Hongqian

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A Xianfeng Zhongbao (Xian Feng Zhong Bao ) "Red cash coin" produced by the Aksu mint under the reign of the Xianfeng Emperor. Xian Feng Zhong Bao (Xian Feng Zhong Bao ) - 50 Cash (Aksu Mint), Red Cash - Scott Semans.jpg
A Xianfeng Zhongbao (咸豐重寶) "Red cash coin" produced by the Aksu mint under the reign of the Xianfeng Emperor.

"Red cash coins" (traditional Chinese :紅錢; simplified Chinese :红钱; pinyin :hóng qián; French: Sapèques rouges; Uyghur: قىزىل پۇل) are the cash coins produced in Xinjiang under Qing rule following the conquest of the Dzungar Khanate by the Manchus in 1757. [1] While in Northern Xinjiang the monetary system of China proper, with standard cash coins, was adopted in Southern Xinjiang where the pūl (ﭘول) coins of Dzungaria circulated earlier the pūl-system was continued but some of the old Dzungar pūl coins were melted down to make Qianlong Tongbao (乾隆通寶) cash coins, as pūl coins were usually around 98% copper they tended to be very red in colour which gave the cash coins based on the pūl coins the nickname "red cash coins". [1]

Contents

Because of their high copper content, "red cash coins" were usually valued at 10 wén a piece, [1] but at times were only valued at 5 wén. [2]

History

The various mints and cash coin systems of Xinjiang under the Qing dynasty, with Zhiqian circulating in the north and Hongqian circulating in the south. Mints in Xinjiang.svg
The various mints and cash coin systems of Xinjiang under the Qing dynasty, with Zhiqian circulating in the north and Hongqian circulating in the south.

Qianlong era

In July 1759 General Zhao Hui petitioned to the Qianlong Emperor to reclaim the old pūl coins and using them as scrap for the production of new cash coins, these "red cash coins" had an official exchange rate with the pūl coins that remained in circulation of 1 "red cash" for 2 pūl coins. [1] As Zhao Hui wanted the new can coins to have the same weight as pūl coins they weighed 2 qián and had both a higher width and thickness than regular cash coins. [1] Red cash coins are also generally marked by their rather crude craftsmanship when compared to the cash coins of China proper. [1] The edges of these coins are often not filed completely and the casting technique is often inaccurate or the inscriptions on them seemed deformed. [1]

Xinjiang already had a rich history of its own Chinese-style coinage, [3] red cash coins are a continuation of this history. [1]

At the introduction of red cash system in Southern Xinjiang in 1760, the exchange rate of standard cash (or "yellow cash") and "red cash" was set at 10 standard cash coins were worth 1 "red cash coin". [1] During two or three subsequent years this exchange rate was decreased to 5:1. [1] When used in the Northern or Eastern circuits of Xinjiang, the "red cash coins" were considered equal in value as the standard cash coins that circulated there. [1] The areas where the Dzungar pūls had most circulated such as Yarkant, Hotan, and Kashgar were the sites of mints operated by the Qing government, as the official mint of the Dzungar Khanate was in the city of Yarkent the Qing used this mint to cast the new "red cash coins" and new mints were established in Aksu and Ili. [1] As the Jiaqing Emperor ordered that 10% of all cash coins cast in Xinjiang should bear the inscription "Qianlong Tongbao" the majority of "red cash coins" with this inscription were actually produced after the Qianlong era as their production lasted until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 making many of them hard to attribute. [1]

During the Qianlong era mints in Xinjiang were established in Yili (伊犁), Yerkant (يارﻛﻨﺪ), Aksu (اﻗﺴﻮ), and Uši (اﺷﻲ), and probably also in Khotan (خوتن), Kashgar (قاشقر), and Qarashahr. [2]

The first mint to be opened in Xinjiang under Qing rule was the Yarkant mint, at first 500,000 cash coins were cast from melted down pūl coins, the Yarkant mint ceased production in the year 1767, but re-opened in 1768. [4] In the year 1769 the Yarkant mint was transferred to the Uqturpan mint. [4] While the city changed its name from Yerkim to Yarkant in September 1761, but there is no evidence that the mint mark was also changed at the same time. [4] In the beginning the Manchu form of the Yarkant was Yerdjim were issued from 1759 to 1761; [5] afterwards the Manchu form was Yerdjiang. [5]

