Hoorn

Last updated

Hoorn, Netherlands
Hoorn Skyline.jpg
Jan Pietersz. Coen.JPG
Hoorn - Westfries Museum.jpg
Hoorn - Korenmarkt.jpg
Hoorn Hoofdtoren 014.jpg
Hoorn Station.jpg
'Halve Maen' Oostereiland Hoorn (17763807234).jpg
Map - NL - Municipality code 0405 (2009).svg
Location in North Holland
Coordinates: 52°39′12″N05°04′24″E / 52.65333°N 5.07333°E / 52.65333; 5.07333 Coordinates: 52°39′12″N05°04′24″E / 52.65333°N 5.07333°E / 52.65333; 5.07333
Country Netherlands
Province North Holland
Government
[1]
  Body Municipal council
   Mayor Jan Nieuwenburg (PvdA)
Area
[2]
  Total53.25 km2 (20.56 sq mi)
  Land20.25 km2 (7.82 sq mi)
  Water33.00 km2 (12.74 sq mi)
Elevation
[3]
1 m (−3 ft)
Population
 (January 2019) [4]
  Total73,004
  Density3,605/km2 (9,340/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postcode
1620–1628, 1689, 1695
Area code 0229
Website www.hoorn.nl
Dutch Topographic map of Hoorn (town), March 2014 Hoorn-plaats-OpenTopo.jpg
Dutch Topographic map of Hoorn (town), March 2014
The Hoofdtoren (The Head Tower), viewed from the waterfront Hoorn - Hoofdtoren.jpg
The Hoofdtoren (The Head Tower), viewed from the waterfront
This is in the old city centre, where the port used to be. Most of the old port disappeared with the building of the Afsluitdijk Hoorn, Venidse 1.jpg
This is in the old city centre, where the port used to be. Most of the old port disappeared with the building of the Afsluitdijk

Hoorn [ˈɦoːr(ə)n] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. It is located on the Markermeer, 35 kilometres (22 mi) north of Amsterdam, and acquired city rights in 1357. Hoorn had a population of 73,004 in 2019. The area of the municipality is 53.25 km2 (20.56 sq mi) of which 33.00 km2 (12.74 sq mi) consists of water, mainly the Markermeer. The municipality consists of the following villages and/or districts: Blokker, Hoorn, Zwaag, and parts of Bangert and De Hulk.

Contents

Cape Horn, the most southerly point of the Americas, was named after the town by Willem Schouten, who navigated the cape in 1616.

The Hoorn Islands of the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna in Oceania are also named after this city.

Etymology

The origin of the name Hoorn, even in old spelling Hoern(e) or Hoirne, is surrounded in myths. Hoorn's name, according to Old Frisian legends, is derived from the stepson of King Redbad (Radboud), called Hornus. Another story about the origin of the name is that it is derived from a sign depicting a post horn in an early 14th-century hanging outside one of the establishments situated on the Roode Steen Square. A third version says that the name was derived from the horn shape of one of its first ports. The author of the 'Origo Civitatis Hornensis' (see page. 256, 'Uit de schemer van Hoorns verleden') assumes that name Hoorn was derived from Damphoorn. Damphoorn is the medieval name for a weed that could be made into whistles, which grew in abundance in the area outside the dykes of Hoorn. Chronicler Velius rejects this statement because there are no old historical entries that Hoorn was called Damphoorn. He wrote: The name was from the start Hoorn: not (against better judgement) derived from the weed Damphoorn, as the current sentiment holds (De name was van eersten af Hoorn: niet (behoudens beter oordeel) van het kruyt Damphoorn, als t'ghemeyne ghevoelen van noch heden hout). Velius also rejects the assertion that the name's origin is Dampter Horn: a neighbourhood of the village Dampten, which flooded and had fallen into disuse.

The name is most probably derived from Hornicwed, a name that is popping up in early mediaeval documents. The medieval meaning of hornic is 'corner', with wed or wedor being the medieval word for water. Many places and neighbourhoods in the Netherlands are called, even today, Heurne, Huurne and Horn. Hornicwed would therefore refer to the location of a corner on the coastline: the location of Hoorn at the Zuiderzee. We see hornic in the meaning of 'corner' also reflected in another municipality in the mediaeval County of Holland: Uithoorn, meaning uithoek, which refers to a certain occupied area (or corner) at some distance.

It is also sometimes argued that hornic refers to a corner in a dike, but this raises doubts: the coast of the Zuiderzee was originally farther away from Hoorn compared to the present day: the Westfriese Omringdijk ran, originating from the West, in a straight line to Schardam and in front of this dyke there were then low-lying tracts of land, where the village of Dampten was located according to Velius. This area was abandoned and flooded after 1391, following the abandonment of the old dyke. A new dyke was built farther inland, resulting in a bay which is now the Hoornse Hop. Hoorn was already in existence then.

History

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
13983,800    
15145,400+0.30%
15508,000+1.10%
162214,139+0.79%
163213,500−0.46%
173212,000−0.12%
17959,551−0.36%
Source: Lourens & Lucassen 1997, pp. 62–63

Founded in 716, Hoorn rapidly grew to become a major harbour town. During Holland's 'Golden Age' (or 'Golden Century'), Hoorn was an important home base for the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and a very prosperous centre of trade. The Hoorn fleet plied the seven seas and returned laden with precious commodities. Exotic spices such as pepper, nutmeg, cloves, and mace were sold at vast profits. With their skill in trade and seafaring, sons of Hoorn established the town's name far and wide. Jan Pieterszoon Coen (1587–1629) is famous for his violent raids in Dutch Indies (now Indonesia), where he "founded" the city of Batavia in 1619 (now Jakarta). He has a big statue on the Rode Steen square in the center of Hoorn.

