Honshu

Last updated
Honshū
Native name:
本州
Satellite image of Honshu in May 2003.png
Satellite image of Honshu
Geography
LocationEast Asia
Archipelago Japanese archipelago
Area227,960 [1]  km2 (88,020 sq mi)
Area rank 7th
Length1,300 km (810 mi)
Width50–230 km (31–143 mi)
Coastline10,084 km (6,265.9 mi)
Highest elevation3,776 m (12,388 ft)
Highest point Mount Fuji
Administration
Japan
Prefectures
Largest settlementFlag of Tokyo Prefecture.svg  Tokyo (pop. 13,617,445)
Demographics
Population104,000,000 [2] (2017 estimate)
Pop. density447 /km2 (1,158 /sq mi)
Ethnic groupsJapanese
Additional information
Time zone

Honshu (本州, Honshū, pronounced  [hoꜜɰ̃ɕɯː] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); "Main island/Main province") is the largest and most populous main island of Japan. [3] [4] It is located south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Straits. The island separates the Sea of Japan, which lies to its north and west, from the North Pacific Ocean to the south and east. It is the 7th largest island in the world, and the 2nd most populous after the Indonesian island of Java. [5] [6] [7]

Contents

Honshu had a population of 104 million as of 2017, [2] mostly concentrated in the coastal areas and plains. Approximately 30% of the total population resides in the Greater Tokyo Area on the Kantō Plain. As the historical center of Japanese cultural and political power, [8] the island includes several past Japanese capitals, including Kyoto, Nara and Kamakura. Much of the island's southern shore forms part of the Taiheiyō Belt, a megalopolis that spans several of the Japanese islands. [8]

Most of Japan's industry is located in a belt running along Honshu's southern coast, from Tokyo to Nagoya, Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, and Hiroshima; [8] by contrast, the economy along the northwestern Sea of Japan coast is largely based on fishing and agriculture. [9] The island is linked to the other three major Japanese islands by a number of bridges and tunnels. Its climate is humid and mild.

Geography

Map of Honshu Japan honshu map.svg
Map of Honshu

The island is roughly 1,300 km (810 mi) long and ranges from 50 to 230 km (31 to 143 mi) wide, and its total area is 227,960 km2 (88,020 sq mi), [1] making it slightly larger than the island of Great Britain 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi). [10] Its land area has been increasing with land reclamation and coastal uplift in the north due to plate tectonics with a convergent boundary. Honshu has 10,084 kilometres (6,266 mi) of coastline. [4]

Mountainous and volcanic, Honshu experiences frequent earthquakes (the Great Kantō earthquake heavily damaged Tokyo in September 1923, and the earthquake of March 2011 moved the northeastern part of the island by varying amounts of as much as 5.3 m (17 ft) [11] [12] while causing devastating tsunamis). The highest peak is the active volcano Mount Fuji at 3,776 m (12,388 ft), which makes Honshu the world's 7th highest island. There are many rivers, including the Shinano River, Japan's longest. The Japanese Alps span the width of Honshu, from the 'Sea of Japan' coast to the Pacific shore. The climate is generally humid subtropical in western Japan and humid continental in the north.

Extreme points


Bridges and tunnels

Honshu is connected to the islands of Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku by tunnels and bridges. Three bridge systems have been built across the islands of the Inland Sea between Honshu and Shikoku (Akashi Kaikyō Bridge and the Ōnaruto Bridge; Shin-Onomichi Bridge, Innoshima Bridge, Ikuchi Bridge, Tatara Bridge, Ōmishima Bridge, Hakata–Ōshima Bridge, and the Kurushima-Kaikyō Bridge; Shimotsui-Seto Bridge, Hitsuishijima Bridge, Iwakurojima Bridge, Yoshima Bridge, Kita Bisan-Seto Bridge, and the Minami Bisan-Seto Bridge), the Seikan Tunnel connects Honshu with Hokkaido, and the Kanmonkyo Bridge and Kanmon Tunnel connects Honshu with Kyushu.

Population

Its population was 104 million people, according to a 2017 estimate. This represents 81.3 percent of the entire population of Japan. [2]

Administrative regions and prefectures

The island is divided into five nominal regions and contains 34 prefectures, including metropolitan Tokyo. Administratively, some smaller islands are included within these prefectures, notably including the Ogasawara Islands, Sado Island, Izu Ōshima, and Awaji Island.

The regions and its prefectures are:

Natural features

Agriculture

Most of Japan's tea and silk is from Honshu. Fruits, vegetables, grains, rice and cotton are grown in Honshu. [13] Niigata is noted as an important producer of rice. The Kantō and Nōbi plains produce rice and vegetables. Yamanashi is a major fruit-growing area, and Aomori is famous for its apples.[ citation needed ] Rare species of the lichen genus Menegazzia are found only in Honshu. [14]

Minerals

Yields of zinc, copper, and oil have been found on Honshu. [13]

See also

Related Research Articles

Geography of Japan Landforms and water bodies in the state of Japan

Japan is an island country comprising a stratovolcanic archipelago over 3,000 km (1,900 mi) along East Asia's Pacific coast. It consists of 6,852 islands. The 5 main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku and Okinawa. There are 6,847 'remote islands'. The Ryukyu Islands and Nanpō Islands are south and east of the main islands.