In the year 1766 the Aksu mint was ordered by the government to transfer its manufacturing to the city of Uqturpan. [4] Cash coins were to be produced under the regulations of the Yarkant mint with a standard weight of 2 qián (7.5 grams), it was further ordered to include a mint mark in both Manchu and Arabic scripts. [4] In the year 1771 the government memorialised that cash coins produced in Xinjiang while originally having a weight of 2 qián, because the cities of Aksu, Uqturpan, Yarkant, and Kashgar had population numbers that were increasing, which meant that cash coins were unable to circulate freely as they had become more scarce relative to an increasing population. [4] Uqturpan was ordered to reduce the weight of their cash coins by 5 fēn, which meant that they would weigh 1.5 qián (or 5.6 grams). [4] The surplus of copper was then used to make more cash coins to help reduce the scarcity of money. [4] In the year 1774 the weight of cash coins produced by the Uqturpan weight was reduced again to 1.2 qián (4.5 grams). [4] In the year 1798 the Uqrurpan mint was transferred back to the Aksu mint. [4]

Jiaqing era

In the year 1801 the government of the Qing dynasty set the quota on the copper to be collected in the southern circuit of Xinjiang to 21,100 jin, of this copper a total of 2,600 strings of pūl cash coins were to be manufactured. [6] Each of these cash coins were set to have a weight of 1.2 qián. [6] [7]

Daoguang era

A "Red cash coin" produced by the Aksu mint under the reign of the Daoguang Emperor. Aksu mint "Red Cash" mint marks aksU & y'qsu.png
A "Red cash coin" produced by the Aksu mint under the reign of the Daoguang Emperor.

In 1826 Jahangir Khoja with soldiers from the Khanate of Kokand occupied the southern circuit of Xinjiang temporarily losing Kashgar, Yarkant, and Hotän to this rebellion. The Daoguang Emperor sent 36 thousand Manchu soldiers to defeat this rebellion. [8] As more soldiers had entered Xinjiang the price of silver went down, while that of copper went up. In 1826 1 tael of silver was worth 250 or 260 "Red Cash" while in 1827 good had decreased to 100 or sometimes even as low as 80. Despite the soldiers returning to Manchuria the original exchange rates did not restore causing the mint of Aksu to close, as the Aksu mint closed down less money was circulating on the market. [8]

The 10 wén Aksu cash coins were introduced in 1828 because of a money shortage caused the government to be unable to pay the soldiers stationed in the region, these cash coins only weighed 1 qián 5 fēn. [9] In the year 1829 the government introduced the 5 wén denomination of "red cash coins". [9]

In 1828 monetary reforms were implemented to keep the current weight of "Red Cash" but increase their denominations to 5, and 10 wén (while weighing the same) with 70% of Aksu's annual production being 5 wén coins, and 30% being 10 wén but the production of "Red Cash" itself was reduced by two and a half thousand strings. Later the Daoguang Emperor ordered the weight of "Red Cash" to further decrease in order to maximise profits. [8]

In reality the 5 wén "red cash coins" circulated as 1 wén cash coins while the 10 wén "red cash coins" circulated as 2 wén cash coins. [9] Furthermore, the Chinese character "十" was used by the people as a mark of authenticity rather than an indication of the cash coin's denomination. [9]

Xianfeng era

Under the reign of the Xianfeng Emperor "Red Cash" coins were excessively manufactured negating the reforms implemented by the Daoguang Emperor causing inflation in the region. [1] As the Taiping rebellion and the Second Opium War had prompted the Qing government to start issuing high denomination cash coins in other parts of the Qing dynasty, [10] this soon spread to Xinjiang mainly due to the decreased subsidies for military expenditures in Xinjiang lowering the soldiers' salaries. [1]

In the year 1853 the production of large denomination cash coins commenced at the Kucha Mint, these "red cash coins" were produced using local weight standards and not the ones set by the Ministry of Revenue because of their high copper content. [11] In the year 1855 new denominations of 4 wén and 8 wén were introduced at the Yining mint, further the Ürümqi mint started issuing cash coins with high denominations in response. [1] New mints were established at Kucha, and Kashgar while the Yarkant mint was re-opened. Coins also started being cast in bronze, brass, lead, and iron; [1] this system received a chaotic response from Xinjiang's market. [1] The Xianfeng era "red cash coins" produced at the Kashgar mint contain an obscure vertically written vorm of Arabic script. [12]

In the year 1859 the 50 wén and 100 wén cash coins were officially discontinued, the Kucha mint then started collecting them for re-casting them into 10 wén Daqian, a single string of either denomination could produce 3 strings of 10 wén Daqian. [11]

From 1860 denominations higher than 10 wén were discontinued. [1]

Tongzhi era

Only coins of 4 wén, 5 wén, and 10 wén were cast at Xinjiang's provincial mints under the Tongzhi Emperor. [1] Cash coins that had a higher denomination than 10 wén was being collected from the population to be smelted into lower denominations, while the higher denominations that stayed on the market were accepted only lower than their face value. [13]