In 1618 Willem Bontekoe (1587–1657) undertook his first and only voyage for the VOC. His story of his travel and hardship found its way into the history books when he published his adventures in 1646 under the title Journael ofte gedenckwaerdige beschrijvinge van de Oost-Indische reyse van Willem Ysbrantsz. Bontekoe van Hoorn, begrijpende veel wonderlijcke en gevaerlijcke saecken hem daer in wedervaren ('Journal, or memorable description, of the East-Indian voyage of Willem Ysbrantz. Bontekoe of Hoorn, comprising many wondrous and dangerous things experienced by him'). In 1616, the explorer Willem Corneliszoon Schouten braved furious storms as he rounded the southernmost tip of South America. He named it Kaap Hoorn (Cape Horn) in honour of his home town. [5]

Hoorn's fortunes declined somewhat in the eighteenth century. The prosperous trading port became little more than a sleepy fishing village on the Zuiderzee. Following Napoleonic occupation, there was a period during which the town gradually turned its back on the sea. It developed to become the market for the entire West Frisian agricultural region. Stallholders and shopkeepers devoted themselves to trading in dairy produce and seeds. When the railway and metalled roads came to Hoorn in the late nineteenth century, the town rapidly took its rightful place as a conveniently located and readily accessible centre in the network of towns and villages which make up the province of Noord-Holland. In 1932, the Afsluitdijk, or Great Enclosing Dyke, was completed, and Hoorn was no longer a seaport.

The years after the Second World War saw a period of renewed growth. At the centre of a flourishing horticultural region, Hoorn developed an extremely varied economy. During the 1960s, Hoorn was designated an 'overflow' city to relieve pressure on the overcrowded Randstad region. Thousands of people swapped their cramped little apartments in Amsterdam for a family house with garden in one of Hoorn's modern new developments.

On 26 March 2007, Hoorn celebrated 650 years as a city: in 1357 Hoorn was awarded city rights by the Count of Holland after a lump sum payment of 1500 schilden to the Count.

Notable buildings

The Waag (weigh house) in Hoorn The Oude Waegh in Hoorn.jpg
The Waag (weigh house) in Hoorn

Hoorn has a very high number of surviving 17th and 18th century houses, especially north of the harbour area, adding much to the character of the area. Other notable buildings include:

Hoorn has notable modern buildings as well, for example:

Neighbourhoods

Hoorn contains 13 neighbourhoods:

  1. Binnenstad
  2. Venenlaankwartier
  3. Hoorn-Noord
  4. Grote Waal
  5. Risdam-Zuid
  6. Risdam-Noord
  7. Nieuwe Steen
  8. Zwaag
  9. Westerblokker
  10. Kersenboogerd-Noord
  11. Kersenboogerd-Zuid
  12. Hoorn 80
  13. Bangert en Oosterpolder

Museums

Westfries Museum Hoornmuseum.jpg
Westfries Museum

Local government

The municipal council of Hoorn consists of 35 seats, which are divided as follows:

Railway connections

Hoorn is connected to the Dutch railway network, and has two stations: Hoorn and Hoorn Kersenboogerd. Also, it is the starting point of the historical railway between Hoorn and Medemblik.

Notable people

Born

This is a non-exhaustive list of notable people from Hoorn:

Public thinking & Public Service

Hadrianus Junius Hadrianus Junius 1511 - 1575.png
Hadrianus Junius
Jan Pietersz Coen Jan Pietersz Coen by Jacob Waben.jpg
Jan Pietersz Coen

The Arts

Corine Rottschafer Corine Rottschafer (miss World 1959).jpg
Corine Rottschäfer

Sport

Stephan van den Berg, 1985 Stephan van den Berg 1985.jpg
Stephan van den Berg, 1985
Nadine Broersen, 2011 Nadine Broersen - Apeldoorn NK indoor meerkamp, febr. 2011.JPG
Nadine Broersen, 2011
Inessa Kaagman, 2018 Inessa Kaagman - signeersessie - 20180527.png
Inessa Kaagman, 2018

Residing

Ernesto Hoost Ernesto-Hoost.jpg
Ernesto Hoost

This is a non-exhaustive list of notable (former) residents of Hoorn:

Twin cities

The City of Hoorn has a twin city status with:

See also

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Bas Schouten in Hoorn is a Dutch auto racing driver. Schouten has raced in various international racing series such as the TCR International Series and Acceleration 2014.

References

  1. "Samenstelling" [Members] (in Dutch). Gemeente Hoorn. Archived from the original on 10 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  2. "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  3. "Postcodetool for 1625HV". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  4. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 1 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  5. http://www.netherlands-tourism.com/hoorn/
  6. Neglected Churches Are Given New Use In the Netherlands , New York Times 10 March 1997
  7. "Malacca, a Dutch conquest forgotten". Malaysian Dutch Descendants Project. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  8. "Twin Cities plan will boost Malacca". New Straits Times . Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  9. "Bandar Kembar Melaka, Hoorne" (PDF) (in Malay). Pustaka Perdana Library. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2013.

Literature