House of Bonaparte

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House of Bonaparte
French: Maison Bonaparte
Italian and Corsican: Casa di Buonaparte
French imperial family
Insigne Francum Napoleonis.svg
Coat of arms assumed by Emperor Napoleon I
Country Flag of France.svg First & Second French Empire
Flag of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.svg Kingdom of Italy
Bandera de Espana 1808-1813.svg Kingdom of Spain
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Kingdom of Holland
Flag of the Kingdom of Naples (1806).svg Kingdom of Naples
Flag of the Kingdom of Westphalia.svg Kingdom of Westphalia
Bandiera Elba.svg Principality of Elba
Flag of Andorra 1806.svg Principality of Andorra
Flag of the Grand Duchy of Berg (1806-1808).svg Grand Duchy of Berg
Flag of the Principality of Lucca (1805-1809).svg Principality of Lucca and Piombino
Founded18 May 1804 (1804-05-18) [1] [2]
Founder Carlo Bonaparte
Current headDisputed:
Final ruler Napoleon III
Style(s) Imperial Majesty (France)
Majesty (other Crowns)
1814 (1st) ( 1814 (1st))
1815 (2nd) ( 1815 (2nd))
1870 (3rd) ( 1870 (3rd))
1814  ( 1814 )
1813  ( 1813 )
1813  ( 1813 )
1815  ( 1815 )
Cadet branches

The House of Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) was an imperial and royal European dynasty of Italian origin. It was founded in 1804 by Napoleon I, the son of Genoese nobleman Carlo Buonaparte. Napoleon was a French military leader who had risen to power during the French Revolution and who in 1804 transformed the First French Republic into the First French Empire, five years after his coup d'état of November 1799. Napoleon turned the Grande Armée against every major European power and dominated continental Europe through a series of military victories during the Napoleonic Wars. He installed members of his family on the thrones of client states, extending the power of the dynasty.

Dynasty sequence of rulers considered members of the same family

A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "house", "family" and "clan", among others. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC.

Italians nation and ethnic group native to Italy

The Italians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula and its neighbouring insular territories. Most Italians share a common culture, history, ancestry or language. Legally, all Italian nationals are citizens of the Italian Republic, regardless of ancestry or nation of residence and may be distinguished from people of Italian descent without Italian citizenship and from ethnic Italians living in territories adjacent to the Italian Peninsula without Italian citizenship. The majority of Italian nationals are speakers of Italian, or a regional variety thereof. However, many of them also speak another regional or minority language native to Italy; although there is disagreement on the total number, according to UNESCO there are approximately 30 languages native to Italy.

Napoleon 19th century French military leader and politician

Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader of Italian descent who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.


The House of Bonaparte formed the Imperial House of France during the French Empire, together with some non-Bonaparte family members. In addition to holding the title of Emperor of the French, the Bonaparte dynasty held various other titles and territories during the Napoleonic Wars, including the Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Westphalia, the Kingdom of Holland, and the Kingdom of Naples. The dynasty held power for around a decade until the Napoleonic Wars began to take their toll. Making very powerful enemies, such as Austria, Britain, Russia, and Prussia, as well as royalist (particularly Bourbon) restorational movements in France, Spain, the Two Sicilies, and Sardinia, the dynasty eventually collapsed due to the final defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo and the restoration of former dynasties by the Congress of Vienna.

The Imperial House of France during the First French Empire consisted of the family members of Napoleon, including the House of Bonaparte, who held imperial titles as Emperor, Empress, Imperial Prince or French Prince, and who were in the order of succession to the French imperial throne in accordance with the French constitution of 1804. According to Title III, Article 9, "the members of the imperial family in the order of succession, bear the title of Princes of France " and "the eldest son of the Emperor bears the title Prince Imperial ."

Emperor of the French title used by the House of Bonaparte

Emperor of the French was the monarch of the First French Empire and the Second French Empire.

Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) kingdom on the Apennine Peninsula between 1805 and 1814

The Kingdom of Italy was a kingdom in Northern Italy in personal union with France under Napoleon I. It was fully influenced by revolutionary France and ended with his defeat and fall. Its governance was conducted by Napoleon and his step-son and viceroy Eugène de Beauharnais.