In the year 1866 the city of Ili was conquered by Mu'azzam Khan, which was followed by a Russian occupation of the region in 1871, during this era the Russian ruble started circulating in the region, but after the region was returned to the Qing the Ili Mint would never produce any cash coins ever again. [14] The production of Tongzhi Tongbao (同治通寶) cash coins would completely stop in the region following the loss of the cities which hosted the provincial mints during the Dungan uprisings. [15]

Arabic cash coins of Rashidin Khan Khoja

During the Dungan revolt from 1862 to 1877, Sultan Rashidin Khan Khoja proclaimed a Jihad against the Qing dynasty in 1862, and captured large cities in the Tarim Basin. [16] It stretched from Turfan in the east to Yarkand in the west. [17] He issued Chinese-style cash coins minted at the Aksu, and Kucha mints with exclusive Arabic inscriptions, these coins were only briefly minted as Rashidin Khan Khoja would be betrayed and murdered by Yakub beg in 1867. [16] [17]

Guangxu era

As the chaotic circulation of various denominations of cash coins had continued, this invited foreign silver money from Central Asia to start circulating in the Xinjiang region. After the Russian Empire had occupied the northern region of Xinjiang in 1871 Russian rubles started circulating. [14] Eventually 3 parallel currency systems were in place while pūl coins from the Dzungar Khanate kept circulating in Kashgaria a century after the region was annexed by the Qing dynasty. The Dungan revolt lead by the Tajik Muhammad Yaqub Beg was defeated in 1878 during the Qing reconquest of Xinjiang, [18] [19] and the Russians returned the territory they had occupied after signing a treaty in 1880 at Yining. [20] [21]

The Kucha Mint was reopened following the Manchu reconquest of Xinjiang in the year 1878, the initial casting from the Kucha mint wasn't of a high standard. [22] A memorial about the Kucha mint issued during the 6th month of the 11th year of the Guangxu Emperor (July 1885) notes that on the 26th day of the 7th month, twenty mint employees from the 78 that were originally employed by the Kucha were to be detached for the establishment of a small fire furnace that would chiefly be used for the production of cash coin patterns. [22] 500 cash coins made up a gua, which reportedly weighed 4 catties and 1 tael, with each cash coin weighing 1 qián 3 fēn. [22] Of these cash coins, 40% were produced with the inscription Qianlong Tongbao, while the other 60% used the Guangxu era name. [22] The reverse side of these cash coins featured both Manchu and Arabic script, and additionally also used the Chinese character "阿" (ā) to further indicate the mint of production, while on the bottom of the reverse side of these cash coins is the Chinese character "十" (shí). [22] The character "十" was placed on them because what the Qing government described as the "turbaned people" did not accept the cash coins at their value without the written denomination being "當十" (dāng shí). [22] The "turbaned people", as described in the memorial, as they suspected that these cash coins weren't genuine government produced cash coins and were often unwilling to use them. [22] In some of the four old Western cities some cash coins that did not have the Chinese characters "當十" were only accepted at half a cash coin and they were usually used as a change. [22]

In the year 1884 Xinjiang was upgraded to the status of "province" ending military and Lifan Yuan rule over the region, while the "Red Cash" system was reintroduced in Kashgaria now at a value of 4 wén. However, at the end of the reign of the Guangxu Emperor "Red Cash" was discontinued at the Aksu mint in 1892 because of the rising costs of charcoal needed to produce the coins. [1] The Aksu mint was transferred to Kucha mint. [1] Though the Kashgar mint re-opened in 1888 it outsourced some of the production of "Red Cash" to Kucha and Aksu resulting in cash coins being cast with the Chinese mint mark of Kashgar but the Manchu and Arabic mint marks of the actual mint of casting. [1]

In the year 1889 the casting of 2,290 strings was established at the Kashgar Mint, a total of 29 employees were required for this process. [23] In the year 1893, the government set up a combined Mines and Minting Office in the east corner of the barracks of the native city of Kashgar, furthermore the annual casting rate was increased to 6,400 strings, and the mint now employed 50 employees. [23]

In the year 1890 the government of the Qing dynasty decided that "red cash coins" should circulate in both southern and northern Xinjiang and that they were to be equivalent of 1.2 qián or 1.0 qián standard cash coins of the time. [24]

During the Guangxu era "red cash coins" with the "Boo Ciowan" (ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠴᡳᠣᠸᠠᠨ
) mint marks were produced in Xinjiang, but these cash coins were not produced by the Ministry of Revenue Mint in Beijing, these Hongqian were likely produced by the Aksu Mint and/or the Kucha Mint for circulation in the Ili region. [25] [24] One theory is that this might have been the local idea of what "a regulation cash coin" (制錢) looks like and that this mint mark was used to instill more trust into these Hongqian. [24]

The kashgar mint closed down in 1908. The Kucha mint introduced new obverse inscriptions for cash coins minted there with the Guang Xu Ding Wei (光緒丁未) in 1907, and Guang Xu Wu Shen (光緒戊申) in 1908, however production didn't last very long as the Kucha mint finally closed down in 1909. [26]

