The Hosseini infancy conference (Persian: همایش شیرخوارگان حسینی) is a mourning custom of the Day of Ashura. It is held on the first Friday of Muharram in the Islamic calendar to commemorate the memory of Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn, the six-month-old baby boy of Husayn ibn Ali and Umm Rubab,who was the youngest person killed in Battle of Karbala.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.
Muḥarram is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months of the year during which warfare is forbidden. It is held to be the second holiest month, after Ramaḍān. Since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, Muharram moves from year to year when compared with the Gregorian calendar.
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca. The civil calendar of almost all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar. Notable exceptions to this rule are Iran and Afghanistan, which use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents, wages and similar regular commitments are generally paid by the civil calendar.
According to the report of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, the aim of holding of the Hosseini infancy conference is to promote the teaching of Ashura.
The Islamic Republic of Iranian Broadcasting (IRIB), formerly called National Iranian Radio and Television until the Iranian revolution of 1979, is an Iranian media corporation which holds a monopoly of domestic radio and television services in Iran, and is also among the largest media organizations in the Asian and Pacific regions, and a regular member of Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union. IRIB is independent of the Iranian government, but its head is appointed directly by the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.
The first conference was held in 2003, after that in every year mourners congregate on the first Friday of Muharram in nationwide of Iran and 43 other countries including Iraq, Pakistan, Bahrain, India, and Turkey.
Iran, also called Persia and officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.
Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.
Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.
The 2018 Hosseini infancy conference is being held in Musalla, Tehran and other cities such as Mashhad,Alborz, Khorramabad, and Qom in Jamkaran mosque.
Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.694 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.
Mashhad, also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province. It is located in the northeast of the country, near the borders with Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. It has a population of 3,001,184 inhabitants, which includes the areas of Mashhad Taman and Torqabeh. It was a major oasis along the ancient Silk Road connecting with Merv to the east.
Alborz Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, centered in Karaj.
At the conference, mothers dress her babies by special green and white clothes, which is said to resemble the clothing of Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn. Babies wear a headband that the name of Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn is written on it.
Each first Friday of Muharram in Iran and other countries, mothers and their babies receive Alavi's green gown and scarf and the forehead band of Ya Sahebazzaman upon their arrival in the conference. They will then mourn Ali Asghar's infant death at Karbala. In 2003, the first ceremony was held in Tehran. Other cities of Iran and other countries have been holding the ceremony ever since.
The ceremony is held in these countries:
The following table shows predicted dates and announced dates based on the calendar of Iran which celebrated the conference for the first time.
|Solar Hijri year||Gregorian date|
|1396||22 September 2017|
|1397||14 September 2018|
Karbala, also Kerbala, is a city in central Iraq, located about 100 km (62 mi) southwest of Baghdad, and a few dozen miles east of Lake Milh. Karbala is the capital of Karbala Governorate, and has an estimated population of 700,000 people (2015).
Al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī ibn Abi Talib was a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. He is an important figure in Islam as he was a member of the Bayt (Household) of Muhammad and the Ahl al-Kisā', as well as the third Shia Imam.
The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar in Karbala, in present-day Iraq. The battle took place between a small group of supporters and relatives of Muhammad's grandson, Husayn ibn Ali, and a larger military detachment from the forces of Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph.
Yom Ashura or Ashura is the tenth day of Muḥarram, the first month in the Islamic calendar. For the majority of Shia Muslims Ashura marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram, and commemorates the death of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH. Sunni Muslims have the same accounts of these events, but ceremonial mourning did not become a custom - although poems, eulogizing and recounting the events were and continue to be common. Mourning for the incident began almost immediately after the Battle of Karbala. Popular elegies were written by poets to commemorate the Battle of Karbala during the Umayyad and Abbasid era, and the earliest public mourning rituals occurred in 963 CE during the Buyid dynasty. In Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Bahrain, Bangladesh and Pakistan, Ashura has become a national holiday, and many ethnic and religious communities participate in it.
Arba'een, Chehlom is a Shia Muslim religious observance that occurs forty days after the Day of Ashura. It commemorates the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who was killed on the 10th day of the month of Muharram. Imam Husayn ibn Ali and 72 of his companions were killed by Yazid's army in the Battle of Karbala in 61 AH.
Sayyidah Zaynab bint ʿAli was the daughter of the first Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatimah bint Muhammad. The Islamic Nabi Muhammad was her maternal grandfather, and thus she is a member of his Bayt. Therefore, she is often revered not only for her admirable characteristics and actions, but also for her membership in, and continuation of, the biological line of Muhammad. Like other members of her family she became a great figure of sacrifice, strength, and piety in Islam – in the Sunni and Shia sects of the religion. Zaynab married ‘Abdullah ibn Ja‘far, and had three sons and two daughters with him. When her brother, Imam Al-Husain, stood up against Yazid ibn Mu‘awiyah in 680 CE, Zaynab accompanied him. She played an important role in protecting the life of her nephew, Imam ‘Ali ibn Al-Husayn, and because of her sacrifice and heroism, she became known as the "Heroine of Karbala". Zaynab died in 681 CE, and her Masjid is located in Damascus, Syria.