During the reign of Napoleon I, the Imperial Family consisted of the Emperor's immediate relations – his wife, son, siblings, and some other close relatives, namely his brother-in-law Joachim Murat, his uncle Joseph Fesch, and Eugène de Beauharnais, his stepson.

Joachim Murat Grand Duke of Berg and King of Naples

Joachim-Napoléon Murat was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon. He was also the 1st Prince Murat, Grand Duke of Berg from 1806 to 1808, and King of Naples from 1808 to 1815. Murat received his titles in part by being Napoleon's brother-in-law through marriage to his younger sister, Caroline Bonaparte, as well as personal merit. He was noted as a daring, brave, and charismatic cavalry officer as well as a flamboyant dresser, for which he was known as "the Dandy King".

Joseph Fesch French cardinal, diplomat, and Prince of France

Joseph Fesch, Prince of France was a French cardinal and diplomat, Prince of France and a member of the Imperial House of the First French Empire, Peer of France, Roman Prince, and the uncle of Napoleon Bonaparte. He was also one of the most famous art collectors of his period, remembered for having established the Musée Fesch in Ajaccio, which remains one of the most important Napoleonic collections of art.

Eugène de Beauharnais French general and adoptive son of Napoleon I

Eugène Rose de Beauharnais, Duke of Leuchtenberg was the first child and only son of Alexandre de Beauharnais and Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie, first wife of Napoleon I.

Between 1852 and 1870, there was a Second French Empire, when a member of the Bonaparte dynasty again ruled France: Napoleon III, the youngest son of Louis Bonaparte. However, during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, the dynasty was again ousted from the Imperial Throne. Since that time, there has been a series of pretenders. Supporters of the Bonaparte family's claim to the throne of France are known as Bonapartists. Current head Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon, has a Bourbon mother.

Second French Empire government of France under Napoleon III, from 1852 to 1870

The Second French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.

Napoleon III French emperor, president, and member of the House of Bonaparte

Napoleon III, the nephew of Napoleon I, was the first elected President of France from 1848 to 1852. When he could not constitutionally be re-elected, he seized power in 1851 and became the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870. He founded the Second French Empire and was its only emperor until the defeat of the French army and his capture by Prussia and its allies in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. He worked to modernize the French economy, rebuilt the center of Paris, expanded the overseas empire, and engaged in the Crimean War and the war for Italian unification. After his defeat and downfall, he went into exile and died in England in 1873.

Louis Bonaparte King of Holland, brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, member of the House of Buonaparte

Louis Napoléon Bonaparte was a younger brother of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. He was a monarch in his own right from 1806 to 1810, ruling over the Kingdom of Holland. In that capacity he was known as Louis I.

Italian origins

The Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family were patricians in the Italian towns of Sarzana, San Miniato and Florence. The name derives from Italian: buona ("good") and parte ("part" or "side").

Patrician (post-Roman Europe) post-Roman European social class; a formally defined class of governing upper classes found in metropolitan areas (Venice, Florence, Genoa, Amalfi) and Free cities of Germany (Nuremberg, Ravensburg, Augsburg, Konstanz, Lindau, Bern, Basel, Zurich)

Patricianship, the quality of belonging to a patriciate, began in the ancient world, where cities such as Ancient Rome had a class of patrician families whose members were the only people allowed to exercise many political functions. In the rise of European towns in the 12th and 13th century, the patriciate, a limited group of families with a special constitutional position, in Henri Pirenne's view, was the motive force. In 19th century central Europe, the term had become synonymous with the upper Bourgeoisie and can't be compared with the medieval patriciate in Central Europe. In the German speaking parts of Europe as well as in the maritime republics of Italy, the patricians were as a matter of fact the ruling body of the medieval town and particularly in Italy part of the nobility.

Sarzana Comune in Liguria, Italy

Sarzana is a town, comune (municipality) and former short-lived Catholic bishopric in the Province of La Spezia, of Liguria region, northwestern Italy, 15 kilometres (9 mi) east of Spezia, on the railway to Pisa, at the point where the railway to Parma diverges to the north. In 2010 it had a population of 21,978.

San Miniato Comune in Tuscany, Italy

San Miniato is a town and comune in the province of Pisa, in the region of Tuscany, Italy.