During the Guangxu period "red cash coins" also started being produced in the city of Ürümqi. [27]

During the Guangxu period posthumous Daoguang Tongbao "red cash coins" of 10 wén were produced in Xinjiang. [28]

Xuantong era

Under the Xuantong Emperor "Red Cash" with the inscription Xuantong Tongbao (宣統通寶) continued to be produced but at lower number than before at the Kucha mint, this was as the Kucha mint was the only mint still operating in Xinjiang at the time, [29] but as the Kucha mint closed down in 1911 a year before the fall of the Qing dynasty the production of "Red Cash" officially ended. [30]

It is notable that some of the "red cash coins" produced at the Kucha mint contain the Uši mint mark (ᠪᠣᠣ
ᡠᠰᡥᡳ
) in Manchu and the Kucha mint mark (庫) in Chinese, while it's unorthodox for cash coins produced at one mint to contain the mint marks of another mint, this would have likely occurred because the city of Uši had outsourced the production of its cash coinage to the Kucha Mint, meaning that these cash coins were likely meant for the city of Uši. [29]

List of Hongqian variants

List of "red cash coins" (紅錢)
Obverse inscription
(Latin script)
Reverse inscription
(Latin script)
MintYears of productionImage
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [31] [32]
ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu 1761–1766
1800–1820
1821–1828
1878–1883
Ch'ien Lung T'ung Pao (Red Cash) - John Ferguson 03.jpg
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [32]
ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Jiǔ - Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1883
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [33]
當 十 ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Dāng - Shí - Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1883–1885
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [33]
阿 十 ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Ā - Shí - Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1885–1892
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [33]
喀 十 ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Kā - Shí - Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1880s?
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [34]
庫 局 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᡴᡠᠴ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ᡝ

(Kù Jú - Boo Kuche)
Kucha [lower-alpha 1] 1878–1883
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [34]
庫 局 ᡴᡠᠴ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ᡝ كۇچار
(Kù Jú - Kuche - Kucha)
Kucha1878–1883
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [34]
ᡴᡠᠴ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ᡝ كۇچار
(Kuche - Kucha)
Kucha1878–1883
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [34]
نۇر تېما
(Kan Shuy) [lower-alpha 2]
Kucha1878–1883
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [34]
ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠴᡳᠣᠸᠠᠨ

(Boo Ciowan)
Kucha1878–1883
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [34]
ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠶᡠᠸᠠᠨ

(Boo Yuwan)
Kucha1878–1883
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [22]
當 十 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠴᡳᠣᠸᠠᠨ

(Dāng - Shí - Boo Ciowan)
Kucha1883–1885
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [22]
庫 十 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠴᡳᠣᠸᠠᠨ

(Kù - Shí - Boo Ciowan)
Kucha1886–1888
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [22]
庫 十 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠶᡠᠸᠠᠨ

(Kù - Shí - Boo Yuwan)
Kucha1888–1891
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [22]
喀 什 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠴᡳᠣᠸᠠᠨ

Kā - Shí - Boo Ciowan)
Kucha [lower-alpha 3] 1890s?
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [22]
喀 十 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠶᡠᠸᠠᠨ

(Kā - Shí - Boo Yuwan)
Kucha [lower-alpha 4] 1890s?
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [4]
ᡠᠰᡥᡳ اﺷﻲ
(Ushi - Uši)
Uqturpan 1766–1769
1771–1798
Ch'ien Lung T'ung Pao (Red Cash) - John Ferguson 02.jpg
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [4] [5]
ᠶᡝᡵᡴᡳᠮ يارﻛﻨﺪ
(Yerkim - Yəkən)
Yarkant 1760–1769
乾隆通寶
(Qianlong Tongbao) [4] [5]
ᠶᡝᡵᡴᡳᠶᠠᠩ يارﻛﻨﺪ
(Yerkiyang - Yəkən)
Yarkant1760–1769 Ch'ien Lung T'ung Pao (Red Cash) - John Ferguson 01.jpg
嘉慶通寶
(Jiaqing Tongbao) [6]
ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1798–1820
道光通寶
(Daoguang Tongbao) [9] [35]
ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1821–1828 Aksu mint "Red Cash" mint marks aksU & y'qsu.png
道光通寶
(Daoguang Tongbao) [9] [35]
八年 五 ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Bā nián - Wǔ - Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1829–1850
道光通寶
(Daoguang Tongbao) [9] [35]
八年 十 ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Bā nián - Shí - Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1828–1850
道光通寶
(Daoguang Tongbao) [9] [35]
阿 十 ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Ā - Shí - Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1885–1892
道光通寶
(Daoguang Tongbao) [36] [37]
庫 十 ᡴᡠᠴ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ᡝ كۇچار
(Kù - Shí - Kuche - Kucha)
Kucha1883–1885
道光通寶
(Daoguang Tongbao) [36] [37]
新 十 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠴᡳᠣᠸᠠᠨ

