Hosea

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Hosea
Hosea.jpg
An 18th-century Russian icon of the prophet Hosea (Iconostasis of Transfiguration Church, Kizhi monastery, Karelia, Russia)
Prophet
Venerated in Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Major shrine Safed, Israel
Feast October 17 (Orthodox)
Attributes Prophet
Major works Book of Hosea
Illustration of Hosea and Gomer from the Bible Historiale, 1372 Hosea and Gomer.jpg
Illustration of Hosea and Gomer from the Bible Historiale, 1372
The Prophet Hosea, by Duccio di Buoninsegna, in the Siena Cathedral (c. 1309-1311) Duccio di Buoninsegna 063.jpg
The Prophet Hosea, by Duccio di Buoninsegna, in the Siena Cathedral (c. 1309–1311)

In the Hebrew Bible, Hosea ( /ˌhˈzə/ or /hˈzə/ ; Hebrew : הוֹשֵׁעַHōšēaʿ, 'Salvation'; Greek : ὩσηέHōsēé), son of Beeri, was an 8th-century BC prophet in Israel who authored the book of prophecies bearing his name. He is one of the Twelve Prophets of the Jewish Hebrew Bible, also known as the Minor Prophets of the Christian Old Testament. [1] Hosea is often seen as a "prophet of doom", but underneath his message of destruction is a promise of restoration. The Talmud claims that he was the greatest prophet of his generation. [2] The period of Hosea's ministry extended to some sixty years, and he was the only prophet of Israel of his time who left any written prophecy.

Contents

Name

The name Hosea, meaning 'salvation', or 'He saves', or 'He helps', seems to have been not uncommon, being derived from the auspicious verb from which we have the frequently recurring word salvation. It may be a contraction of a larger form of which the divine name (YHWH) or its abbreviation formed a part, so as to signify "YHWH helps". According to the Bible Numbers 13:8, 13:16 that was the original name of Joshua, son of Nun, until Moses gave him the longer, theophoric name Yehoshua, "YHWH is salvation".[ citation needed ]

Location

Although it is not expressly stated in the Book of Hosea, it is apparent from the level of detail and familiarity focused on northern geography, that Hosea conducted his prophetic ministries in the Northern Israel (Samaria) of which he was a native. [3] In Hosea 5:8 ff., there seems to be a reference to the Syro-Ephraimite War which led to the capture of the kingdom by the Assyrians (c. 734–732 BC). Hosea’s long ministry (ca. 750–725) seems to have ended before the fall of Samaria in 722/721. [4]

Family

Little is known about the life or social status of Hosea. According to the Book of Hosea, he married Gomer, the daughter of Diblaim, [1] but she proved to be unfaithful. Hosea knew she would be unfaithful, as God says this to him immediately in the opening statements of the book. This marriage was arranged in order to serve to the prophet as a symbol of Israel's unfaithfulness to the Lord. [3] His marriage will dramatize the breakdown in the relationship between God and His people Israel. [5] Hosea's family life reflected the "adulterous" relationship which Israel had built with polytheistic gods.

Similarly, his children's names represent God’s estrangement from Israel. [5] They are prophetic of the fall of the ruling dynasty and the severed covenant with God much like the prophet Isaiah a generation later. The name of Hosea's daughter, Lo-ruhamah, which translates as 'not pitied', is chosen as a sign of displeasure with the people of Israel for following false gods. (In Hosea 2:23 she is redeemed, shown mercy with the term Ruhamah.) The name of Hosea's son, Lo-ammi, which translates as 'not my people', is chosen as a sign of the Lord's displeasure with the people of Israel for following those false gods (see Hosea 1:89).

Christian thought

One of the early writing prophets, Hosea used his own experience as a symbolic representation of God and Israel. The relationship between Hosea and Gomer parallels the relationship between God and Israel. Even though Gomer runs away from Hosea and sleeps with another man, he loves her anyway and forgives her. Likewise, even though the people of Israel worshipped false gods, God continued to love them and did not abandon his covenant with them. [4]

The Book of Hosea was a severe warning to the northern kingdom against the growing idolatry being practiced there; the book was a dramatic call to repentance. Christians extend the analogy of Hosea to Christ and the church: Christ the husband, his church the bride. Christians see in this book a comparable call to the church not to forsake the Lord Jesus Christ. Christians also take the buying back of Gomer as the redemptive qualities of Jesus Christ's sacrifice on the cross.

Other preachers, like Charles Spurgeon, saw Hosea as a striking presentation of the mercy of God in his sermon on Hosea 1:7 titled The LORD's Own Salvation. “But I will have mercy upon the house of Judah, and will save them by the Lord their God, and will not save them by bow, nor by sword, nor by battle, by horses, nor by horsemen.” – Hosea 1:7 in his sermon NO. 2057, December 16, 1888.