Gianfaldo Buonaparte was the first known Buonaparte at Sarzana around 1200. His descendant Giovanni Buonaparte in 1397 married Isabella Calandrini, a cousin of later cardinal Filippo Calandrini. Giovanni became mayor of Sarzana and was named commissioner of the Lunigiana by Giovanni Maria Visconti in 1408. Their great-grandson Francesco Buonaparte was an equestrian mercenary at the service of the Genoese Bank of Saint George. In 1490, he went to the island of Corsica, which was controlled by the bank. In 1493, he married the daughter of Guido da Castelletto, representative of the Bank of Saint George in Ajaccio, Corsica. Most of their descendants during subsequent generations were members of the Ajaccio town council. Napoleon's father, Carlo Buonaparte, received a patent of nobility from the King of France in 1771. [1]

Filippo Calandrini Catholic cardinal

Filippo Calandrini was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal and half-brother of Pope Nicholas V.

Lunigiana historical territory of Italy, which today falls within the provinces of La Spezia and Massa Carrara.

The Lunigiana is a historical territory of Italy, which today falls within the provinces of La Spezia and Massa Carrara. Its borders derive from the ancient Roman settlement, later the medieval diocese of Luni, which no longer exists.

Mercenary Soldier who fights for hire

A mercenary, sometimes known as a soldier of fortune, is an individual who takes part in military conflict for personal profit, is otherwise an outsider to the conflict, and is not a member of any other official military. Mercenaries fight for money or other forms of payment rather than for political interests. In the last century, mercenaries have increasingly come to be seen as less entitled to protections by rules of war than non-mercenaries. Indeed, the Geneva Conventions declare that mercenaries are not recognized as legitimate combatants and do not have to be granted the same legal protections as captured soldiers of a regular army. In practice, whether or not a person is a mercenary may be a matter of degree, as financial and political interests may overlap, as was often the case among Italian condottieri.

There also existed a Buonaparte family in Florence, however its eventual relation with the Sarzana and San Miniato families is unknown. Jacopo Buonaparte of San Miniato was a friend and advisor to Medici Pope Clement VII. Jacopo was also a witness to and wrote an account of the sack of Rome, which is one of the most important historical documents recounting that event. [3] Two of Jacopo's nephews, Pier Antonio Buonaparte and Giovanni Buonaparte, however, took part in the 1527 Medici rebellion, after which they were banished from Florence and later were restored by Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence. Jacopo's brother Benedetto Buonaparte maintained political neutrality. [4] The San Miniato branch extinguished with Jacopo in 1550. The last member of the Florence family was a canon named Gregorio Bonaparte, who died in 1803, leaving Napoleon as heir. [5]

A Buonaparte tomb lies in the Church of San Francesco in San Miniato. Another in Ajaccio, the Chapelle Impériale, was built by Napoleon III in 1857.

Imperial House of France

Napoleon Crossing the Alps (1801), by Jacques-Louis David Jacques-Louis David - Napoleon Crossing the Alps - Kunsthistorisches Museum.jpg
Napoleon Crossing the Alps (1801), by Jacques-Louis David
Imperial coat of arms Grandes Armes Imperiales (1804-1815)2.svg
Imperial coat of arms
The Four Napoleons The Four Napoleons.jpg
The Four Napoleons

Napoleon I is the most prominent name associated with the Bonaparte family, because he conquered much of Europe during the early part of the 19th century. Due to his indisputable popularity in France both among the people and in the army, he successfully took part in the Coup of 18 Brumaire, overthrew the Directory with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, president of the Council of Five Hundred, and participated in the creation of a new Constitution, which allowed him to become the First Consul of France on 10 November 1799. 2 December 1804, he crowned himself Emperor of the French and ruled from 1804 to 1814, and again in 1815 during the "Hundred Days" after his return from Elba.

Following his conquest of most of Western Europe, Napoleon I made his elder brother Joseph (1768–1844) king first of Naples (1806–1808) and then of Spain (1808–1813), his younger brother Louis (1778–1846) King of Holland (1806–1810; subsequently forcing his abdication after his failure to subordinate Dutch interests to those of France), and his youngest brother Jérôme (1784–1860) King of Westphalia, the short-lived realm created from some of the states of northwestern Germany (1807–1813).