(Xīn - Shí - Boo Ciowan)
Kucha Bao Xin1885–1886
道光通寶
(Daoguang Tongbao) [36] [37]
新 十 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠴᡳᠣᠸᠠᠨ

(Xīn - Shí - Boo Ciowan) [lower-alpha 5]
Kucha Bao Xin1885–1886
道光通寶
(Daoguang Tongbao) [36] [37]
庫 十 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠴᡳᠣᠸᠠᠨ

(Kù - Shí - Boo Ciowan)
Kucha1886–1888
咸豐通寶
(Xianfeng Tongbao) [38]
當 五 ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Dāng Wǔ - Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1851–1861
咸豐通寶
(Xianfeng Tongbao) [38]
當 十 ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Dāng Shí - Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1851–1861
咸豐重寶
(Xianfeng Zhongbao) [38]
當 五十 ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Dāng Wǔ Shí - Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1853–1859 Xian Feng Zhong Bao (Xian Feng Zhong Bao ) - 50 Cash (Aksu Mint), Red Cash - Scott Semans.jpg
咸豐元寶
(Xianfeng Yuanbao) [38] [39]
當 百 ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Dāng Bǎi - Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1854–1859
咸豐通寶
(Xianfeng Tongbao) [40]
當 十 ᡴᠠᠰᡥᡤᠠᡵ قەشقەر
(Dāng Shí - Kashigar - Ⱪǝxⱪǝr)
Kashgar 1855–1859
咸豐重寶
(Xianfeng Zhongbao) [40]
當 五十 ᡴᠠᠰᡥᡤᠠᡵ قەشقەر
(Dāng Wǔ Shí - Kashigar - Ⱪǝxⱪǝr)
Kashgar1855–1859
咸豐元寶
(Xianfeng Yuanbao) [40]
當 百 ᡴᠠᠰᡥᡤᠠᡵ قەشقەر
(Dāng Bǎi - Kashigar - Ⱪǝxⱪǝr)
Kashgar1855–1859
咸豐通寶
(Xianfeng Tongbao) [41]
當 五 ᡴᡠᠴ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ᡝ كۇچار
(Dāng Wǔ - Kuche - Kucha)
Kucha1853–1861
咸豐通寶
(Xianfeng Tongbao) [41]
當 十 ᡴᡠᠴ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ᡝ كۇچار
(Dāng Shí - Kuche - Kucha)
Kucha1853–1861
咸豐重寶
(Xianfeng Zhongbao) [41]
當 五十 ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Dāng Wǔ Shí - Kuche - Kucha)
Kucha1853–1856
咸豐元寶
(Xianfeng Yuanbao) [41]
當 百 ᡴᡠᠴ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ᡝ كۇچار
(Dāng Bǎi - Kuche - Kucha)
Kucha1853–1856
咸豐通寶
(Xianfeng Tongbao) [42]
當 十 ᠶᡝᡵᡴᡳᠶᠠᠩ يارﻛﻨﺪ
(Dāng Shí - Yerkiyang - Yəkən)
Yarkant1853–1861
咸豐重寶
(Xianfeng Zhongbao) [42]
當 五十 ᠶᡝᡵᡴᡳᠶᠠᠩ يارﻛﻨﺪ
(Dāng Wǔ Shí - Yerkiyang - Yəkən)
Yarkant1853–1859
咸豐元寶
(Xianfeng Yuanbao) [42]
當 百 ᠶᡝᡵᡴᡳᠶᠠᠩ يارﻛﻨﺪ
(Dāng Bǎi - Yerkiyang - Yəkən)
Yarkant1854–1859
同治通寶
(Tongzhi Tongbao) [14] [43]
當 五 ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Dāng Wǔ - Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1862–1863
同治通寶
(Tongzhi Tongbao) [14] [43]
當 十 ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Dāng Shí - Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1862–1863
同治通寶
(Tongzhi Tongbao) [15]
當 五 ᡴᡠᠴ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ᡝ كۇچار
(Dāng Wǔ - Kuche - Kucha)
Kucha1862–1863
同治通寶
(Tongzhi Tongbao) [15]
當 十 ᡴᡠᠴ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ᡝ كۇچار
(Dāng Shí - Kuche - Kucha)
Kucha1862–1863
同治通寶
(Tongzhi Tongbao) [15] [44]
庫 十 ᡴᡠᠴ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ᡝ كۇچار
(Kù - Shí - Kuche - Kucha)
Kucha1883–1885
同治通寶
(Tongzhi Tongbao) [15] [44]
新 十 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠴᡳᠣᠸᠠᠨ

