popular music which emerged in Hong Kong during the 1970s. Evolving from Shanghai-style shidaiqu , it is also influenced by Cantonese opera and Western pop. [288] Local media featured songs by artists such as Sam Hui, Anita Mui, Leslie Cheung, and Alan Tam; during the 1980s, exported films and shows exposed Cantopop to a global audience. [289] The genre's popularity peaked in the 1990s, when the Four Heavenly Kings dominated Asian record charts. [290] Despite a general decline since late in the decade, [291] Cantopop remains dominant in Hong Kong; contemporary artists such as Eason Chan, Joey Yung, and Twins are popular in and beyond the territory. [292]

Western classical music has historically had a strong presence in Hong Kong and remains a large part of local musical education. [293] The publicly funded Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra, the territory's oldest professional symphony orchestra, frequently hosts musicians and conductors from overseas. The Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra, composed of classical Chinese instruments, is the leading Chinese ensemble and plays a significant role in promoting traditional music in the community. [294]

Sport and recreation

The Hong Kong Sevens, considered the premier tournament of the World Rugby Sevens Series, is played each spring. Crowd cheering, Hong Kong Sevens 2009.jpg
The Hong Kong Sevens, considered the premier tournament of the World Rugby Sevens Series, is played each spring.

Despite its small area, the territory is home to a variety of sports and recreational facilities. The city has hosted numerous major sporting events, including the 2009 East Asian Games, the 2008 Summer Olympics equestrian events, and the 2007 Premier League Asia Trophy. [295] The territory regularly hosts the Hong Kong Sevens, Hong Kong Marathon, Hong Kong Tennis Classic and Lunar New Year Cup, and hosted the inaugural AFC Asian Cup and the 1995 Dynasty Cup. [296] [297]

Hong Kong represents itself separately from mainland China, with its own sports teams in international competitions. [295] The territory has participated in almost every Summer Olympics since 1952 and has earned four medals. Lee Lai-shan won the territory's first Olympic gold medal at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, [298] and Cheung Ka Long won the second one in Tokyo 2020. [299] Hong Kong athletes have won 126 medals at the Paralympic Games and 17 at the Commonwealth Games. No longer part of the Commonwealth of Nations, the city's last appearance in the latter was in 1994. [300]

Dragon boat races originated as a religious ceremony conducted during the annual Tuen Ng Festival. The race was revived as a modern sport as part of the Tourism Board's efforts to promote Hong Kong's image abroad. The first modern competition was organised in 1976, and overseas teams began competing in the first international race in 1993. [301]

The Hong Kong Jockey Club, the territory's largest taxpayer, [302] has a monopoly on gambling and provides over 7% of government revenue. [303] Three forms of gambling are legal in Hong Kong: lotteries, horse racing, and football. [302]

Education

Old campus of St. Paul's College, the first school established in the colonial era Bishop's House, Anglican Church, Hong Kong.JPG
Old campus of St. Paul's College, the first school established in the colonial era

Education in Hong Kong is largely modelled after that of the United Kingdom, particularly the English system. [304] Children are required to attend school from age 6 until completion of secondary education, generally at age 18. [305] [306] At the end of secondary schooling, all students take a public examination and awarded the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education on successful completion. [307] Of residents aged 15 and older, 81% completed lower-secondary education, 66% graduated from an upper secondary school, 32% attended a non-degree tertiary program, and 24% earned a bachelor's degree or higher. [308] Mandatory education has contributed to an adult literacy rate of 95.7%. [309] The literacy rate is lower than that of other developed economies because of the influx of refugees from mainland China during the post-war colonial era; much of the elderly population were not formally educated because of war and poverty. [310] [311]

Comprehensive schools fall under three categories: public schools, which are government-run; subsidised schools, including government aid-and-grant schools; and private schools, often those run by religious organisations and that base admissions on academic merit. These schools are subject to the curriculum guidelines as provided by the Education Bureau. Private schools subsidised under the Direct Subsidy Scheme; international schools fall outside of this system and may elect to use differing curricula and teach using other languages. [306]

University of Hong Kong main building Main Building HKU 20100926 03.JPG
University of Hong Kong main building

The government maintains a policy of "mother tongue instruction"; most schools use Cantonese as the medium of instruction, with written education in both Chinese and English. Other languages being used as medium of instruction in non-international school education include English and Putonghua (Standard Mandarin Chinese). Secondary schools emphasise "bi-literacy and tri-lingualism", which has encouraged the proliferation of spoken Mandarin language education. [312]