Napoleon's son Napoléon François Charles Joseph (1811–1832) was created King of Rome (1811–1814) and was later styled as Napoléon II by loyalists of the dynasty, though he only ruled for two weeks after his father's abdication.

Louis-Napoléon (1808–1873), son of Louis, was President of France (1848–1852) and then Emperor of the French (1852–1870), reigning as Napoleon III. His son, Napoléon, Prince Imperial (1856–1879), died fighting the Zulus in Natal, today the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal. With his death, the family lost much of its remaining political appeal, though claimants continue to assert their right to the imperial title. A political movement for Corsican independence surfaced in the 1990s which included a Bonapartist restoration in its programme.[ citation needed ]

Crowns held by the family

Emperors of the French

Kings of Holland

King of Naples

King of Westphalia

King of Spain

Grand Duchess of Tuscany

Heads of the House of Bonaparte (since 1852)

Disputed since 1997:

The family tree

French Monarchy
Bonaparte Dynasty
Grandes Armes Imperiales (1804-1815)2.svg
Napoleon I
Napoleon II
Joseph, King of Spain
Lucien, Prince of Canino
Elisa, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Louis, King of Holland
Pauline, Princess of Guastalla
Caroline, Queen of Naples
Jérôme, King of Westphalia
Nephews and nieces
Princess Zénaïde
Princess Charlotte
Charlotte, Princess Gabrielli
Prince Charles Lucien
Prince Louis Lucien
Prince Pierre Napoléon
Prince Napoléon Charles
Prince Napoléon Louis
Napoleon III
Prince Jérôme Napoléon
Prince Jérôme Napoléon Charles
Prince Napoléon
Princess Mathilde
Grandnephews and -nieces
Prince Joseph
Prince Lucien Cardinal Bonaparte
Augusta, Princess Gabrielli
Prince Roland
Princess Jeanne
Prince Jerome
Prince Charles
Napoléon (V) Victor
Maria Letizia, Duchess of Aosta
Great grandnephews and -nieces
Princess Marie
Princess Marie Clotilde
Napoléon (VI) Louis
Great great grandnephews and -nieces
Napoléon (VII) Charles
Princess Catherine
Princess Laure
Prince Jérôme
Great great great grandnephews and -nieces
Princess Caroline
Jean Christophe, Prince Napoléon
Napoleon II
Napoleon III
Napoléon (IV), Prince Imperial

Carlo-Maria (Ajaccio, 1746–Montpellier, 1785) married Maria Letizia Ramolino (Ajaccio, 1750–Rome, 1836) in 1764. He was a minor official in the local courts. They had eight children:

