Hossein Ala'

Last updated
Hossein Ala'
Hosein Ala.jpg
34th Prime Minister of Iran
In office
7 April 1955 3 April 1957
Monarch Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Preceded by Fazlollah Zahedi
Succeeded by Manouchehr Eghbal
In office
12 March 1951 27 April 1951
MonarchMohammad Reza Pahlavi
Preceded by Haj Ali Razmara
Succeeded by Mohammed Mosaddeq
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
25 April 1943 2 March 1945
Prime Minister Ali Soheili
Mohammad Sa'ed
Morteza-Qoli Bayat
Preceded by Mozaffar Alam
Succeeded byMahmoud Salehi
Personal details
Born13 December 1881
Tehran, Iran
Died12 July 1964 (aged 82)
Tehran, Iran

Hosein Alā (Persian : حسین علاء; December 13, 1881 in Tehran – July 12, 1964 in Tehran) was Prime Minister of Iran in 1951 and from 1955 to 1957.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Tehran City in Iran

Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.694 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.

Iran Country in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia and officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.

Contents

Background

He was born in 1882 in Tehran and spent his early years in London. He was educated at Westminster School and studied law at the University of London after which he was admitted to the bar at Inner Temple. He became involved in politics through a position in the Foreign Affairs Ministry of Iran. [1]

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Westminster School school in Westminster, London, England

Westminster School is an independent day and boarding school in London, England, located within the precincts of Westminster Abbey. With origins before the 12th century, the educational tradition of Westminster probably dates back as far as 960, in line with the Abbey's history. Boys are admitted to the Under School at age seven and to the senior school at age thirteen; girls are admitted at age sixteen into the Sixth Form. The school has around 750 pupils; around a quarter are boarders, most of whom go home at weekends, after Saturday morning school. The school motto, Dat Deus Incrementum, is taken from the New Testament, specifically 1 Corinthians 3:6.

University of London federal public university in London, United Kingdom

The University of London is a collegiate federal research university located in London, England. As of October 2018, the university contains 18 member institutions, central academic bodies and research institutes. The university has over 52,000 distance learning external students and 161,270 campus-based internal students, making it the largest university by number of students in the United Kingdom.

Career

In his early political life Ala served as the chef de cabinet of the Iranian foreign ministry from 1905 to 1916. Subsequently, he was a member of an Iranian diplomatic delegation sent to the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. Despite the efforts of the delegation, led by Aliqoli Massoud Ansari, and assisted ably by Ala, the British government of the time nixed Iran's hopes of officially attending the diplomatic gathering. Moreover, with the Iranian Government in Tehran having recently negotiated the Anglo-Iranian Agreement it was decided that Ansari and Ala would be banished to foreign legations to ensure they would not act as lightning rods against the agreement. Ala was appointed as the Iranian diplomatic envoy to Spain in 1920. Shortly thereafter Ala was appointed as Iran's lead diplomat in Washington where he attempted to interest American oil companies to agree to invest in Iran, to undercut the monopoly of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company.

He then became a Member of Parliament and was among the opposition to the fall of the Qajar dynasty during the Shah Pahlavi transition.

Qajar dynasty monarchy state of Iran from 1789 until 1925

The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal dynasty of Turkic origin, specifically from the Qajar tribe, which ruled Persia (Iran) from 1789 to 1925. The state ruled by the dynasty was officially known as the Sublime State of Persia. The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last Shah of the Zand dynasty, and re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the Caucasus. In 1796, Mohammad Khan Qajar seized Mashhad with ease, putting an end to the Afsharid dynasty, and Mohammad Khan was formally crowned as Shah after his punitive campaign against Iran's Georgian subjects. In the Caucasus, the Qajar dynasty permanently lost many of Iran's integral areas to the Russians over the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan and Armenia.

From 1934 to 1936, Alā was ambassador to the United Kingdom. [2] Alā was Iranian Ambassador to the United States from 1946 to 1950.

He was elected Prime Minister by parliament following the assassination of Haj Ali Razmara in 1951. His premiership, however, was not to last long, and he resigned on 27 April after Mohammad Mosaddegh had submitted another oil nationalization bill to parliament two days earlier. The issue of nationalization was a hot potato, and Alā did not want to appear to oppose it. [3] During his brief administration, the term of service of Members of Parliament was increased from 2 to 4 years. He was later appointed as Court Minister, remaining one until his death.

Haj Ali Razmara Iranian politician

Haj Ali Razmara was a military leader and prime minister of Iran.

Mohammad Mosaddegh Prime Minister of Iran in the 1950s

Mohammad Mosaddegh was the 35th prime minister of Iran, holding office from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in a coup d'état orchestrated by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency and the United Kingdom's MI6.

Alā was appointed Prime Minister for the second time in 1955, and in November 1955 survived an assassination attempt at the funeral of a son of Abol-Ghasem Kashani. [4] . He was replaced in April 1957 after an upsetting international incident involving the murder of three Americans by outlaw Ahmad Shah and his gang. [5] .

Abol-Ghasem Kashani 20th-century Iranian ayatollah

Sayyed Abu’l-Qāsem Kāšāni was an Iranian politician and Shia Marja.

Alā died in 1964 at the age of 82. He left a son and a daughter, and was survived by his wife, who died in 1981. His son, Dr. Fereydoun Ala, was the founding director of the National Iranian Blood Transfusion Service and is currently honorary president of the Iranian Comprehensive Haemophilia Care Center. His daughter, Irān, is married to Eskandar Firouz, the noted authority on Iranian fauna and environmental topics.

Honours and awards

See also

References and sources

References
  1. http://www.iichs.org/index.asp?id=176&doc_cat=7
  2. The International Who's Who 1943-44 . 8th edition. George Allen & Unwin, London, 1943, p. 9.
  3. Abrahamian, Ervand (2013). The Coup: 1953, the CIA, and the roots of modern U.S.-Iranian relations. New York: New Press, The. p. 74. ISBN   978-1-59558-826-5.
  4. Seyed Mohammad Ali Taghavi (2004). The Flourishing of Islamic Reformism in Iran: Political Islamic Groups in Iran (1941-61). Routledge. p. 120. ISBN   9780203321621.
  5. "Killers' Capture in Wilds". Life. Time Inc. 22 April 1957. p. 40. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  6. "Reply to a parliamentary question" (pdf) (in German). p. 52. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
Sources

The following reference was used for the above writing: 'Alí Rizā Awsatí (عليرضا اوسطى), Iran in the Past Three Centuries (Irān dar Se Qarn-e Goz̲ashteh - ايران در سه قرن گذشته), Volumes 1 and 2 (Paktāb Publishing - انتشارات پاکتاب, Tehran, Iran, 2003). ISBN   964-93406-6-1 (Vol. 1), ISBN   964-93406-5-3 (Vol. 2).

Political offices
Preceded by
Haj Ali Razmara
Prime Minister of Iran
1951
Succeeded by
Mohammed Mossadegh
Preceded by
Fazlollah Zahedi
Prime Minister of Iran
1955 – 1957
Succeeded by
Manouchehr Eghbal

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