Hong Kong has eleven universities. The University of Hong Kong was founded as the city's first institute of higher education during the early colonial period in 1911. [313] The Chinese University of Hong Kong was established in 1963 to fill the need for a university that taught using Chinese as its primary language of instruction. [314] Along with the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and City University of Hong Kong, these universities are ranked among the best in Asia. [315] The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, [316] Hong Kong Baptist University, [317] Lingnan University, [318] Education University of Hong Kong, [319] Hong Kong Metropolitan University, [320] Hong Kong Shue Yan University and Hang Seng University of Hong Kong were all established in subsequent years. [321]

Media

TVB City, headquarters of Hong Kong's first over-the-air television station Tvbcity-s1.png
TVB City, headquarters of Hong Kong's first over-the-air television station

Hong Kong's major English-language newspaper is the South China Morning Post , with The Standard serving as a business-oriented alternative. A variety of Chinese-language newspapers are published daily; the most prominent are Ming Pao and Oriental Daily News . Local publications are often politically affiliated, with pro-Beijing or pro-democracy sympathies. The central government has a print-media presence in the territory through the state-owned Ta Kung Pao and Wen Wei Po . [322] Several international publications have regional operations in Hong Kong, including The Wall Street Journal , Financial Times , The New York Times International Edition , USA Today , Yomiuri Shimbun , and The Nikkei . [323]

Three free-to-air television broadcasters operate in the territory; TVB, HKTVE, and Hong Kong Open TV air eight digital channels. [324] TVB, Hong Kong's dominant television network, has an 80% viewer share. [325] Pay TV services operated by Cable TV Hong Kong and PCCW offer hundreds of additional channels and cater to a variety of audiences. [324] RTHK is the public broadcaster, providing seven radio channels and three television channels. [326] Ten non-domestic broadcasters air programming for the territory's foreign population. [324] Access to media and information over the Internet is not subject to mainland Chinese regulations, including the Great Firewall, yet local control applies. [327]

See also

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 No specific variety of Chinese is official in the territory. Residents predominantly speak Cantonese, the de facto regional standard. [1] [2] [3]
  2. 1 2 For all government use, documents written using Traditional Chinese characters are authoritative over ones inscribed with Simplified Chinese characters. [4] English shares equal status with Chinese in all official proceedings. [5]
  3. Except for the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Hong Kong Link Road, which drives on the right. [15]
  4. simplified Chinese :中华人民共和国香港特别行政区; traditional Chinese :中華人民共和國香港特別行政區
  5. Hong Kong permanent residents can be of any nationality. A person without Chinese nationality who has entered Hong Kong with a valid travel document, has ordinarily resided there for a continuous period not less than seven years, and is permanently domiciled in the territory would be legally recognised as a Hongkonger. [16]
  6. However decisions made by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress override any territorial judicial process. Furthermore, the State Council may enforce national law in the region under specific circumstances.