Kyushu Third largest island of Japan

Kyushu is the third largest island of Japan's five main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku, Chinzei, and Tsukushi-no-shima. The historical regional name Saikaidō referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands.

Shikoku second smallest of the five main islands of Japan

Shikoku is one of the five main islands of Japan. Shikoku is the second smallest main island after Okinawa. It is 225 km or 139.8 mi long and between 50 and 150 km or 31.1 and 93.2 mi wide. It has a population of 3.8 million. It is located south of Honshu and north east of Kyushu. Shikoku's ancient names include Iyo-no-futana-shima (伊予之二名島), Iyo-shima (伊予島), and Futana-shima (二名島), and its current name refers to the four former provinces that made up the island: Awa, Tosa, Sanuki, and Iyo.

Akashi Kaikyō Bridge suspension bridge in Kobe, Japan

The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge is a suspension bridge, which links the city of Kobe on the Japanese mainland of Honshu to Iwaya on Awaji Island. It crosses the busy Akashi Strait as part of the Honshu–Shikoku Highway. It was completed in 1998, and has the longest central span of any suspension bridge in the world, at 1,991 metres. It is one of the key links of the Honshū–Shikoku Bridge Project, which created three routes across the Inland Sea.

Kantō region Region

The Kanto region is a geographical area of Honshu, the largest island of Japan. The region includes the Greater Tokyo Area and encompasses seven prefectures: Gunma, Tochigi, Ibaraki, Saitama, Tokyo, Chiba, and Kanagawa. Within its boundaries, slightly more than 45 percent of the land area is the Kanto Plain. The rest consists of the hills and mountains that form the land borders. According to the official census on October 1, 2010 by the Japan Statistics Bureau, the population was 42,607,376, amounting to approximately one third of the total population of Japan. Kanto is the second largest sub-national economy in the world.

Seto Inland Sea A marginal sea between Honshū, Shikoku, and Kyūshū

The Seto Inland Sea, also known as Setouchi or often shortened to Inland Sea, is the body of water separating Honshū, Shikoku, and Kyūshū, three of the five main islands of Japan. The region that includes the Seto Inland Sea and the coastal areas of Honshū, Shikoku, and Kyūshū is known as the Setouchi Region. It serves as a waterway, connecting the Pacific Ocean to the Sea of Japan. It connects to Osaka Bay and provides a sea transport link to industrial centers in the Kansai region, including Osaka and Kobe. Before the construction of the San'yō Main Line, it was the main transportation link between Kansai and Kyūshū.

Awaji Island island

Awaji Island is an island in Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, in the eastern part of the Seto Inland Sea between the islands of Honshū and Shikoku. The island has an area of 592.17 square kilometres ,. It is the largest island of the Seto Inland Sea.

Municipalities of Japan municipalities in Japan in four types

Japan has three levels of government: national, prefectural, and municipal. The nation is divided into 47 prefectures. Each prefecture consists of numerous municipalities, with 1,719 in total. There are four types of municipalities in Japan: cities, towns, villages and special wards. In Japanese, this system is known as shikuchōson (市区町村), where each kanji in the word represents one of the four types of municipalities. Some designated cities also have further administrative subdivisions, also known as wards. But, unlike the Special wards of Tokyo, these wards are not municipalities.

Honshū–Shikoku Bridge Project

The Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Project is a system of bridges connecting the islands of Honshu and Shikoku across the Inland Sea of Japan, which were previously only connected by ferry. It consists of three major connections. All bridges are now controlled by the Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Expressway Company and the Japan Expressway Holding and Debt Repayment Agency (日本高速道路保有・債務返済機構). The system consists of three expressways and their respective bridge systems.

Japanese archipelago archipelago

The Japanese archipelago is a group of 6,852 islands that form the country of Japan. It extends over 3,000 km (1,900 mi) from the Sea of Okhotsk southwest to the Philippine Sea south along the northeastern coast of the Eurasia continent. It consists of islands from the Sakhalin Island Arc, the Northeastern Japan Arc to the Ryukyu Islands and the Nanpō Islands. Japan is the largest island country in East Asia and the 4th largest island country in the world with 377,975.24 km2 (145,937.06 sq mi). It has the 8th largest exclusive economic zone of 4,470,000 km2 (1,730,000 sq mi).

Kanmon Straits the stretch of water separating two of Japans four main islands

The Kanmon Straits or the Straits of Shimonoseki is the stretch of water separating Honshu and Kyushu, two of Japan's four main islands. On the Honshu side of the strait is Shimonoseki and on the Kyushu side is Kitakyushu, whose former city and present ward, Moji, gave the strait its "mon". The straits silt up at the rate of about 15 centimetres per annum, and dredging has made it possible to build the New Kitakyushu Airport at low cost.