‘Ali al-Akbar ibn Al-Husayn, or simply "Ali al-Akbar," was the son of Al-Husayn ibn ‘Ali, the third Shi‘ite Imam, and Umm Layla. He was killed at the age of 18 on the day of ‘Ashura’, in Karbala’. ‘Ali Al-Akbar is highly respected by Shia Muslim and also respected by Sunni Muslims. According to Jean Calmard writing in Iranica, ‘Ali al-Akbar's reputation as a valiant warrior of the Household of Muhammad might have preceded that of Al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Ali.
Abdullah Ali al-Asghar ibn Al-Husayn, or simply Ali Asghar, was the youngest child of Al-Husayn and Rubab bint Imra’ al-Qays. He was killed during the Battle of Karbala, and is commemorated in shia as the "personified quintessence of the innocent victim."
A ḥosayniya or hussainiya, also known as an ashurkhana, imambargah, or imambara, is a congregation hall for Twelver Shia Muslim commemoration ceremonies, especially those associated with the Mourning of Muharram. The name comes from Husayn ibn Ali, the third of the Twelve Imams and the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Husayn was killed at the Battle of Karbala on 10 October 680 CE during the reign of Umayyad Caliph Yazid I. The Shia commemorate his martyrdom every year on Ashura, the 10th day of Muharram. There are also other ceremonies which are held during the year in hussainiyas, including religious commemorations unrelated to Ashura.
The Imam Husain Shrine or the Station of Imam Husayn ibn Ali is the mosque and burial site of Husayn ibn Ali, the third Imam of Islam, in the city of Karbala’, Iraq. It stands on the site of the Mausoleum of Imam Husayn, who was a grandson of Muhammad, near the place where he was martyred during the Battle of Karbala’ in 680 C.E. The tomb of Imam Husayn is one of the holiest places for Shi‘ites, outside of Mecca and Medina, and many make pilgrimages to the site. Every year, millions of pilgrims visit the city to observe Ashura, which marks the anniversary of Imam Husayn's death. Every year for Arba'een rituals that occurs forty days after the Day of Ashura up to 45 million people go to the city of Karbala.
The Mourning of Muharram is a set of rituals associated with mainly Shia Muslims; however, some Muslims from other sects, as well as some non-Muslims, also take part in the remembrance. The commemoration falls in Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar. Many of the events associated with the ritual take place in congregation halls known as Hussainia.
In addition to the three mosques accepted by all Muslims as holy sites, Shia Muslims consider sites associated with Muhammad, his family members and descendants, After Mecca and Medina, Najaf, Karbala and Jerusalem are the most revered by Shias.
The Masjid al-Nuqtah is a mosque located on Mount Jawshan in Aleppo, Syria. The main feature of the mosque is a stone believed to be stained with the blood of Husayn ibn ‘Alī by Shī‘ah Muslims.
Tasu'a is the ninth day of Muharram and the day before Ashura. Several events occurred on this day, including: Shemr's entrance to Karbala, the granting of safe conduct for the children of Umm ul-Banin, preparation for war; and Husayn ibn Ali and his companions were besieged by the enemy. The day is attributed to Abbas ibn Ali because of his actions as commander in the army of Husayn ibn Ali.
The Islamic month of Muharram is a period of mourning in Shia Islam and commemorates the death of Imam Hussain, the third Imam, and his companions at the Battle of Karbala in 680 AD. Processions called Azadari are held to commemorate and remember the events that took place, these are often organised by congregation halls known as Hussainia. Mourning climaxes on the tenth day of Muharram, Ashura. The mourning is sometimes referred to as the Remembrance of Muharram.
Lohoof is a book by Sayyed Ibn Tawus, a Shia jurist, theologian, and historian. It is kind of Maqtal al-Husayn, narrating the Battle of Karbala, the death of Husayn ibn Ali, and subsequent events.
Ziyarat Ashura is a Shia salutatory prayer to Husayn ibn Ali and the martyrs of the Battle of Karbala. The prayer is part of the liturgy used in pilgrimages to the shrine of Husayn in Karbala. Muhammad al-Baqir, the fifth Shia Imam, recommended reciting Ziyarat Ashura on Ashura while facing Karbala, as a symbolic visit to the shrine.
Rawda khwani is the Shia Iranian Muslim ritual of the Mourning of Muharram. It is held every day of the year to commemorate the death of Husayn ibn Ali and his followers during the Battle of Karbala.
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