Notes

  1. Leung 2016.
  2. 1 2 Official Languages Ordinance.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Population By-Census 2016, pp. 31, 51–52
  4. Legislative Council Disclaimer and Copyright Notice
  5. Use of Chinese in Court Proceedings 2011
  6. 1 2 3 Population By-Census 2016, p. 46.
  7. "China (People's Republic of) 1982 (rev. 2004)". Constitute project. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
  8. 1 2 Cheung 2017.
  9. 1 2 3 "Survey and Mapping Office – Circulars and Publications". Survey and Mapping Office. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  10. "Population - Overview | Census and Statistics Department". Censtatd.gov.hk. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  11. Population By-Census 2016, p. 34.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund . Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  13. Household Income Distribution 2016, p. 7
  14. "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  15. Technical Legislative Amendments on Traffic Arrangements for the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge 2017
  16. Basic Law Chapter III Article 24.
  17. 1 2 3 Carroll 2007 , pp. 15–21.
  18. 1 2 Carroll 2007 , pp. 21–24.
  19. 1 2 Scott 1989 , p. 6.
  20. Snow, Philip. [2004] (2004). The fall of Hong Kong: Britain, China and the Japanese occupation. Yale University Press. ISBN   0-300-10373-5, ISBN   978-0-300-10373-1.
  21. 1 2 Gargan 1997.
  22. Sino-British Joint Declaration Article 3
  23. Global Financial Centres Index 2017
  24. 1 2 "Country Comparison: Exports". The World Factbook . Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  25. 1 2 "Country Comparison: Imports". The World Factbook . Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  26. Triennial Central Bank Survey 2016 , p. 10
  27. Giacomo Tognini. "World's Richest Cities: The Top 10 Cities Billionaires Call Home". Forbes. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  28. Liu 2018.
  29. Frank 2018.
  30. "Country Comparison: GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)". The World Factbook . Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  31. 1 2 3 4 "Hong Kong". The World Factbook . Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  32. 1 2 "Hong Kong". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Archived from the original on 11 November 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  33. 1 2 Public Transport Strategy Study 2017 , p. 1
  34. "The Global Financial Centres Index 28" (PDF). Long Finance. September 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  35. 1 2 "Aquilaria sinensis and origin of the name of Hong Kong". Hong Kong Herbarium. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  36. 1 2 Carroll 2007, p. 1
  37. Empson 1992 , p. 94.
  38. Bishop & Roberts 1997 , p. 218.
  39. 1 2 Room 2005 , p. 168.
  40. Davis 1841 , p. 6.
  41. Empson 1992 , p. 96.
  42. Hong Kong Government Gazette 1926, No. 479.
  43. HSH Annual Report 2017 , p. 6.
  44. HSBC Annual Report 2011 , p. 2.
  45. Macau Inter University Institute, China; Davis, Vin; Ixer, Rob (2009). "The Petrology of the Wong Tei Tung Stone Tool Manufacturing Site, Sham Chung, Hong Kong Sar, China". Internet Archaeology (26). doi:10.11141/ia.26.8.
  46. 1 2 3 Meacham 1999 , p. 2.
  47. Li 2012 , p. 38.
  48. Ban, Ban & Ban 111.
  49. Keat 2004 , p. 932.
  50. Carroll 2007 , p. 9.
  51. Barber 2004 , p. 48.
  52. Carroll 2007 , p. 10.
  53. Porter 1996 , p. 63.
  54. Edmonds 2002 , p. 1.
  55. von Glahn 1996 , p. 116.
  56. Wills 1998 , pp. 342–344.
  57. Hong Kong Museum of History: "The Hong Kong Story" Exhibition Materials Archived 2009-04-18 at the Wayback Machine
  58. Zhihong 2006 , pp. 8–9.
  59. Schottenhammer 2007 , p. 33.
  60. Chen 2011.
  61. Hoe & Roebuck 1999 , pp. 82, 87.
  62. A Place From Which to Trade
  63. Tsang 2007 , p. 12.
  64. Courtauld, Holdsworth & Vickers 1997 , pp. 38–58
  65. Carroll 2007 , p. 30.
  66. Chu 2005 , p. 90.
  67. Wordie 2007 , p. 243.
  68. Carroll 2007 , p. 103.
  69. Yanne & Heller 2009 , p. 71.
  70. Snow 2003 , p. 43.
  71. Snow 2003 , pp. 53–73.
  72. Kwong 2015.
  73. 1 2 Wiltshire 1997 , p. 148.
  74. Buckley 1997 , pp. 64, 92.
  75. Carroll 2007 , pp. 145, 174–175.
  76. Forsyth, Neil (Director) (1990). Underground Pride (Motion picture). Hong Kong: MTR Corporation.
  77. Dodsworth & Mihaljek 1997 , p. 54.
  78. Carroll 2007 , pp. 176–178.
  79. 1 2 3 Carroll 2007 , p. 181.
  80. Wong 1992 , p. 9.
  81. Population Policy Report 2002 , pp. 27–28
  82. Gargan, Edward A. (18 September 1995). "Pro-China Party Appears Big Loser in Hong Kong Election". The New York Times.
  83. Carroll 2007 , p. 218
  84. Cheung & Ho 2013.
  85. Lee 2006 , pp. 63–70.
  86. Carroll 2007 , p. 200.
  87. Carroll 2007 , pp. 226, 233.