(Xīn - Shí - Boo Chuan)
Kucha Bao Xin1885–1886
同治通寶
(Tongzhi Tongbao) [15] [44]
庫 十 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠴᡳᠣᠸᠠᠨ

(Kù - Shí - Boo Chuan)
Kucha1886–1888
同治通寶
(Tongzhi Tongbao) [15] [45]
當 十 ᠶᡝᡵᡴᡳᠶᠠᠩ يەكەن
(Dāng Shí - Yerkiyang - Yəkən)
Yarkant1862–1863
سيد غازي راشدين خان
(Sayyid Ghazi Rashidin Khan) [16]
زرب دار السلطانات كوجا
(Zarb dar al-Sultanat Kuqa)
Kucha1864–1865
سيد غازي راشدين خان
(Sayyid Ghazi Rashidin Khan) [16] [lower-alpha 6]
زرب دار السلطانات كوجا
(Zarb dar al-Sultanat Kuqa)
Kucha1865–1867 Rashidin Khan Khoja.jpg
سيد غازي راشدين خان
(Sayyid Ghazi Rashidin Khan) [16]
زرب دار السلطانات أقسو
(Zarb dar al-Sultanat Aqsu)
Aksu1864–1867
光緒通寶
(Guangxu Tongbao) [23]
阿 十 ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Ā - Shí - Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1885–1892
光緒通寶
(Guangxu Tongbao) [23]
喀 十 ᠠᡴᠰᡠ ئاقسۇ
(Kā - Shí - Aksu - Ak̡su)
Aksu1880s?
光緒通寶
(Guangxu Tongbao) [23]
喀 十 ᠪᠣᠣ قەشقەر
(Kā - Shí - Boo - Ⱪǝxⱪǝr)
Kashgar1882–1907
光緒通寶
(Guangxu Tongbao) [46]
ᡴᡠᠴ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ᡝ كۇچار
Kuche - Kucha)
Kucha1878–1883
光緒通寶
(Guangxu Tongbao) [46]
九年 十 ᡴᡠᠴ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ᡝ كۇچار
(Jiǔ nián - Shí - Kuche - Kucha)
Kucha1883
光緒通寶
(Guangxu Tongbao) [46]
庫 十 ᡴᡠᠴ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ᡝ كۇچار
(Kù - Shí - Kuche - Kucha)
Kucha1883–1885
光緒通寶
(Guangxu Tongbao) [46]
庫 十 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠶᡠᠸᠠᠨ

(Kù - Shí - Boo Yuwan)
Kucha1886–1888
光緒通寶
(Guangxu Tongbao) [47]
庫 十 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠶᡠᠸᠠᠨ

(Kù - Shí - Boo Yuwan)
Kucha1888–1891 10cash DeZong SinkiangKucha H221488 1ar85 (8574539075).jpg
光緒通寶
(Guangxu Tongbao) [47]
喀 十 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠶᡠᠸᠠᠨ

(Kā - Shí - Boo Yuwan)
Kucha1890s?
光緒丁未
(Guangxu Dingwei) [47]
新 十 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠴᡳᠣᠸᠠᠨ

(Xīn - Shí - Boo Ciowan)
Kucha1907
光緒戊申
(Guangxu Wushen) [47]
新 十 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠴᡳᠣᠸᠠᠨ

(Xīn - Shí - Boo Ciowan)
Kucha1908
宣統通寶
(Xuantong Tongbao) [29]
庫 十 ᠪᠣᠣ
ᡠᠰᡥᡳ

(Kù - Shí - Boo Ushi)
Kucha1909

Banknotes denominated in "red cash coins"

Notes

  1. all Guangxu period issues.
  2. Guangxu written in Arabic script.
  3. These cash coins were all minted in Kucha for circulation in Kashgar.
  4. These cash coins were all minted in Kucha for circulation in Kashgar.
  5. Same text as above, but upside down.
  6. The characters on this series are larger than the previous one which featured rather small Arabic writing.

Related Research Articles

There are various kinds of Xinjiang coins produced throughout the history of Xinjiang using the styles of contemporary Chinese cash coins as well as Persian and Islamic coinages. As not many records exist from the ancient monarchies of Xinjiang the study of its coinage has determined when which rules reigned and the state of the economy based on metallurgical analyses.

Cash (Chinese coin) Chinese coin

Cash was a type of coin of China and East Asia, used from the 4th century BC until the 20th century AD, characterised by their round outer shape and a square center hole. Originally cast during the Warring States period, these coins continued to be used for the entirety of Imperial China as well as under Mongol and Manchu rule. The last Chinese cash coins were cast in the first year of the Republic of China. Generally most cash coins were made from copper or bronze alloys, with iron, lead, and zinc coins occasionally used less often throughout Chinese history. Rare silver and gold cash coins were also produced. During most of their production, cash coins were cast, but during the late Qing dynasty, machine-struck cash coins began to be made. As the cash coins produced over Chinese history were similar, thousand year old cash coins produced during the Northern Song dynasty continued to circulate as valid currency well into the early twentieth century.