Islamic literature

The Qur'an mentions only some prophets by name but makes it clear that many were sent who are not mentioned. [6] Therefore, many Muslim scholars, such as Ibn Ishaq, speak of Hosea as one of the true Hebrew prophets of Israel. The Book of Hosea has also been used in Qur'anic exegesis by Abdullah Yusuf Ali, especially in reference to Qur'anic verses which speak of the backsliding of Israel. [7]

Observances

He is commemorated with the other Minor prophets in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 31. He is commemorated on the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, with a feast day on October 17 (for those churches which follow the Julian Calendar, October 17 currently falls on October 30 of the modern Gregorian Calendar). He is also commemorated on the Sunday of the Holy Fathers (the Sunday before the Nativity of the Lord).

Tomb of Hosea

The structure at the cemetery in Safed known as the Tomb of Hosea Hosea's tomb.jpg
The structure at the cemetery in Safed known as the Tomb of Hosea

Jewish tradition holds that the tomb of Hosea is a structure located in the Jewish cemetery of Safed; [8] however, Emil G. Hirsch and Victor Ryssel, writing in the Jewish Encyclopedia, say that this tradition is "historically worthless". [3]

Related Research Articles

Book of Amos book of the Bible

The Book of Amos is the third of the Twelve Minor Prophets in the Tanakh/Old Testament and the second in the Greek Septuagint tradition. Amos, an older contemporary of Hosea and Isaiah, was active c. 750 BC during the reign of Jeroboam II, making Amos the first prophetic book of the Bible to be written. Amos lived in the kingdom of Judah but preached in the northern kingdom of Israel. His major themes of social justice, God's omnipotence, and divine judgment became staples of prophecy.

Book of Hosea book of the Bible

The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. According to the traditional order of most Hebrew Bibles, it is the first of the twelve Minor Prophets.

Elijah Biblical prophet

Elijah or latinized form Elias was, according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of King Ahab. In 1 Kings 18, Elijah defended the worship of the Hebrew God over that of the Canaanite deity Baal. God also performed many miracles through Elijah, including resurrection, bringing fire down from the sky, and entering Heaven alive "by fire". He is also portrayed as leading a school of prophets known as "the sons of the prophets". Following his ascension, Elisha, his disciple and most devoted assistant took over his role as leader of this school. The Book of Malachi prophesies Elijah's return "before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD", making him a harbinger of the Messiah and of the eschaton in various faiths that revere the Hebrew Bible. References to Elijah appear in Ecclesiasticus, the New Testament, the Mishnah and Talmud, the Quran, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and Bahá'í writings.

Ezekiel Old Testament saint

Ezekiel is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible.

Isaiah Hebrew prophet

Isaiah was the 8th-century BCE Israelite prophet after whom the Book of Isaiah is named.

Zechariah (Hebrew prophet) Biblical prophet

Zechariah was a person in the Hebrew Bible and traditionally considered the author of the Book of Zechariah, the eleventh of the Twelve Minor Prophets. He was a prophet of the Kingdom of Judah, and, like the prophet Ezekiel, was of priestly extraction.

Zephaniah person in the bible

Zephaniah is the name of several people in the Hebrew Bible and Jewish Tanakh; the most prominent one being the prophet who prophesied in the days of Josiah, king of Judah and is attributed a book bearing his name among the Twelve Minor Prophets. His name is commonly transliterated Sophonias in Bibles translated from the Vulgate or Septuagint. The name might mean "YHWH (YH), phonetically (IAH), has concealed", "[he whom] YH has hidden", or "YH lies in wait".

Zechariah (New Testament figure) figure in the Bible, priest, prophet in Islam, the husband of Elizabeth

Zechariah is a figure in the New Testament Bible and the Quran, hence venerated in Christianity and Islam. In the Bible, he is the father of John the Baptist, a priest of the sons of Aaron in the Gospel of Luke (1:67-79), and the husband of Elizabeth who is a relative of the Virgin Mary.

Jeremiah Biblical prophet

Jeremiah, also called the "weeping prophet", was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible. According to Jewish tradition, Jeremiah authored the Book of Jeremiah, the Books of Kings and the Book of Lamentations, with the assistance and under the editorship of Baruch ben Neriah, his scribe and disciple.

Joel (prophet) prophet

Joel was a prophet of ancient Israel, the second of the twelve minor prophets and according to the book itself the author of the Book of Joel. He is mentioned by name only once in the Hebrew Bible, in the introduction to that book, as the son of Pethuel. The name Joel combines the covenant name of God, YHWH, and El (god), and has been translated as "one to whom YHWH is God," that is, a worshiper of YHWH.