  88. Kaiman 2014.
  89. Bland 2016.
  90. Haas 2017.
  91. Huang 2016.
  92. Siu & Chung 2017.
  93. "To restore calm in Hong Kong, try democracy", The Economist
  94. Tam et al. 2012 , p. 80
  95. 1 2 Tam et al. 2012 , pp. 66, 80–81
  96. Ng Ka Ling and Another v the Director of Immigration
  97. Tam et al. 2012 , p. 77
  98. Young & Cullen 2010 , p. 39.
  99. Adaptation of Laws Guidelines 1998 , p. 7
  100. Emergency Regulations Ordinance.
  101. Tam et al. 2012 , p. 73
  102. 1 2 Gittings 2009 , p. 150.
  103. Gittings 2009 , p. 153.
  104. Young & Cullen 2010 , pp. 13–16.
  105. Basic Law Chapter IV Article 45.
  106. Amendment to the Basic Law Annex I
  107. Guidelines on the Legislative Council Election 2016 , p. 1
  108. 1 2 Guidelines on the Legislative Council Election 2016 , pp. 3–4
  109. Guidelines on the Legislative Council Election 2016 , pp. 3, 52–53
  110. LegCo and DC Member Political Affiliations 2017
  111. Bush & Whelan-Wuest 2017.
  112. Sala 2016.
  113. Tam et al. 2012 , pp. 80–81
  114. Gittings 2009 , p. 148.
  115. 1 2 "Legislation Summary: Hong Kong National Security Law". NPC Observer. 30 June 2020. Archived from the original on 2 July 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  116. Jordan 1997 , p. 335.
  117. Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Another v the President of the Legislative Council
  118. Basic Law Chapter II Article 18.
  119. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passports Ordinance
  120. "Control Point Locations". Immigration Department. Archived from the original on 22 November 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  121. Basic Law Chapter II Article 22.
  122. Basic Law Chapter V Article 106.
  123. Public Finance Facts 2018.
  124. Lendon 2017.
  125. Constitution of the People's Republic of China Chapter 3 § 4 (93).
  126. Basic Law Chapter II Article 14.
  127. Mok & Lee 2015.
  128. Basic Law Chapter VII Article 152.
  129. "Hong Kong Committee for UNICEF". UNICEF. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  130. "UNHCR Hong Kong". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  131. "List of Treaties in Force and Applicable to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region". Department of Justice. 25 October 2017. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  132. "Offices Outside Hong Kong". Hong Kong Government. Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  133. 1 2 "Ireland suspends its extradition treaty with Hong Kong". The Globe and Mail Inc. Reuters. 23 October 2020.
  134. "Trump ends preferential economic treatment for Hong Kong". BBC. 15 July 2020.
  135. District Administration Facts 2016
  136. District Councils Ordinance.
  137. 1 2 Cheng 2016 , p. 387.
  138. Basic Law Chapter IV Articles 45, 68.
  139. Wong & Lim 2017.
  140. Ming 2006.
  141. Ngo & Cheung 2016.
  142. Zhao 2015.
  143. Chao 2013.
  144. Lhatoo 2015.
  145. "Meanings of Right of Abode and Other Terms", Immigration Department
  146. "New ways to help Hong Kong's human trafficking victims". CN Monitor. 22 October 2015.
  147. "Human trafficking in Hong Kong: hidden in plain sight". South China Morning Post. 16 January 2016.
  148. "Fed up with human trafficking, Hong Kong migrant workers hold vigil demanding justice". South China Morning Post. 25 February 2018.
  149. "Hong Kong must lead the fight against human trafficking, rather than just do the bare minimum". South China Morning Post. 8 July 2016.
  150. Cheung 2016.
  151. Cheung 2015.
  152. Hernández, Javier C. (30 June 2020). "Harsh Penalties, Vaguely Defined Crimes: Hong Kong's Security Law Explained". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  153. "Hong Kong National Security Law Promulgated, Came into Effect June 30, 2020". Morrison & Foerster . 1 July 2020. Archived from the original on 2 July 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  154. James, William (1 July 2020). "UK says China's security law is serious violation of Hong Kong treaty". Reuters. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  155. "Hong Kong pro-democracy politicians arrested". BBC News. November 2020. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  156. 1 2 "Survey and Mapping Office - Circulars and Publications". www.landsd.gov.hk. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  157. Owen & Shaw 2007 , p. 13.
  158. Population By-Census 2016 , pp. 34–35
  159. Land Policy Report 2017 , p. 1.
  160. Owen & Shaw 2007 , p. 2.
  161. "Land Use in Hong Kong 2017", Planning Department
  162. Morton & Harper 1995 , p. 9.
  163. Hu 2003.
  164. "The Natural Environment, Plants & Animals in Hong Kong". Hong Kong Government. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  165. "Climate of Hong Kong". Hong Kong Observatory. Archived from the original on 2 June 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  166. Geography and Climate 2010.