Great Seto Bridge series of double deck bridges connecting the Japanese islands of Honshū and Shikoku

The Great Seto Bridge is a series of double deck bridges connecting Okayama and Kagawa prefectures in Japan across a series of five small islands in the Seto Inland Sea. Built over the period 1978–88, it is one of the three routes of the Honshū–Shikoku Bridge Project connecting Honshū and Shikoku islands, and the only one with railroad connections included. At 13.1 kilometers (8.1 mi), it ranks as the world's longest two-tiered bridge system.

Nishiseto Expressway It is one of the connecting routes of the Honshū and Shikoku Islands in Japan.

The Nishiseto Expressway, often called the Shimanami Kaidō (しまなみ海道) is an expressway in Japan that connects Onomichi, Hiroshima and Imabari, Ehime, going through nine of the Geiyo Islands, including Ōshima, Umashima, and Innoshima. The road and multiple bridge crossing across the Seto Inland Sea is one of the three main transportation links of the Honshū–Shikoku Bridge Project constructed between the islands of Honshu and Shikoku.

Yosan Line railway line in Japan

The Yosan Line is the principal railway line on the island of Shikoku in Japan, connecting the major cities of Shikoku, and via the Honshi-Bisan Line, with Honshu. It is operated by the Shikoku Railway Company, and is aligned approximately parallel with the Inland Sea coast, connecting the prefectural capitals of Takamatsu and Matsuyama and continuing on to Uwajima. The name of the line comes from Iyo () and Sanuki (), the old names of Ehime and Kagawa, respectively.

Seto-Ōhashi Line railway line in Japan

The Seto-Ōhashi Line is a railway line operated by West Japan Railway Company and Shikoku Railway Company in Japan which links Okayama Station in Okayama Prefecture with Takamatsu Station in Kagawa Prefecture via the Great Seto Bridge. It is not a distinct railway line, but an official nickname given to a composite line formed of three different lines.

Honshi-Bisan Line

The Honshi-Bisan Line is a Japanese railway line which connects Kurashiki in Okayama Prefecture with Utazu in Kagawa Prefecture. It is owned and operated jointly by West Japan Railway Company and Shikoku Railway Company. The line is the central section of the Seto-Ōhashi Line, a service connecting Okayama and Takamatsu; as a result, the Honshi-Bisan Line is rarely referred to by itself, but rather as a part of the larger Seto-Ōhashi Line service.

Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Expressway Company company in Japan

The Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Expressway Company Limited, abbreviated as JB本四高速 in Japanese or HSBE in English, operates the Kobe-Awaji-Naruto, Nishiseto, and Seto-Chūō expressways and their respective bridges between the islands of Honshu and Shikoku, Japan. It is headquartered in Chūō-ku, Kōbe, Hyōgo Prefecture.

Seto-Chūō Expressway expressway in Japan

The Seto-Chūō Expressway is a tolled expressway that connects Okayama and Kagawa prefectures in Japan across a series of five small islands in the Seto Inland Sea. Built between 1978 and 1988, it is one of the three routes of the Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Expressway Company connecting Honshū and Shikoku islands. The route is signed E30 under Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism's "2016 Proposal for Realization of Expressway Numbering."

References

  1. 1 2 Farjon, Aljos; Filer, Denis (2013). An Atlas of the World's Conifers: An Analysis of their Distribution, Biogeography, Diversity and Conservation Status. BRILL. p. 268. ISBN   9789004211810.
  2. 1 2 3 Boquet, Yves (2017). The Philippine Archipelago. Springer. p. 16. ISBN   9783319519265.
  3. "離島とは(島の基礎知識) (what is a remote island?)". MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism) (in Japanese). Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 22 August 2015. Archived from the original (website) on 2007-07-13. Retrieved 9 August 2019. MILT classification 6,852 islands(main islands: 5 islands, remote islands: 6,847 islands)
  4. 1 2 "Honshu". Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  5. Japan Civil Registry Database 2013
  6. See Japan Census of 2000; the editors of List of islands by population appear to have used similar data from the relevant statistics bureaux and totalled up the various administrative districts that make up each island, and then done the same for less populous islands. An editor of this article has not repeated that work. Therefore this plausible and eminently reasonable ranking is posted as unsourced common knowledge.
  7. "Islands By Land Area". Islands.unep.ch. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
  8. 1 2 3 Dolan, Ronald; Worden, Robert (1992). Japan: a country study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
  9. Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan
  10. "Islands By Land Area". Islands.unep.ch. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
  11. "Map of Horizontal Land Movement caused by 2011/3/11 M9.0 earthquake" (PDF) (in Japanese). Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. March 19, 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  12. "Quake shifted Japan by over two meters". Deutsche Welle. March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  13. 1 2 "Honshu". infoplease.com. 2012. Retrieved 2014-11-23.
  14. Bjerke JW (2004). "Revision of the lichen genus Menegazzia in Japan, including two new species". The Lichenologist. 36 (1): 15–25. doi:10.1017/S0024282904013878. ISSN   0024-2829.

Coordinates: 36°N138°E / 36°N 138°E / 36; 138