Job (biblical figure) Biblical figure

Job is the central figure of the Book of Job in the Bible. In rabbinical literature, Job is called one of the prophets of the Gentiles. In Islam, Job is also considered a prophet.

Amos (prophet) Hebrew prophet

In the Hebrew Bible and Christian Old Testament, Amos was one of the Twelve Minor Prophets. An older contemporary of Hosea and Isaiah, Amos was active c. 760–755 BCE during the rule of kings Jeroboam II and Uzziah. He was from the southern Kingdom of Judah but preached in the northern Kingdom of Israel. Amos wrote at a time of relative peace and prosperity but also of neglect of God's laws. He spoke against an increased disparity between the very wealthy and the very poor. His major themes of social justice, God's omnipotence, and divine judgment became staples of prophecy. The Book of Amos is attributed to him.

False prophet False prophet

In religion, a false prophet is one who falsely claims the gift of prophecy or divine inspiration, or to speak for God, or who makes such claims for evil ends. Often, someone who is considered a "true prophet" by some people is simultaneously considered a "false prophet" by others, even within the same religion as the "prophet" in question. In a wider sense, it is anyone who, without having it, claims a special connection to the Deity and sets himself up as a source of spirituality, as an authority, preacher, or teacher. Analogously, the term is sometimes applied outside religion to describe someone who fervently promotes a theory that the speaker thinks is false.

Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and the Bahai Faith are called Abrahamic religions because they all accept the tradition of the God that revealed himself to Abraham. The theological traditions of all Abrahamic religions are thus to some extent influenced by the depiction of the God of Israel in the Hebrew Bible, and story of Abram, the idol craftsman and worshipper, who had a revelation of God being God alone, and idols are not God. He is acclaimed as the Father of monotheism in the history of Judaism. In the Biblical narrative, he changed his name to Abraham once accepting his new life as a man believing only in One God, and this God being One.

Micah (prophet) Prophet in Judaism

According to the Hebrew Bible, Micah was a prophet in Judaism and is the author of the Book of Micah. He is considered one of the Twelve Minor Prophets of the Hebrew Bible and was a contemporary of the prophets Isaiah, Amos and Hosea. Micah was from Moresheth-Gath, in southwest Judah. He prophesied during the reigns of kings Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah of Judah.

Daniel (biblical figure) protagonist in the Book of Daniel of the Hebrew Bible

Daniel is the hero of the biblical Book of Daniel. A noble Jewish youth of Jerusalem, he is taken into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon and serves the king and his successors with loyalty and ability until the time of the Persian conqueror Cyrus, all the while remaining true to the God of Israel. The consensus of modern scholars is that Daniel never existed, and the book is a cryptic allusion to the reign of the 2nd century BCE Greek king Antiochus IV Epiphanes.

Gomer (wife of Hosea)

Gomer (go'-mer) was the wife of the prophet Hosea, mentioned in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Hosea (1:3). Hosea 1:2 refers to her alternatively as a "promiscuous woman" (NIV), a "harlot" (NASB), and a "whore" (KJV) but Hosea is told to marry her according to Divine appointment. She is also described as the daughter of Diblaim.

Hosea 1 Book of Hosea, chapter 1

Hosea 1 is the first chapter of the Book of Hosea in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies spoken by the prophet Hosea son of Beeri, especially the spiritual whoredom of Israel set forth by symbolical acts. It is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets.

Isaiah 12 is the twelfth chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is a part of the Book of the Prophets. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges describes this chapter as "the lyrical epilogue to the first great division of the book ".

Hosea 2 Book of Hosea, chapter 2

Hosea 2 is the second chapter of the Book of Hosea in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies spoken by the prophet Hosea son of Beeri, application of the symbols in the first chapter. It is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets.

References

  1. 1 2 Smith, William Robertson; Robinson, Henry Wheeler (1911). "Hosea"  . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica . 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 784–786.
  2. Pesachim 87a
  3. 1 2 3 "HOSEA, THE PROPHET - JewishEncyclopedia.com". www.jewishencyclopedia.com.
  4. 1 2 "scripture". www.usccb.org.
  5. 1 2 "Hosea & Amos: Prophets to the North".
  6. Qur'an 40:78
  7. Abdullah Yusuf Ali refers to Hosea 8:14 for his notes on Q. 5:60
  8. Woodall, Chris (2018). Minor Prophets in a Major Key. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers. p. 5. ISBN   9781532642180.