  167. "Extreme Values and Dates of Occurrence of Extremes of Meteorological Elements between 1884 and 1939 and 1947–2017 for Hong Kong". Hong Kong Observatory. Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  168. "HK records hottest day before typhoon", EJ Insight
  169. "Automatic Weather Observations yearly Extract". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
  170. "Monthly Meteorological Normals for Hong Kong (1991-2020)". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  171. "Extreme Values and Dates of Occurrence of Extremes of Meteorological Elements between 1884-1939 and 1947-2020 for Hong Kong)". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  172. "Skyline Ranking". Emporis. Archived from the original on 23 June 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
  173. Tong & Wong 1997.
  174. Forrest, La Grange & Yip 2004 , pp. 215, 222
  175. "The World's Tallest Buildings". Emporis. Archived from the original on 24 June 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
  176. 1 2 Kohlstedt 2016.
  177. Hollingsworth & Zheng 2017.
  178. Zheng 2017.
  179. McKercher, Ho & du Cros 2004.
  180. 1 2 Tourism Facts 2016.
  181. Béthanie 2015 , p. 3.
  182. Ingham 2007 , p. 225.
  183. Declared Monuments 2007 , pp. 5–6.
  184. Xue 2016 , p. 99.
  185. Xue 2016 , p. 41.
  186. Fan 1974.
  187. Carroll 2007 , pp. 144–147.
  188. Yu 2013.
  189. Erni & Leung 2014 , pp. 18, 22.
  190. FCO Written Evidence 2014.
  191. Standing Committee Interpretation Concerning Implementation of Chinese Nationality Law in Hong Kong
  192. Lee 2012.
  193. Developing a Supplementary Guide to the Chinese Language Curriculum for Non-Chinese Speaking Students 2008 , p. 9
  194. 1 2 Religion and Custom Facts 2016.
  195. "Life Expectancy at Birth". The World Factbook . Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  196. Health Facts 2017.
  197. Wong et al. 2015 , p. 262.
  198. Household Income Distribution 2016 , p. 1
  199. 1 2 Household Income Distribution 2016 , p. 86
  200. Desjardins 2018.
  201. Household Income Distribution 2016 , p. 5
  202. Yau & Zhou 2017.
  203. Household Income Distribution 2016 , p. 80
  204. Jiang et al. 2003.
  205. "Hong Kong ranked world's freest economy for 18th consecutive year". Hong Kong Government. 12 January 2012. Archived from the original on 28 October 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  206. "Top 10 Countries". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2008.
  207. HKSE Market Statistics 2018 , p. 2.
  208. Economic Statistical Highlights 2017
  209. Park 2019.
  210. "Cargo Traffic 2016". Airports Council International. 1 January 2018. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  211. "Can The New Silk Road Compete With The Maritime Silk Road? | Hellenic Shipping News Worldwide". www.hellenicshippingnews.com.
  212. "The Maritime Silk Road in South-East Asia". www.southworld.net.
  213. Marcus Hernig: Die Renaissance der Seidenstraße (2018).
  214. Wolf D. Hartmann, Wolfgang Maennig, Run Wang: Chinas neue Seidenstraße. (2017).
  215. "When Hong Kong was a way station on China's Maritime Silk Road". South China Morning Post. 4 September 2018.
  216. Kong 2013.
  217. Agriculture and Fisheries Facts 2017
  218. Economy Facts 2016.
  219. Preston & Haacke 2003.
  220. Yeung 2008 , p. 16.
  221. "HK vs China GDP: A sobering reality", EJ Insight
  222. Lung & Sung 2010 , p. 5.
  223. 1 2 Griffiths & Lazarus 2018.
  224. "Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA)". Trade and Industry Department. 31 October 2017. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  225. "Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (HK-Macao CEPA)". Trade and Industry Department. 17 November 2017. Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  226. Baldwin, Lee & Jim 2014.
  227. Lam & Qiu 2017.
  228. 1 2 House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee Tenth Report 2015 , p. 18
  229. Cushman & Wakefield RHQ Report 2016 , p. 8
  230. House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee Tenth Report 2015 , pp. 18–19
  231. MUIR, PAUL (17 February 2021). "Crypto body warns new HK law will backfire".
  232. 1 2 Tsang, Donald (18 September 2006). "Big Market, Small Government" (Press release). Hong Kong Government. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  233. "End of an experiment", The Economist
  234. WTO 2017 , p. 6.
  235. "Despite worldwide changes, multinationals focus on mobile workforces to support career growth and ensure competitiveness". New York: Mercer. 21 June 2017. Archived from the original on 13 January 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  236. "Worldwide Cost of Living survey 2009". Mercer. 29 June 2010. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  237. Poon & Chau 2001 , p. 102.