  1. Joseph Bonaparte (Corte, 1768–Florence, 1844), King of Naples, then King of Spain, married Julie Clary, sister of Napoleon's childhood sweetheart, Désirée, who was to become the wife of General Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (later Charles XIV, King of Sweden)
  2. Napoléon (I) Bonaparte (1769–1821) Emperor of the French
  3. Lucien Bonaparte (1775–1840) Roman Prince of Canino and Musignano
  4. Maria-Anna Elisa Bonaparte (1777–1820), Grand-Duchess of Tuscany, married Félix Baciocchi, Prince of Lucca
    • Marie-Laetitia Bonaparte Baciocchi
  5. Louis Bonaparte (1778–1846), King of Holland, married Hortense de Beauharnais, Napoleon's stepdaughter
  6. Maria Paola or Marie Pauline Bonaparte (1780–1825) Princess and Duchess of Guastalla, married in 1797 to French General Charles Leclerc and later married Camillo Borghese, 6th Prince of Sulmona.
  7. Maria Annunziata Caroline Bonaparte (1782–1839) married Joachim Murat, Marshal of France, Grand Duke of Berg, then King of Naples
  8. Jérôme Bonaparte (1784–1860), King of Westphalia
Carlo Buonaparte
Letizia Ramolino
Lucien Bonaparte
m.(2) Alexandrine de Bleschamp
Joseph Bonaparte
m. Julie Clary
Marie Louise of Austria
Napoléon I
Joséphine de Beauharnais
Alexandre de Beauharnais
Elisa Bonaparte
m. Félix Baciocchi
Pauline Bonaparte
m.(1) Charles Leclerc
m.(2) Camillo Borghese
Caroline Bonaparte
m. Joachim Murat
Betsy Patterson
Jérôme Bonaparte
Catharina of Württemberg
Napoléon II
Eugène de Beauharnais
m. Augusta of Bavaria
Hortense de Beauharnais
Louis Bonaparte
4 children
Achille Murat
m. Catherine Willis Gray
Jérôme Napoléon Bonaparte
m. Susan May Williams
Jérôme Napoléon Charles Bonaparte
Mathilde Bonaparte
m. Anatoly Demidov, Prince of San Donato
Prince Napoléon Bonaparte
m. Marie Clothilde of Savoy
Charles Lucien Bonaparte
Zénaïde Bonaparte
Julie Joséphine Bonaparte
(b.&d. 1796)
Charlotte Bonaparte
Napoléon Louis Bonaparte
Napoléon Charles Bonaparte
Napoléon III
m. Eugénie de Montijo
Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte II
m. Caroline Edgar
Charles Bonaparte
m. Ellen Channing Day
Napoléon V Victor
m. Clémentine of Belgium
Napoléon Louis Joseph Jérôme Bonaparte
Maria Letizia Bonaparte
m. Amadeo of Savoy
Joseph Lucien Bonaparte
Lucien Cardinal Bonaparte
Napoléon Charles Bonaparte
10 others
Napoléon IV Eugène
Marie Clotilde Bonaparte
Napoléon VI Louis
m. Alix de Foresta
Zénaïde Bonaparte
Mary Bonaparte
Eugénie Bonaparte
Napoléon VII Charles
(b. 1950)
Catherine Elisabeth Bonaparte
(b. 1950)
Laure Clémentine Bonaparte
(b. 1952)
Jérôme Xavier Bonaparte
(b. 1957)
Caroline Bonaparte
(b. 1980)
Jean-Christophe Napoléon
(b. 1986)
Sophie Cathérine Bonaparte
(b. 1992)

Bonaparte arms

The arms of the Bonaparte family were: Gules two bends sinister between two mullets or. In 1804, Napoleon I changed the arms to Azure an imperial eagle or. The change applied to all members of his family except for his brother Lucien and his nephew, the son from Jerome's first marriage.

DNA research

According to studies by G. Lucotte and his coauthors based on DNA research since 2011, Napoleon Bonaparte belonged to Y-DNA (direct male ancestry) haplogroup E1b1b1c1* (E-M34*). This haplogroup, rare in Europe, has its highest concentration in Ethiopia and in the Near East (Jordan, Yemen). According to the authors of the study, "Probably Napoléon also knew his remote oriental patrilineal origins, because Francesco Buonaparte (the Giovanni son), who was a mercenary under the orders of the Genoa Republic in Ajaccio in 1490, was nicknamed The Maure of Sarzane ." The latest study identifies the common Bonaparte DNA markers from Carlo (Charles) Bonaparte to 3 living descendants. [6] [7]

Lucotte et al. published in October 2013 the extended Y-STR of Napoleon I based on descendant testing, and the descendants were E-M34, just like the emperor's beard hair tested a year before. The persons tested were the patrilineal descendants of Jérome Bonaparte, one of Napoleon's brothers, and of Alexandre Colonna-Walewski, Napoleon's illegitimate son with Marie Walewska. These three tests all yielded the same Y-STR haplotype (109 markers) confirming with 100% certainty that the first Emperor of the French belonged to the M34 branch of haplogroup E1b1b.

Living members

The current headship of the family is in dispute between Charles, Prince Napoléon (born 1950), great-great-grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte by his second marriage, and his son Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon (born 1986), who was appointed heir in the will of his grandfather Louis, Prince Napoléon. [8] The only other male member of the family is Charles's recently married brother, Prince Jérôme Napoléon (born 1957). There are no other legitimate descendants in the male line from Napoleon I or his brothers.

There are, however, numerous descendants of Napoleon's illegitimate but recognized son, Alexandre Colonna-Walewski, from his union with Marie, Countess Walewski. A descendant of Napoleon's sister Caroline Bonaparte is the actor René Auberjonois. Recent DNA matches with living descendants of Jérôme and Count Walewski have confirmed the existence of descendants of Lucien Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother, namely the Clovis family. [7]

See also

Related Research Articles

Jérôme Bonaparte Napoleon Is brother

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Joseph Bonaparte elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte

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Lucien Bonaparte French statesman

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Alexandre Colonna-Walewski French politician

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Carlo Buonaparte Father of Napoleon Bonaparte

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Letizia Ramolino Mother of Napolean

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Zénaïde Bonaparte 19th-century French noble

Zénaïde Laetitia Julie Bonaparte, Princess of Canino and Musignano was the elder daughter of Joseph Bonaparte and Julie Clary, and the wife of Charles Lucien Bonaparte, who was also her cousin. She joined her father in exile for several years in Bordentown, New Jersey.