Ming dynasty coinage Historical coinage of China

Chinese coinage in the Ming dynasty saw the production of many types of coins. During the Ming dynasty of China, the national economy was developed and its techniques of producing coinage were advanced. One early period example is the Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: "HUNG-WU T'UNG-P'AO" (洪武通寶). Reverse: blank. Average 23.8 mm, 3.50 grams.

Pūl was a historical Russian currency that circulated in Russian Turkestan. Pūls were used in Golden Horde, Afghanistan, Bukhara, Chagatai Khanate, Kokand Khanate, Dzungar Khanate, and other Eurasian principalities, it was a copper coin of very small denomination, 1/60 of an altyn.

Yuan dynasty coinage Historical coinage of China

The Yuan dynasty was a Mongol-ruled Chinese dynasty which existed from 1271 to 1368. After the conquest of the Western Xia, Western Liao, and Jin dynasties they allowed for the continuation of locally minted copper currency, as well as allowing for the continued use of previously created and older forms of currency, while they immediately abolished the Jin dynasty’s paper money as it suffered heavily from inflation due to the wars with the Mongols. After the conquest of the Song dynasty was completed the Mongols started issuing their own copper coins largely based on older Jin dynasty models, though eventually the preferred Mongol currency became the Jiaochao and silver sycees, as coins would eventually fall largely into disuse. Although the Mongols at first preferred to have every banknote backed up by gold and silver, high government expenditures forced the Yuan to create fiat money in order to sustain government spending.

Qing dynasty coinage Historical coinage of China

Qing dynasty coinage was based on a bimetallic standard of copper and silver coinage. The Manchu-led Qing dynasty was established in 1636 and ruled over China proper from 1644 until it was overthrown by the Xinhai Revolution in 1912. The Qing dynasty saw the transformation of a traditional cash coin based cast coinage monetary system into a modern currency system with machine-struck coins, while the old traditional silver ingots would slowly be replaced by silver coins based on those of the Mexican peso. After the Qing dynasty was abolished its currency was replaced by the Chinese yuan of the Republic of China.

Bảo Đại Thông Bảo

The Bảo Đại Thông Bảo was a round Copper-alloy coin with a square hole produced by the Nguyễn dynasty under French protection and was the last cash coin produced both in Vietnam and the world, this ended a long series of cast Vietnamese coinage that started with the Thái Bình Hưng Bảo in 970. The cast Bảo Đại Thông Bảo were produced at the Thanh Hóa Mint, while the machine-struck variants were produced in Hanoi by the colonial French government. These coins bear the name of Emperor Bảo Đại who ascended the throne in 1926 but continued the production of the earlier Khải Định Thông Bảo (啓定通寶) that bore his father's name until 1933 when he ordered the production of new coins with his reign name, which was normal as previous Vietnamese emperors also kept producing cash coins with the inscription of their predecessors for a period of time. The cast smaller Bảo Đại Thông Bảo cash coins with blank reverses were only valued at ​1600 piastre.

Bamboo tally

Bamboo tallies, alternatively known as bamboo tokens or bamboo money, were a type of alternative currency that was produced in Eastern China from the 1870s until the 1940s and were used to supplement Chinese cash coins and other small denomination Chinese currencies in a manner similar to paper money. Some bamboo tallies were issued in denominations of wén (文) or "strings of cash coins" (串), some bamboo tallies were denominated in qián (錢), tóngyuán, jiǎo (角), and yáng, other than in money bamboo tallies could also be dominated in tea bags. During the same time as bamboo tallies were issued other local businesses manufactured paper money denominated in fēn (分) while others used either copper tokens or money made from bones in a similar fashion.

Zhengde Tongbao

The Zhengde Tongbao is a fantasy cash coin, Chinese, and Vietnamese numismatic charm bearing an inscription based on the reign title of the Zhengde Emperor of the Ming dynasty. The Zhengde Emperor reigned from the year 1505 until 1521, however during this period no circulating cash coins were minted. There were a large amount "cash coins" bearing the Zhengde era name are minted from the late Ming to early Qing dynasty periods as superstitious "lucky coins" with auspicious depictions and instructions, as this inscription remained popular for charms modern reproductions of the Zhengde Tongbao are also very common.