  238. Mok 2018.
  239. Gold 2001.
  240. Railway Network Facts 2018.
  241. 1 2 Transport Statistical Highlights 2016
  242. Report on Rail Service 2014 , p. 1.
  243. "Cross Boundary Train Services". MTR Corporation. Archived from the original on 19 November 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  244. Kwok 2018.
  245. Vehicle Registration and Licensing 2018
  246. Labarre 2010.
  247. Traffic Congestion Study 2014 , pp. 2–3
  248. Transport Facts 2016.
  249. Cullinane 2002.
  250. Hong Kong Strategic Route Map (PDF) (Map). Transport Department. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  251. HKIA Annual Report 2017 , p. 152.
  252. NY/NJ Port Authority Airport Traffic 2017 , p. 32
  253. NY/NJ Port Authority Airport Traffic 2017 , p. 58
  254. Wordie 2007 , p. 242.
  255. "Operational Information". Star Ferry. Archived from the original on 30 November 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  256. Cushman 1993 , p. 57.
  257. "Ferry Services to Macau and the Mainland Ports". Hong Kong Government. Archived from the original on 19 November 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  258. Tatlow 2017.
  259. 1 2 Energy Statistics Report 2017 , p. 1
  260. Energy Statistics Report 2017 , p. 9
  261. Energy Statistics Report 2017 , p. 29
  262. Energy Statistics Report 2017 , p. 6
  263. Chan 2017.
  264. 1 2 Lee 2013.
  265. Water Supply Facts 2016.
  266. "Key Communications Statistics". Office of the Communications Authority. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  267. Akamai's State of the Internet 2017 , p. 54
  268. IT and Internet Usage 2017 , p. 9.
  269. Monthly Statistics for June 2019 , p. 242
  270. Carroll 2007 , p. 169.
  271. Carroll 2007 , pp. 167–172.
  272. He 2013.
  273. Tam 2017.
  274. Lam 2015.
  275. "HKU POP releases survey on Hong Kong people's ethnic identity and the 2018 review and 2019 forecast survey". Public Opinion Programme, University of Hong Kong. 27 December 2018. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  276. Family Survey 2013 , pp. 12–13.
  277. Population By-Census 2016 , p. 77.
  278. Fowler & Fowler 2008 , p. 263.
  279. Xi & Ingham 2003 , p. 181.
  280. Chan & Chow 2006 , p. 3.
  281. 1 2 Long 2015 , p. 271.
  282. Curry & Hanstedt 2014 , pp. 9–12.
  283. Long 2015 , p. 272.
  284. Fu 2008 , pp. 381, 388–389.
  285. Carroll 2007 , p. 148.
  286. Carroll 2007 , p. 168.
  287. Ge 2017.
  288. Chu 2017 , pp. 1–9, 24–25.
  289. Chu 2017 , pp. 77–85.
  290. Chu 2017 , pp. 107–116.
  291. Chu 2017 , pp. 9–10.
  292. Chu 2017 , pp. 159–164.
  293. Smith et al. 2017 , p. 101
  294. Ho 2011 , p. 147.
  295. 1 2 Shen & Kee 2017 , p. 247.
  296. Ghoshal 2011.
  297. Horne & Manzenreiter 2002 , p. 128.
  298. Lam & Chang 2005 , p. 141.
  299. Shum, Michael; Chow, Carine (27 July 2021). "FENCE-TASTIC! Cheung Ka-long wins gold for HK". The Standard . Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  300. Lam & Chang 2005 , p. 99.
  301. Sofield & Sivan 2003.
  302. 1 2 Littlewood 2010 , pp. 16–17.
  303. Inland Revenue Annual Report 2017 , p. 4
  304. Chan & Leung 2003 , p. 24.
  305. "Programme Highlights". Hong Kong Government. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
  306. 1 2 Li, Arthur (18 May 2005). "Creating a better education system". Hong Kong Government. Archived from the original on 3 March 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  307. "HKDSE". Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority. 12 October 2010. Archived from the original on 16 October 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
  308. Women and Men in Hong Kong Key Statistics 2017 , p. 66
  309. "Adult literacy rate". The Hong Kong Council of Social Service. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  310. Cheng et al. 2013.
  311. UNESCO Literacy Rates 2017 , p. 8.
  312. Lee & Leung 2012.
  313. Carroll 2007 , pp. 84–86.
  314. Fulton Commission 1963.
  315. "QS University Rankings, Asia 2018". QS World University Rankings. February 2017. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  316. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Ordinance
  317. Hong Kong Baptist University Ordinance
  318. Lingnan University Ordinance.
  319. The Education University of Hong Kong Ordinance
  320. The Open University of Hong Kong Ordinance
  321. LegCo Grant to Shue Yan University 2007
  322. "Hong Kong media profile", BBC News
  323. Media Facts 2017.
  324. 1 2 3 Licensed Broadcasting Services 2018
  325. Chow 2017.
  326. RTHK Budget 2018 , pp. 806, 809.
  327. "Hong Kong Activists Stare Down 'Great Firewall of China'", NBC News