Louis, Prince Napoléon Pretender to the throne of France

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Napoléon Charles Bonaparte, 5th Prince of Canino Prince of France

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The Princes of Canino and Musignano formed the genealogically senior line of the Bonaparte family following the death of Joseph Bonaparte in 1844. The line was founded by one of Emperor Napoleon's younger brothers, Lucien Bonaparte. It became extinct in the male line in 1924. The dynastic Bonapartist pretenders descend in the male line from Prince Jérôme Napoléon, Napoleon's youngest brother.

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Joachim, 4th Prince Murat Major-General in the French Army

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Joachim Napoléon Murat, 5th Prince Murat was a member of the Bonaparte-Murat family.

Église Saint-Leu-Saint Gilles (Saint-Leu-la-Forêt) Church located in Saint-Leu-la-Forêt, France

The Église Saint-Leu-Saint Gilles (Saint-Leu-la-Forêt) is a Roman Catholic church on the 'rue (street) Général Leclerc' in the French town of Saint-Leu-la-Forêt, about 14 kilometers north of Paris. Commissioned by Emperor Napoleon III, the church houses the tomb of his father,Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Holland, as well as those of his two brothers.


  1. 1 2 Raymond Horricks (1995). Napoleon's Elites. Transaction Publishers. p. 11.
  2. Frédéric T. Briffault (1846). The Prisoner of Ham: Authentic Details of the Captivity and Escape of Prince Napoleon Louis. T.C. Newby. p. 344.
  3. Jacopo Bonaparte: Sac de Rome. Écrit EN 1527 par Jacques Bonaparte. Témoin oculaire, hrsgg. by Bonaparte, Napoléon Louis, Florenz 1850
  4. Drake, Joshua F. (October 2005). "The partbooks of a Florentine ex-patriate: new light on Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Ms. Magl. XIX 164–7". Early Music . 33 (4): 639–646. doi:10.1093/em/cah154.
  5. Burke, Sir Bernard (1869). Vicissitudes of Families. London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dye.
  6. Lucotte, Gerard; Thomasset, Thierry; Hrechdakian, Peter (2011). "Haplogroup of the Y Chromosome of Napoléon the First". Journal of Molecular Biology Research. 1 (1). doi:10.5539/jmbr.v1n1p12.
  7. 1 2 Lucotte, Gerard; Hrechdakian, Peter (2015). "New Advances Reconstructing the Y Chromosome Haplotype of Napoleon the First Based on Three of his Living Descendants". Journal of Molecular Biology Research. 5 (1). doi:10.5539/jmbr.v5n1p1.
  8. Herbert, Susannah (12 March 1997). "Father and son in battle for the Napoléonic succession". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
House of Bonaparte
Title last held by
House of Bourbon
Ruled as King of France
Ruling House of the French Empire
Succeeded by
House of Bourbon
Ruled as King of France
Title last held by
House of Orléans
Ruled as King of the French
Ruling House of the French Empire
Empire Abolished
Third French Republic Declared
Preceded by
House of Habsburg
Ruled as Nominal King of Italy
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Italy
Succeeded by
House of Habsburg
Ruled as King of Lombardy-Venetia
Preceded by
House of Bourbon
Ruled as Kings of Spain and Naples
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Naples
Succeeded by
House of Murat
Reverted to Spanish Bourbons in 1815)
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Spain
Succeeded by
House of Bourbon
Preceded by
New Creation
Succeeded the Batavian Republic
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Holland
Kingdom Abolished
Part of the French Empire
Kingdom of the Netherlands created in 1815
Preceded by
New Creation
Formed from the territories ceded by Prussia in Peace of Tilsit
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Westphalia
Kingdom Abolished
Dissolved after Battle of Leipzig
Status quo of 1806 restored