<i>Hongwu Tongbao</i> First cash coin to bear the name of a Ming Emperor

The Hongwu Tongbao was the first cash coin to bear the reign name of a reigning Ming dynasty Emperor bearing the reign title of the Hongwu Emperor. Hongwu Tongbao cash coins officially replaced the earlier Dazhong Tongbao coins, however the production of the latter did not cease after the Hongwu Tongbao was introduced. The government of the Ming dynasty placed a greater reliance on copper cash coins than the Yuan dynasty ever did, but despite this reliance a nationwide copper shortage caused the production of Hongwu Tongbao cash coins to cease several times eventually leading to their discontinuation in 1393 when they were completely phased out in favour of paper money. In the year 1393 there were a total of 325 furnaces in operation in all provincial mints of China which had an annual output of 189,000 strings of cash coins which was merely 3% of the average annual production during the Northern Song dynasty.

Vault protector coin

Vault Protector coins were a type of Chinese numismatic charm coins created by Chinese mints. These coins were significantly larger, heavier and thicker than regular cash coins and were well-made as they were designed to occupy a special place within the treasury of the mint. The treasury had a spirit hall for offerings to the gods of the Chinese pantheon, and Vault Protector coins would be hung with red silk and tassels for the Chinese God of Wealth. These coins were believed to have charm-like magical powers that would protect the vault while bringing wealth and fortune to the treasury.

Kucha coinage

Kucha coinage was produced in the Kingdom of Kucha, a Buddhist state located in present-day Kucha County, Xinjiang. There are five known types of Kucha cash coins based on the Chinese Wu Zhu's. These coins are usually characterized by their diminutive size and thin shape. They are generally believed to have been produced between the years 265 and 589.

Kangxi Tongbao

Kangxi Tongbao refers to an inscription used on Manchu Qing dynasty era cash coins produced under the reign of the Kangxi Emperor. Under the Kangxi Emperor the weights and standards of the brass cash coins changed several times and the bimetallic system of Qing dynasty coinage was established. Today Kangxi Tongbao cash coins are commonly used as charms and amulets where different forms of superstition have developed arounds its mint marks and calligraphy.

Qianlong Tongbao

Qianlong Tongbao is an inscription used on cash coins produced under the reign of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty. Initially the Qianlong Tongbao cash coins were equal to its predecessors in their weight and quality but as expensive military expenditures such as the Ten Great Campaigns began to take their financial toll on the government of the Qing dynasty the quality of these cash coins started to steadily decrease. The weight of the Qianlong Tongbao was changed several times and tin was added to their alloy to both reduce costs and to prevent people from melting down the coins to make utensils. As the intrinsic value of these coins was higher than their nominal value many provincial mints started reporting annual losses and were forced to close down, meanwhile the copper content of the coinage continued to be lowered while the copper mines of China were depleting. The Qianlong era also saw the conquest of Xinjiang and the introduction of cash coins to this new region of the Qing Empire.

Vietnamese văn (currency unit)

The Vietnamese văn as a denomination for Vietnamese cash coins was used from 1868 until 1885 during the reign of the Nguyễn dynasty. The inspiration to introduce the văn may have been to emulate the Chinese wén used on contemporary Qing dynasty cash coins which had just become a fiat currency, however unlike the Chinese system where all Chinese cash coins were cast from the same metals the and the wén was the primary unit of account, the Vietnamese system used the văn as a basic number currency symbol indicating how much zinc cash coins a brass cash coin was worth, while it used the mạch (陌) and quán (貫) as units of account. It was abolished as a measurement for zinc cash coins when the French Indochinese piastre was introduced, after which the term still appeared on Vietnamese cash coins but represented a subdivision of the piastre known in French as sapèque as the production of zinc coinage was ceased by the Imperial government of the Nguyễn dynasty around the year 1871.

Da-Qing Tongbi

The Da-Qing Tongbi, or the Tai-Ching-Ti-Kuo copper coin, refers to a series of copper machine-struck coins from the Qing dynasty produced from 1906 until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911. These coins were intended to replace the earlier cast cash coins and provincial coinages, but were welcomed to mixed receptions.

Daqian

Daqian are large denomination cash coins that were produced in the Qing dynasty starting from 1853 until 1890. Large denomination cash coins were previously used in earlier Chinese dynasties and had faced similar issues as the 19th century Daqian. The term referred to cash coins with a denomination of 4 wén or higher.

Zhiqian

Standard cash, or regulation cash coins, is a term used during the Ming and Qing dynasties of China to refer to standard issue copper-alloy cash coins produced in imperial Chinese mints according to weight and composition standards that were fixed by the imperial government. The term was first used for Hongwu Tongbao cash coins following the abolition of large denomination versions of this cash coin series.

Tieqian

Iron cash coins are a type of Chinese cash coin that were produced at various times during the monetary history of imperial China. Iron cash coins were often produced in regions where the supply of copper was insufficient, or as a method of paying for high military expenditures at times of war, as well as for exports at times of trade deficits.

References

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Sources