Related Research Articles

Demographics of Hong Kong Overview of the demographics of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Hong Kong, including population density, ethnicity, education level, the health of the populace, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.

Macau City and special administrative region of China

Macau or Macao, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), is a city and special administrative region of the People's Republic of China in the western Pearl River Delta by the South China Sea. With a population of about 680,000 and an area of 32.9 km2 (12.7 sq mi), it is the most densely populated region in the world.

"One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle of the People's Republic of China describing the governance of Hong Kong and Macau since they became Special administrative regions of China in 1997 and 1999 respectively.

Hong Kong Basic Law de facto constitution of Hong Kong SAR

The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is a national law of China that serves as the de facto constitution of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). Comprising nine chapters, 160 articles and three annexes, the Basic Law was enacted under the Constitution of China to as a result of Sino-British Joint Declaration.

Sino-British Joint Declaration British-Chinese treaty regarding the transfer of Hong Kong

The Sino-British Joint Declaration is a treaty between the governments of the United Kingdom and China signed in 1984 setting the conditions in which Hong Kong was transferred to Chinese control and for the governance of the territory after 1 July 1997.

Flag of Hong Kong Regional flag

The flag of Hong Kong, officially the regional flag of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, depicts a white stylised five-petal Hong Kong orchid tree flower in the centre of a Chinese red field. Its original design was unveiled on 4 April 1990 at the Third Session of the Seventh National People's Congress. The current design was approved on 10 August 1996 at the Fourth Plenum of the Preparatory Committee of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The precise use of the flag is regulated by laws passed by the 58th executive meeting of the State Council held in Beijing. The design of the flag is enshrined in Hong Kong's Basic Law, the territory's constitutional document, and regulations regarding the use, prohibition of use, desecration, and manufacture of the flag are stated in the Regional Flag and Regional Emblem Ordinance. The flag of Hong Kong was officially adopted and hoisted on 1 July 1997, during the handover ceremony marking the transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom back to China.

Right of abode in Hong Kong Right to live in Hong Kong

Right of abode in Hong Kong entitles a person to live and work in the territory without any restrictions or conditions of stay. Someone who has that right is a Hong Kong permanent resident. Foreign nationals may acquire the right of abode after meeting a seven-year residency requirement and are given most rights usually associated with citizenship, including the right to vote in regional elections. However, they are not entitled to hold territorial passports or stand for office in most Legislative Council constituencies, unless they also naturalise as Chinese citizens.

Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions Labour and political group in Hong Kong

The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions (HKFTU) is a pro-Beijing labour and political group established in 1948 in Hong Kong. It is the oldest and largest labour group in Hong Kong with over 410,000 members in 251 affiliates and associated trade unions. Presided by Ng Chau-pei and chaired by Kingsley Wong, it currently holds four seats in the Legislative Council and five seats in the District Councils.

History of Hong Kong Aspect of history

The region of Hong Kong has been inhabited since the Old Stone Age, later becoming part of the Chinese empire with its loose incorporation into the Qin dynasty. Starting out as a farming fishing village and salt production site, it became an important free port and eventually a major international financial centre.

British National (Overseas) Class of British nationality

British National (Overseas), abbreviated BN(O), is a class of British nationality associated with the former colony of Hong Kong. The status was acquired through voluntary registration by individuals with a connection to the territory who had been British Dependent Territories citizens (BDTCs) before the handover to China in 1997. Registration for BN(O) status was limited to the 10-year period preceding the transfer as a transitional arrangement for colonial subjects; current residents cannot newly acquire this nationality.

Handover of Hong Kong 1997 transfer of Hong Kongs sovereignty from the UK to China

The Hong Kong handover, domestically known as the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, was the formal passing of authority over the territory of the then colony of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China at midnight on 1 July 1997. This event ended 156 years of British rule in the former colony. Hong Kong was reestablished as a special administrative region of China, and largely continues to maintain its economic and governing systems distinct from those of mainland China.

Human rights in Hong Kong

Human rights protection is enshrined in the Basic Law and its Bill of Rights Ordinance (Cap.383). By virtue of the Bill of Rights Ordinance and Basic Law Article 39, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is put into effect in Hong Kong. Any local legislation that is inconsistent with the Basic Law can be set aside by the courts. This does not apply to national legislation that applies to Hong Kong, such as the National Security Law, even if it is inconsistent with the Bills of Rights Ordinance, ICCPR, or the Basic Law.

Chinese nationality law Nationality law of the Peoples Republic of China

Chinese nationality law details the conditions in which a person holds People's Republic of China (PRC) nationality. Foreign nationals may naturalize if they are permanent residents in any part of China or they have immediate family members who are Chinese citizens. Residents of the region of Taiwan are also considered Chinese citizens, due to the PRC's extant claim over areas controlled by the Republic of China (ROC).

Democratic development in Hong Kong Ongoing political movement in Hong Kong

Democratic development in Hong Kong has been a major issue since the transfer of sovereignty to the People's Republic of China in 1997. The one country, two systems principle allows the Hong Kong government to administer all areas of government except foreign relations and (military) defence separately from the national Chinese government. Many Hong Kong citizens became concerned about democratic development when the first Chief Executive of Hong Kong Tung Chee-hwa appeared to have mishandled this issue. Other democracy-related issues involving human rights and universal suffrage became the new focal point for the pro-democracy camp. Attempts to bring Hong Kong citizens to the negotiating table by the British during the Sino-Anglo discussions were rejected by Beijing in the late 1980s. The last governor Chris Patten faced a great deal of opposition in changing the former colony's political system.

Hongkongers Permanent residents of Hong Kong

Hongkongers, also known as Hong Kongers, Hong Kongese, Hongkongese, Hong Kong citizen and Hong Kong people, typically refers to legal residents of the city of Hong Kong; although may also refer to others who were born and/or raised in the city.

British Hong Kong British crown colony and dependent territory in East Asia between 1841 and 1997

British Hong Kong was a colony and dependent territory of the British Empire from 1841 to 1997, apart from a brief period under Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945. The colonial period began with the occupation of Hong Kong Island in 1841 during the First Opium War. The island was ceded to Great Britain by the Treaty of Nanking, ratified by the Daoguang Emperor in the aftermath of the war of 1842. It was established as a Crown colony in 1843. The colony expanded to include the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War. Hong Kong's territory was further extended in 1898 when the British obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories.

Hong Kong independence Political movement advocating for Hong Kongs independence from China

Hong Kong independence is a political movement that advocates Hong Kong to be established as an independent sovereign state. Hong Kong is one of two Special administrative regions of China (SAR) which enjoys a certain degree of autonomy as a part of the People's Republic of China, which is guaranteed under Article 2 of Hong Kong Basic Law as ratified under the Sino-British Joint Declaration. Since the transfer of the sovereignty of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to the PRC in 1997, a growing number of Hongkongers have become concerned about what they see as Beijing's encroachment on the territory's freedoms and the failure of the Hong Kong government to deliver "genuine democracy".

Peak District Reservation Ordinance 1904

The Peak District Reservation Ordinance 1904, originally enacted as the Hill District Reservation Ordinance, is commonly called the Peak Reservation Ordinance and was a zoning law that reserved most of the Victoria Peak as a place of residence to non-Chinese people except with the consent of the Governor-in-Council. The law was in force from 1904 to 1930 where the deadly Third Pandemic of Bubonic plague took place in China, causing 100,000 deaths, and enormous number of Chinese influxed into Hong Kong, causing the 1894 Hong Kong plague. Contemporary historians’ views toward the Ordinance vary, with some attributing the Ordinance to health segregation, whereas others attribute it to social status segregation. The debate on the second reading of the Bill is recorded in the Hong Kong Hansard, which shows that the two Chinese members, Ho Kai and Wei Yuk, did not oppose the Bill but a minority of the "leading Chinese" in the community were against it.

Liberalism has a long tradition as an economic philosophy since the founding of Hong Kong as an entrepôt which cherishes private property, the free market, and free trade. In recent decades, Hong Kong has earned its international reputation as one of the "freest economies in the world". As a political trend, liberalism has become the driving force of the democratic movement since the 1980s which is mainly represented by the pro-democracy camp which strives for the universal suffrage, human rights and rule of law in Hong Kong.

National Anthem Ordinance

The National Anthem Ordinance is an ordinance of Hong Kong intended to criminalise "insults to the national anthem of China". It is a local law in response to the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the National Anthem. Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Xi Jinping made a speech regarding the national anthem legislation in early 2017. The ordinance commenced on 12 June 2020.

References

Print

Legislation and case law

  • Amendment to the Basic Law Annex I (Instrument A111)
  • Basic Law Chapter II
  • Basic Law Chapter III
  • Basic Law Chapter IV
  • Basic Law Chapter V
  • Basic Law Chapter VII
  • Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Another v the President of the Legislative Council, HCAL185/2016, at para. 20
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China (Instrument A1)
  • District Councils Ordinance (Cap. 547) Schedule 3
  • Emergency Regulations Ordinance (Cap. 241)
  • Hong Kong Baptist University Ordinance (Cap. 1126)
  • Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passports Ordinance (Cap. 539)
  • Lingnan University Ordinance (Cap. 1165)
  • Ng Ka Ling and Another v the Director of Immigration, FACV14/1998, at para. 63
  • Official Languages Ordinance (Cap. 5)  § 3(1)
  • Sino-British Joint Declaration (Instrument A301)
  • Standing Committee Interpretation Concerning Implementation of Chinese Nationality Law in Hong Kong (Instrument A204)
  • The Education University of Hong Kong Ordinance (Cap. 444)
  • The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Ordinance (Cap. 1075)
  • The Open University of Hong Kong Ordinance (Cap. 1145)

Academic publications

Institutional reports

Hong Kong
Hong Kong in Chinese 2.svg
"Hong Kong" in Chinese characters